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Sustainable Tourism Development and Economic Growth: Bibliometric Review and Analysis


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Over the past decade, there has been a growing interest in studying the impact of sustainable tourism development on economic growth. However, despite its recent scope, the scientific literature published so far has not evaluated the performance of the scientific activity of this relationship. Consequently, this study analyzes the 668 articles published to date in the Web of Science database on the effect that sustainable tourism development has on the overall long-term progress of the economy. To this end, we carry out an analysis of the most recognized authors, regions with the highest percentage of scientific production, most influential organizations, the co-occurrence of keywords, most prominent citations, publications, and co-authorship among the most recognized authors. The results obtained show the trend and impact of the literature published to date and the established and emerging research groups. Also, they identify key research topics in a way that provides a planning framework for further research in this field.
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Sustainability 2021, 13, 2270.
Sustainable Tourism Development and Economic Growth:
Bibliometric Review and Analysis
Ana León-Gómez 1,*, Daniel Ruiz-Palomo 2, Manuel A. Fernández-Gámez 2 and Mercedes Raquel García-Revilla 3
1 Ph.D. Tourism Program, University of Málaga, Campus Teatinos, 29071 Málaga, Spain;
2 Department of Finance and Accounting, University of Málaga, Campus El Ejido, 29071 Málaga, Spain; (D.R.-P.); (M.A.F.-G.)
3 Department of Tourism and Marketing, Distance University Madrid, 28400 Madrid, Spain;
* Correspondence:
Abstract: Over the past decade, there has been a growing interest in studying the impact of sustain-
able tourism development on economic growth. However, despite its recent scope, the scientific
literature published so far has not evaluated the performance of the scientific activity of this rela-
tionship. Consequently, this study analyzes the 668 articles published to date in the Web of Science
database on the effect that sustainable tourism development has on the overall long-term progress
of the economy. To this end, we carry out an analysis of the most recognized authors, regions with
the highest percentage of scientific production, most influential organizations, the co-occurrence of
keywords, most prominent citations, publications, and co-authorship among the most recognized
authors. The results obtained show the trend and impact of the literature published to date and the
established and emerging research groups. Also, they identify key research topics in a way that
provides a planning framework for further research in this field.
Keywords: sustainable tourism; tourism development; economic growth; bibliometrics;
literature review
1. Introduction
Tourism is a constantly growing and economically important sector on a global and
local level. It is of vital economic, social, and cultural importance and offers real prospects
for sustainable and inclusive development [1]. Such is the importance of this sector that
the number of tourist trips made each year before the arrival of COVID-19 came to surpass
the world population [2]. International tourist arrivals exceeded 1.5 billion globally in
2019, representing an increase of 3.8% year-on-year [1]. Likewise, this figure is expected
to continue to rise, with a forecast of 1.8 billion international tourists by 2030 [3], although
this may be revised after the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic [4] (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Comparison of international tourists before and after the pandemic.
Citation: León-Gómez, A.;
Ruiz-Palomo, D.; Fernández-Gámez,
M.A.; García-Revilla, M.R.
Sustainable Tourism Development
and Economic Growth: Bibliometric
Review and Analysis. Sustainability
2021, 13, 2270.
Academic Editor: Alina Badulescu
Received: 14 January 2021
Accepted: 16 February 2021
Published: 19 February 2021
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neu-
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Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Li-
censee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
This article is an open access article
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ditions of the Creative Commons At-
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Sustainability 2021, 13, 2270 2 of 20
After six decades of steady growth, tourism has been established as an indispensable
engine of economic growth. In this sense, it should be noted that in 2019 the travel and
tourism sector experienced a growth of 3.5%, surpassing the growth of the global econ-
omy of 2.5% for the ninth consecutive year [5]. From another perspective, we can see that
the sector directly contributes 4.4% of GDP, 6.9% of employment, and 21.5% of exports of
services in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)countries
[6]. In this regard, Figure 2 shows the 15 countries with the highest percentage of contri-
bution to GDP in terms of the travel and tourism sector.
Figure 2. Top 15 largest countries in terms of travel and tourism GDP contribution.
However, the negative impacts of COVID-19 are not only limited to the loss of human
lives but also include short and long-term social, economic, and political effects [7]. A
longer and more intensive COVID-19 is likely to reduce global growth to 1.5% in 2020,
which is half the projected growth rate before 2020, with implications for international
tourism [8]. The International Monetary Fund predicts that the COVID-19 outbreak will
cause a global recession in 2020 that could be worse than the one triggered by the global
financial crisis of 2008–2009 [7]. Likewise, the COVID-19 outbreak will have serious con-
sequences for international tourism, with decisive effects on the economic growth and
prosperity of various nations [4,9].
The economic importance of tourism and its growth is an area that has significant
value today, and therefore it is not surprising that there is a large body of literature that
highlights the different impacts of tourism [2,3,7,10]. Similarly, a key aspect for tourism is
sustainability, since it is considered a way to satisfy the needs of the stakeholders, taking
into account economic impact as well as current and future social and environmental con-
ditions [1,11,12]. Consequently, sustainability and the limits of its growth are a constant
concern within the tourism sector [13–19].
In recent years, various reviews of the literature on sustainable tourism development
and economic growth have been completed. These reviews have identified various cur-
rent topics covered in the current research literature. Each study has provided information
about the field examined, but further analysis of this literature using rigorous bibliometric
tools may provide more information that has not been fully understood or evaluated be-
fore. In this way, bibliometric tools can be a powerful way to identify established and
emerging current areas, as well as identifying research groups and researchers to show
how various areas of thought may have arisen based on institutional and author charac-
teristics. Identifying the most influential researchers within a group paves the way for
determining additional emerging fields of study by pinpointing more recent topics cov-
ered by these researchers [20].
The current study, therefore, presents a comprehensive evaluation of the influence of
sustainable tourism development on economic growth, starting with a group of more than
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15,000 published articles and filtering this group to find specialized works on the pro-
posed topic. From these results, additional insights are also gained about current research
interests and possible directions for future research.
2. Conceptual Framework
The empirical literature published so far has not specified a universally accepted def-
inition of sustainable tourism development [13], although recent evidence on the matter
suggests that one of the most widely used definitions of the concept is that provided by
the World Trade Organization (WTO), which defines it as a “development that meets the
needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity
for the future” [21]. However, the empirical literature continues to analyze a series of fun-
damental questions for the development of sustainable tourism, and many relevant ques-
tions in this area remain unresolved. Without forgetting that its genesis is associated with
the maintenance of environmental quality [22,23], it is of particular importance that eve-
rything done now will not harm future generations [22]. Therefore, the assessment of
long-term economic, environmental, and community health is deemed necessary [24].
Thus, recently, researchers have examined the effects of sustainability within tourism [25]
since it is considered a paradigm that characterizes the future of this sector [16]. For this
reason, in recent years, there has been growing interest in studying this relationship, high-
lighting the importance and difficulty of improving sustainability in tourism [10,26] but
also identifying it as a fundamental tool for competitiveness [14,27].
Studies on economic growth demonstrate the impact of the tourist impulse on the
general progress of the economy in the long term [28]. To this end, many governments
have been involved in the development of tourism for economic growth, because it has a
great capacity to distribute wealth, contribute to the development of emerging economies,
and generate income through exports [10,28–32]. However, it can also exert long-term
negative impacts on the environment [33] and damage the future economic development
of tourist destinations [10]. Therefore, tourism is a transcendental tool to promote a devel-
opment proposal according to sustainability criteria [10,19,34].
In recent decades, many researchers have tried to determine the effects of sustainable
tourism development on economic growth [15,19,35]. In general, this approach has been
used to show the growing importance of this relationship by identifying research gaps
and specific areas of interest. Linking of the literature between authors, topics, and re-
search fields has been completed through content analysis and descriptive statistics. Alt-
hough we can verify that this relationship has been widely studied in the previous litera-
ture, we consider it interesting to carry out a study of the size, growth, and distribution of
existing scientific documents, as well as to delve into the structure of the groups that are
interested in these documents. Therefore, the present study aims to recognize the various
research currents in the literature on the influence of sustainable tourism development on
economic growth. In this way, the results will make it possible to identify areas of interest
for current research and possible directions for future research.
3. Research Methodology
The main purpose of bibliometric reviews is to assess the body of existing empirical
literature to determine possible research gaps and highlight the limits of knowledge [20].
The bibliometric analysis uses quantitative methods to classify data, produces representa-
tive summaries, and is recognized as a useful approach to analyzing the performance of
journals, institutions, authors, and the characteristics of research topics [36]. In our study,
to quantify the influence of publications, authors, and journals, we have analyzed various
bibliometric indicators, including the number of publications, total citations, citations per
article, the main journals, most relevant universities, and the most influential countries in
the matter.
Search terms used for data collection include “Sustainable Tourism”, “Tourism De-
velopment” and “Economic Growth”. Three combinations of these keywords were also
Sustainability 2021, 13, 2270 4 of 20
used, including (1) Sustainable Tourism AND Tourism Development, (2) Sustainable
Tourism AND Economic Growth, (3) Tourism Development AND Economic Growth, and
(4) Sustainable Tourism, Tourism Development, AND Economic Growth.
3.1. Initial Search Results
We use the search “subject, title, abstract, keywords” in the Web of Science (WoS)
database because it is one of the most-used databases in the academic field, compiling
data on a large scale and producing statistics based on bibliometric indicators [37,38]. In-
itial search attempts resulted in a total of 14,993 articles. A breakdown of the search results
for the four sets of keywords is shown in Table 1.
Table 1. The initial search results.
Search Keywords Search Results
(no. of Papers)
Sustainable Tourism AND Tourism Development 10,394
Sustainable Tourism AND Economic Growth 1132
Tourism Development AND Economic Growth 3467
Sustainable Tourism AND Tourism Development AND Economic Growth 976
Total 14,993
3.2. Refinement of Search Results
Of the 14,993 articles in Table 1, we decided to refine the search so that, in our data-
base, only articles in English, belonging to the categories of Business Economics, Social
work, Social Sciences, Environmental Sciences Ecology, Sociology, Computer Science, En-
gineering, Mathematics, Government Law, Social Issues, Education Educational Research,
and Women Studies, appear. These adjustments reduce the total number of items to 9,549.
Table 2 shows the number of articles after refinement for each of the four search catego-
ries. Although we observe that Sustainable Tourism, Tourism Development, and Eco-
nomic Growth are topics that are highly analyzed in the existing empirical literature, we
also perceive that the combination of the three terms had hardly been studied.
The concept of sustainable development has been based initially on the premise of
economic growth [17]. Likewise, the sustainable development of tourism has been consid-
ered a dynamic process that constantly experiences new challenges as applied technolo-
gies and the consumption aspects of tourism change [39]. Consequently, we decided to
focus our analysis on the development of sustainable tourism and economic growth, so
that our research aims to develop a bibliometric study of the influence of sustainable tour-
ism development on economic growth.
When carrying out bibliometric analysis of a research field, the first step is to evaluate
the available databases, their suitability, and the consequences of the use of one or the
other [40]. For this purpose, 668 articles resulting from the search for the keywords Sus-
tainable Tourism AND Tourism Development AND Economic Growth were selected. In
this way, a database with 668 references in the WoS was created, which is the basis for the
empirical study (Table 2).
Table 2. Search results after refinement.
Search Keywords Search Results
(no. of Papers)
Sustainable Tourism AND Tourism Development 6424
Sustainable Tourism AND Economic Growth 774
Tourism Development AND Economic Growth 2351
Sustainable Tourism AND Tourism Development AND Economic Growth 668
Total 9549
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3.3. Data Analysis
To observe the evolution of the field of empirical knowledge analyzed in this re-
search, we have adopted an inductive approach through bibliometric analysis of scientific
production [41]. Likewise, classification of the literature in this study is completed with
the analysis of real data through the use of a deductive approach [20]. Therefore, the pur-
pose of this study is to combine inductive and deductive approaches through the data
collection method called triangulation, incorporating different data sources and different
authors (e.g., current authors, academic experts, and industry experts) [42]. Data analysis
is carried out through bibliometric analysis, the results of which are presented in Section
4.2. This analysis was performed with a VOS viewer due to its ability to work efficiently
with large data sets and provide a range of visualization, analysis, and innovative research
[20]. It is also an effective tool for performing scientific map analysis of journal publica-
tions as it has a powerful graphical user interface and maps display capabilities [38]. For
this reason, we decided to complete the bibliometric analysis with two analyses of net-
work visualizations: map density based on co-occurrence of keywords and map density
based on network data connected by co-authorship items. Keyword term co-occurrence
analysis represents the number of times that two terms occur together in a set of posts
[43]. For this, map density based on the co-occurrence of keywords was used. Specifically,
the full count method was applied, which means that each co-occurrence link had the
same weight [44]. For its part, co-authorship network analysis shows the number of pub-
lications co-authored by at least two authors [38]. The vision of density is convenient to
glimpse the common structure of the authors and highlight the most significant authors
in this field [45]. For this purpose, the aforementioned map density based on network data
connected by co-authorship items was used. Thus, each point in the item density display
has a color that indicates the consistency of items at that point. By default, the colors are
blue, green, and yellow. The greater the number of elements in the vicinity of a point and
the greater the weight of the contiguous elements, the closer the color of the point will be
to yellow [46].
4. Results
4.1. Initial Data Statistics
Figure 3 shows the trend in the number of articles published since 2005 because this
year began a growing interest in the study of the influence of sustainable tourism devel-
opment on economic growth. Although this field is still in its period of growth and ex-
pansion, these results show that there is a gradual growth in publications.
Figure 3. Articles are published every year.
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Initial statistics show that 285 journals have contributed to the publication of 668 ar-
ticles. Also, it was found that 25 journals (represented in Table 3) have published 353 ar-
ticles, which represents approximately 53% of all published articles. Similarly, Appendix
A1 shows the number of articles each year from the top 10 editorial journals that contrib-
ute to the area of sustainable tourism development and economic growth.
Table 3. The top 25 journals that contribute to the area of sustainable tourism development and
economic growth.
Titles Records
Sustainability 42
Tourism Economics 34
Tourism Management 32
Current Issues in Tourism 30
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23
Journal of Sustainable Tourism 23
Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 20
Journal of Travel Research 19
Annals of Tourism Research 17
Tourism Analysis 13
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes 13
International Journal of Tourism Research 10
Anatolia International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research 9
Tourism Planning Development 9
Journal of Cleaner Production 8
Tourism Management Perspectives 8
Tourism Planning and Development 8
Anatolia 7
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 7
Journal of Destination Marketing Management 6
Journal of Policy Research in Tourism Leisure and Events 5
Science of The Total Environment 5
Tourism 5
4.2. Bibliometric Analysis
This study is inspired by the methodology used in the previous literature on biblio-
metrics [47–50]. This methodology has been used to perform bibliometric analyses of spe-
cific journals [18,49–51] and research areas such as tourism [10,52], Kuznets environmen-
tal curves [53], environment [54,55] and economy [56–58]. As a consequence, a systematic
quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the literature of 668 WoS publications related to
the study of the influence of sustainable tourism development on economic growth was
carried out. In this bibliometric analysis, we determine the interconnections between arti-
cles by analyzing the frequency with which other articles cite another given article related
to a specific study domain. Subsequently, the file was imported into a VOS viewer, and
the most influential authors, articles, journals, research papers, institutions, and countries
were extracted. Likewise, a mapping of appointments related to sustainable tourism de-
velopment and economic growth was carried out. These results allowed us to explore the
research streams of articles related to the influence of sustainable tourism development
on economic growth. Similarly, we have carried out two network analyses to complete
our study, the aforementioned map density based on co-occurrence of keywords, and the
map density based on network data connected by co-authorship items.
To find the most prolific and influential authors in the field of this research, the num-
ber of articles published by each author based on the influence of sustainable tourism de-
velopment on economic growth was extracted from the database. Table 4 indicates the top
ten contributing authors and the number of articles in which they were authors or co-
authors. The results indicate that Zaman and Croes occupy the first and second positions
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on the list, respectively. It should be noted that Croes and Nijkamp are co-authors of a
large number of articles with each other. Likewise, Nijkamps and Romao are co-authors
of the work entitled: “Spatial impacts assessment of tourism and territorial capital: A mod-
eling study on regional development in Europe” [59].
Table 4. The top 10 contributing authors and the number of published articles.
Author Number of published articles
Zaman K. 12
Croes R. 10
Kumar R.R. 8
Alola A.A. 7
Sharif A. 7
Hall C.M. 6
Nijkamp P. 6
Paramati S.R. 6
Romao J. 6
Although all the authors have experience in Hospitality, Leisure, Sport, and Tourism
research, there are also two large subdivisions in terms of subject matter, because Hall and
Nijkamp have a greater dedication in the field of Green, Sustainable Science, and Tech-
nology. In contrast, Kumar, Alola, and Romao focus their analysis on the Environmental
Sciences area. Zaman, Croes, and Paramati are the authors with the greatest diversifica-
tion, and their studies cover both segments. In general, the breadth of methodologies and
disciplines, even among the most prolific academics, exemplifies the interdisciplinary na-
ture of research on the influence of sustainable tourism development on economic growth.
Figure 4 shows the geographic locations of the organizations with the greatest con-
tribution to the literature in the field of research analyzed in this study. The intensity of
color in each country is proportional to the degree of participation of each organization.
A higher density of contributing organizations can be found in China, with a participation
percentage of 19.97%, followed by the USA (13.06%), Turkey (10.14%), England (8.14%),
Spain (7.37%), Australia (6.14%), Pakistan (5.53%), Malaysia (5.38%) and Italy (4.3%). In
general, the geographic dispersion of these organizations indicates that the research and
practice of analyzing the contribution of sustainable tourism development to economic
growth have attracted organizations and research centers from all over the world. It is
also possible to make a further breakdown of these contributions for different regions.
Appendix A2 shows the contribution of each region to the literature on the contribution
of sustainable tourism development to economic growth (note that articles with authors
from different organizations may have been assigned to multiple regions).
Sustainability 2021, 13, 2270 8 of 20
Figure 4. Geographic allocations of all contributing organizations.
The organizations with the best performance (according to the number of articles
published), their geographic location, and the number of articles contributed are shown
in Table 5.
Table 5. The top 20 contributing organizations.
Organization Location Number of
Eastern Mediterranean University Cyprus 22
State University System of Florida United States 14
University of the South Pacific Fiji 12
Southwestern University of Finance Economics China China 10
University Utara Malaysia Malaysia 10
University of Central Florida United States 10
Chinese Academy of Sciences China 9
Hong Kong Polytechnic University China 9
King Saud University Saudi Arabia 9
University of Wah Pakistan 9
University of South Carolina United States 9
Griffith University Australia 8
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University China 8
Istanbul Gelisim University Turkey 8
Bournemouth University United Kingdom 7
SunYat Sen University China 7
Universidade Do Algarve Portugal 7
University of Canterbury New Zealand 7
Furthermore, in Figure 5 we can see that the continent with the highest number of
contributing organizations in Asia.
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Figure 5. Contribution by university and region.
Table 6 shows a comparison of this list with the 10 most influential main authors
previously analyzed. It is observed that the University of Wah, University of Central Flor-
ida, University of the South Pacific, Istanbul Gelisim University, Universiti Utara Malay-
sia, and the University of Canterbury are represented respectively by the most prolific
authors: Zaman, Croes, Kumar, Alola, Sharif, and Hall. Therefore, it may only take the
work of one or two researchers for an organization to be classified as high performing.
Table 6. Universities of the top 10 contributing authors.
Author Organization
Zaman K. University of Wah
Croes R. University of Central Florida
Kumar R.R. University of the South Pacific
Alola A.A. Istanbul Gelisim University
Sharif A. Universiti Utara Malaysia
Hall C.M. University of Canterbury
Nijkamp P. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Paramati S.R. Central University of Finance and Economics
Romao J. Yasuda Women’s University
For its part, joint word analysis offers information on the most-studied topics and
concepts [60]. This analysis links the most-used keywords in published manuscripts to
describe the conceptual framework of a research field [61]. To do this, we have created a
co-occurrence map of author keywords in the analysis of the influence of sustainable tour-
ism development on economic growth (minimum threshold of 15 keyword occurrences),
where 58 keywords (of the 2512 analyzed) have resulted. Figure 6 shows the evolution of
the most-used terms.
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Figure 6. Map density based on the co-occurrence of keywords.
After analyzing a set of 881 expressions (extracted from a total of 668 articles), we
made Table 7, which shows the 20 main keywords used in the articles. The keywords that
appeared most frequently in the literature were: Economic Growth, Tourism, and Tour-
ism Development. The location of these three terms on the map (Figure 6) suggests their
centrality as organizing concepts in the existing empirical literature. The structure of the
three central groups of the map come together to form an image of the literature that is
mainly concerned with the “Sustainable Development” keyword (with an occurrence fac-
tor of 44).
Table 7. The most frequently used keywords in papers.
Keyword Occurrences
Economic Growth 184
Tourism 161
Tourism Development 97
CO2 emissions 73
International Tourism 65
Impact 61
Energy Consumption 54
Sustainable Tourism 50
Sustainable Development 44
China 42
Growth 39
Demand 36
Financial Development 29
Countries 29
Carbon emissions 29
Renewable Energy 20
Consumption 25
Environmental Kuznets Curve 24
Malaysia 23
Carbon Dioxide emissions 17
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Finally, the 10 main articles with the highest number of citations are shown in Ap-
pendix A3. The most-cited author (Hall, CM), with 612 citations, coincides with the author
of the most-cited work: “Policy learning and policy failure in sustainable tourism govern-
ance: from first- and second-order to third-order change?” [62], who in turn ranks number
six as a highly relevant author in the study of the influence of sustainable tourism devel-
opment on economic growth. Likewise, the most recent work with the highest number of
citations is: “The Effects of Tourism Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions: A Comparison
between Developed and Developing Economies” [63]. In Figure 7, we make a graphic
comparison between the most influential authors in this field and the authors with the
most citations. In this sense, we can conclude that all the authors with the most contribu-
tions are among the most-cited authors, except Sharif and Romao. Finally, Figure 8 shows
us the timeline of the most relevant contributions.
Figure 7. Comparison between the number of citations and number of publications.
Figure 8. Timeline of the most influential studies.
Below, we also present a map based on researcher networks [46]. The elements of
these networks have been connected through co-authorship links. To build the network
we have used the WoS database’s bibliographic files to provide them as input to the VOS
Sustainability 2021, 13, 2270 12 of 20
viewer. Figure 9 presents the analysis of 10 related co-authors according to the number of
articles published jointly. The elements included in this map are researchers, and the link
between these elements is the co-authorship links between them. Likewise, each link has
a strength that indicates the number of publications in which two researchers have been
co-authors [46]. The total strength of the bond is described as standard weight attributes
that indicate the strength of an element’s bonds with others [46,64]. Four different clusters
can be detected, where the largest sets consist of three elements. Zaman has the highest
total bond strength, followed by Sharif, Shahbaz, Paramati, and Kumar. In turn, Zaman,
Shahbaz, Paramati, and Kumar are considered influential authors in the field studied, and
Zaman is the author with the greatest impact on sustainable tourism development and
economic growth. In turn, these five authors are among the 13 most-cited authors in this
field. Therefore, through the constructed map, it was verified that the relevance of the
influence of the analyzed relationship may be due to the co-authorship between the pub-
lished works. For example, Paramati and Shahbaz are especially related by their common
field of research (Environmental Sciences) and have published “Does tourism degrade
environmental quality? A comparative study of Eastern and Western European Union”
as co-authors [65].
Figure 9. A map density based on network data connected by co-authorship items.
5. Discussion
This research presents a structured review of the literature that studies the influence
of sustainable tourism on economic growth. Bibliometric studies on sustainable tourism
and the impact of tourism on the economy are found in the previous literature [10,66,67].
However, bibliometric analysis has not been completed that relates sustainable tourism
and economic growth and identifies analytically and objectively emerging works, authors,
and research groups.
The results of our bibliometric analysis on sustainable tourism and economic growth
indicate that there is a relative concentration of the most influential works among a certain
number of researchers. Authors Zaman K., Croes R., and Kumar R.R. are the ones with
the highest number of publications. Other authors also have a high number of publica-
tions, such as Sharif A., Hall C.M., Nijkamp P., and Romao J. However, as the field con-
tinues to mature, numerous authors are joining this line of research, expanding the work
Sustainability 2021, 13, 2270 13 of 20
in a variety of areas (for example, “Green and sustainable science and technology” and
“Environmental science”). As a consequence, the number of citations is progressing up-
wards, having increased by 28% in the last five years, which shows the current signifi-
cance of the analyzed relationship. These results are in line with those obtained by previ-
ous studies on sustainable tourism [25].
Furthermore, our analysis of the geographical dispersion of publications showed that
China has the highest number of works (25%), followed by the United States (20%). These
results are similar to those of Yoopetch and Nimsai [19] on sustainable tourism since they
indicate that this research is located in emerging regions of the world (e.g., Asia). How-
ever, our results are different from those obtained by other bibliometric studies also in the
exclusive field of sustainable tourism, by indicating that the United States is the country
that contributes the most literature [10,66]. This difference may be because our study also
considers aspects of economic growth, which is attracting organizations, research centers,
and researchers from the vast majority of countries, mainly in Asia and Europe [38].
Our study also indicates that a growing interest in the study of the influence of sus-
tainable tourism development on economic growth began in 2005, similar to that sug-
gested by other previous studies on economic research [38] and on sustainable tourism
[10], which confirms that there is a recent and successful period of related academic liter-
ature, specifically from 2005 to date.
On the other hand, our results detect the breadth of methodologies and disciplines
used, even among the most prolific academics, which exemplifies the interdisciplinary
nature of research on the influence of sustainable tourism development on economic
growth. Also, it is possible that only the work of one or two researchers is necessary for
an organization to be classified as high performance, and that the influence of the ana-
lyzed relationship may be due to co-authorship between published works. These results
coincide with those obtained by previous studies on economic research, indicating that
co-authorship analysis shows that the associations between countries/regions are rela-
tively fixed and limited [38].
Finally, the results obtained also suggest future lines of research. We have found that
research on the impact of sustainable tourism on economic growth has mainly focused on
the areas of hospitality, green and sustainable technology, and environmental sciences.
Therefore, it would be interesting to address new areas of study that extend the results
obtained. For example, the economic impact of sustainable events, sustainable tourist des-
tinations, and sustainable maritime tourism remains to be studied. Likewise, given that
current experience is concentrated in a certain number of countries, it would be necessary
to expand the number of investigations into a broad set of experiences that offer a multi-
cultural and globally relevant points of view.
6. Conclusions
Research on sustainable tourism development and economic growth is increasing
and maturing. However, there is still a significant gap, given the small number of influ-
ential articles. The evidence emerging from this study suggests that sustainable tourism
development is indispensable for economic growth. Countries like China and the United
States have developed this relationship, but for European countries, it is still an issue that
needs further research. Likewise, and in the context of the current crisis derived from
COVID-19, our findings suggest that measures to promote the development of sustainable
tourism and thus improve economic growth, currently slowed by the pandemic, should
be investigated. Additionally, we have also found that this relationship should be pro-
moted from the point of view of environmental sciences.
On the other hand, an expansion of the results that we developed in this study seems
necessary. The number of keywords could be expanded to include trade openness, pollu-
tion, energy consumption, globalization, and a wide variety of other relevant terms that
could contribute to a more comprehensive review of the analyzed relationship. For exam-
ple, pollution and globalization were the first precursors to the field of sustainable tourism
Sustainability 2021, 13, 2270 14 of 20
development and economic growth. Expanding future research in this direction would
identify many other contributions and potentially change core research areas even further.
However, the inclusion of additional keywords will result in a broader set of articles that
will later require innovative bibliometric analysis tools and approaches. Therefore, future
research should consider that there are opportunities for further content analysis of spe-
cific and influential studies to more concretely identify research gaps and directions.
From an empirical perspective, the results of this study have implications for research
that promotes policies to stimulate the development of sustainable tourism. This can be a
solution to the scenarios of economic slowdowns, such as those caused by COVID-19 to-
day. In this sense, there is a need to use more effective statistical models that allow for
adequate decision-making with high impact on final results.
Author Contributions: This study has been designed and performed by all of the authors. D.R.-P.
collected the data, A.L.-G. and M.A.F.-G. analyzed the data. The introduction and literature review
were written by D.R.-P. and M.R.G.-. R. The research methodology and initial data statistics, data
analysis, and bibliometric analysis were written by M.A.F.-G. and A.L.-G. All of the authors wrote
the discussion and conclusions. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the
Funding: This research was funded by the University of Malaga and the Cátedra de Economía y
Finanzas Sostenibles.
Informed Consent Statement: Not applicable.
Informed Consent Statement: Not applicable.
Data Availability Statement: Web of Science (WOS).
Acknowledgments: The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the anonymous
reviewers, and the editors for their truly valuable comments.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Appendix A
Table A1. The top 10 publishing journals contributing to the area of sustainable tourism developments and economic
Source Publication Year
9 2020
Sustainability 1 1 1 3 1 5 17
Tourism Eco-
nomics 2 1 1 3 4 1 3 1 4 1 4 9
Tourism Man-
agement 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3
Current Issues
in Tourism 1 1 3 1 3 2 3 1 2 13
Science and Pol-
lution Research
1 2 2 2 3 13
Journal of Sus-
tainable Tour-
2 1 3 2 2 3 6 4
Asia Pacific
Journal of Tour-
ism Research
1 1 1 2 1 2 5 1 4 2
Journal of
Travel Research
2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 6
Annals of Tour-
ism Research 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 2
sis 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
Sustainability 2021, 13, 2270 15 of 20
Table A2. Contribution total of organizations based on their geographical regions.
Geographical Region Number of Papers Contribution (%)
South Africa 15 2.304
Egypt 7 1.075
Mauritius 6 0.922
Nigeria 4 0.614
Tanzania 3 0.461
Ghana 2 0.307
Tunisia 2 0.307
Botswana 1 0.154
Cameroon 1 0.154
Eritrea 1 0.154
Libya 1 0.154
Uganda 1 0.154
Zimbabwe 1 0.154
North America
United States 85 13.057
Canada 16 2.458
Mexico 2 0.307
Barbados 1 0.154
Jamaica 1 0.154
South America
Aruba 4 0.614
Brazil 3 0.461
Colombia 3 0.461
Argentina 2 0.307
Ecuador 2 0.307
Peru 2 0.307
Uruguay 2 0.307
Chile 1 0.154
Guyana 1 0.154
China 130 19.969
Pakistan 36 5.530
Malaysia 35 5.376
Taiwan 27 4.147
India 16 2.458
Japan 15 2.304
Saudi Arabia 13 1.997
Iran 12 1.843
Indonesia 9 1.382
South Korea 9 1.382
United Arab Emirates 7 1.075
Vietnam 7 1.075
Singapore 6 0.922
Thailand 5 0.768
Bangladesh 3 0.461
Kazakhstan 3 0.461
Israel 2 0.307
Lebanon 2 0.307
Cambodia 1 0.154
Jordan 1 0.154
Laos 1 0.154
Nepal 1 0.154
Sustainability 2021, 13, 2270 16 of 20
Palestine 1 0.154
Philippines 1 0.154
Turkey 66 10.138
England 53 8.141
Spain 48 7.373
Italy 28 4.301
France 14 2.151
Romania 14 2.151
Netherlands 13 1.997
Portugal 11 1.690
Russia 10 1.536
Greece 9 1.382
Finland 8 1.229
Germany 7 1.075
Scotland 7 1.075
Cyprus 6 0.922
Norway 6 0.922
Austria 5 0.768
Croatia 5 0.768
Serbia 5 0.768
Sweden 5 0.768
Switzerland 5 0.768
Slovenia 4 0.614
Ukraine 4 0.614
Denmark 3 0.461
Poland 3 0.461
Wales 3 0.461
Azerbaijan 2 0.307
Herzeg-Bosnia 2 0.307
Bulgaria 2 0.307
Czech Republic 2 0.307
Iceland 2 0.307
Lithuania 2 0.307
Macedonia 2 0.307
Albania 1 0.154
Belgium 1 0.154
Hungary 1 0.154
Montenegro 1 0.154
Serbia 1 0.154
Slovakia 1 0.154
United Kingdom 1 0.154
Australia 40 6.144
New Zealand 17 2.611
Fiji 12 1.843
Marshall Island 1 0.154
Sustainability 2021, 13, 2270 17 of 20
Table A3. Top 10 most-cited articles contributing to the area of sustainable tourism development
and economic growth.
The Title of the Publication Authors
The Title of the Journal Year
Total Citations
Policy learning and policy failure
in sustainable tourism governance:
from first- and second-order to
third-order change?
[62] Journal of Sustainable Tour-
ism 2011 350
Investigating the influence of tour-
ism on economic growth and car-
bon emissions: Evidence from
panel analysis of the European Un-
[28] Tourism Management 2013 201
In pursuit of ecotourism [68] Biodiversity and Conserva-
tion 1996 172
Green, circular, bio-economy: A
comparative analysis of sustaina-
bility avenues
[69] Journal of Cleaner Production
2017 156
Tourism and poverty reduction: Is-
sues for small Island states [70] Tourism Geographies 2008 126
Emergy measures of carrying ca-
pacity to evaluate economic invest-
[71] Population and Environment
2001 125
The World Bank’s role in tourism
development [72] Annals of Tourism Research
2007 124
The entrepreneurship factor in sus-
tainable tourism development [73] Journal of Cleaner Production
2005 118
Degrowing Tourism: Decroissance,
Sustainable Consumption and
Steady-State Tourism
International Journal
of Tourism and Hospitality
2009 110
The Effects of Tourism on Eco-
nomic Growth and CO2 Emissions:
A Comparison between Developed
and Developing Economies
[63] Journal of Travel Research 2017 99
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... As the popularity of NBT increases 'green' branding and credentials influence the competitiveness of a tourism destination (Chin et al., 2018;Huybers & Bennett, 2003;Wong et al., 2021) which influences tourism performance (Bazargani & Kiliç, 2021). However, the fundamental drivers of tourism are primarily economic and social factors with environmental attention only being considered through legal compliance measures (Buckley, 2012;León-Gómez et al., 2021;McKercher, 1993). This is problematic as tourism developments and related services often have negative environmental impacts (León-Gómez et al., 2021;Liu et al., 2018;Monz et al., 2013;Ren et al., 2019;Zhong et al., 2011). ...
... However, the fundamental drivers of tourism are primarily economic and social factors with environmental attention only being considered through legal compliance measures (Buckley, 2012;León-Gómez et al., 2021;McKercher, 1993). This is problematic as tourism developments and related services often have negative environmental impacts (León-Gómez et al., 2021;Liu et al., 2018;Monz et al., 2013;Ren et al., 2019;Zhong et al., 2011). Moreover, with increasing prosperity and global transport, access to nature-based destinations is increasing, but awareness of impacts is weak (Davenport & Davenport, 2006). ...
Full-text available
1. Increasing demand for access to nature has the potential to increase environmental impacts. Identifying links between increased visitor intensity and habitat damage in context-specific studies is an oversimplification which does not account for visitor demographics or activity characteristics. 2. We compared the prevalence of tourism-related threats/pressures across protected areas in Europe, Ireland, and in sites close to the Wild Atlantic Way (WAW) tourism route along the west coast of Ireland. To better understand the drivers of tourism-related impacts, we analysed impact occurrence (IO) and impact severity (IS) at 43 sites along the WAW using a database of over 6000 visitor movement, demographic and behaviour records gathered by a national tourism agency (Fáilte Ireland). 3. Threats/pressures related to tourism and recreation are prevalent and widespread across protected sites in Europe (49% of sites) with significantly higher (p < 0.001) prevalence of these threats in protected sites in Ireland (58% of sites). Over 33% of protected sites in Ireland are located within 2 km of a WAW Discovery Point and 64% of these WAW adjacent sites have known threats/pressures related to recreation and/or tourism, which is significantly higher than Irish and European averages (p < 0.001). 4. Visitors to WAW sites ranged mostly within 1 km of tourist destinations (99%) and over 75% of all visitors had no observable impact on the receiving environment. Site-type, tourist demographics and tourist activities were informative pre-dictors of IO. IS was influenced by total number of impacts, activity intensity and site-type. Site-type together with visitor activity occurrence and activity intensity were significant for IO and IS, highlighting the importance of understanding local conditions as well as visitor characteristics for impact avoidance/mitigation. 5. Tourism-related pressures and threats are widespread among protected sites in Europe and Ireland. We demonstrate the need to shift the focus from analysing discrete ecological responses in response to generalized tourism pressure to understanding the causes of impacts to mitigate them at source. This will help align tourism and conservation goals.
... The main factors influencing the tourism demand (number of tourist arrivals) in the tourism models are the per capita income in the country of origin of the tourist, relative prices in the countries of origin, exchange rates, transport costs, tourism infrastructure, security perceptions (Albaladejo et al. 2014;Gunter and Önder 2015;Santana-Gallego et al. 2016;Pham et al. 2017). The literature on the economic impact of tourism is so diverse that some authors find it necessary to systematize it (Comerio & Strozzi 2019;León-Gómez et al. 2021). ...
In recent years, the question of whether tourism contributes to long-run economic growth has been widely discussed in the touristic literature, but the results of empirical research remain conflicting. The Tourism-led growth hypothesis (TLGH) has been introduced, according to which international tourism is a strategic factor of economic growth in the long run. The COVID-19 pandemic reaffirmed the need for countries to test this hypothesis empirically as most countries recognize the crucial role of tourism in economic recovery. If the TLGH is valid, more resources should be allocated to the tourism industry than it was before. This study investigates the causal relations between tourism development (TD) and economic growth for the Armenian economy by using econometric methodology of unit root testing, cointegration analysis, Granger causality testing and Vector Autoregression (VAR) modeling. The results of a cointegration test indicate that there is no long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP and real tourism receipts. Our findings have also empirically demonstrated that Tourism-Led Growth Hypothesis (TLGH) is not held in the case of Armenia. The outcomes of Granger causality test imply a bilateral causal relationship between tourism development and economic growth. TD-economic growth short-run interactions were estimated using the VAR model.
... Studies on the South African tourism is not new, but not many have considered its causal relationship with climate change and contribution towards achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Binns and Nel, 2002;Akinboade and Braimoh, 2010;Rogerson, 2012;Srinivasan et al., 2012;Phiri, 2016;Adeola et al., 2018). Mearns (2016) (2020) and León-Gómez et al. (2021). Pandy (2017) investigated its causal relationship and concluded that the tourism ecosystem requires expansive and adaptive actions towards a sustainable future. ...
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In line with the 2030 Agenda of Sustainable Development initiated by the United Nations, a climate-resilient development strategy is in a need for the South African tourism. Following the principles of sustainable tourism development, the empirical analysis in this study intends to discover the dynamic relationship between climate change and tourism demand in South Africa. With the adoption of the “Triple Bottom Line” framework, our findings revealed the essential steps for South Africa to address the environmental, social, and economic factors necessary for the development of a sustainable tourism. By adopting the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach, the present study confirmed that carbon emission leaves a negative impact on the tourism industry in South Africa. Therefore, it is crucial for the tourism practitioners and policy makers to improve the economic efficiency by paying more attention on the carbon dioxide emissions to balance the tourism development and environmental protection for long term sustainable growth for the South African tourism.
... Bibliometric studies make it possible to identify trends in a particular area (field of study) by measuring the literature in that area (Kasemodel et al. 2016). Several bibliometric studies were conducted in various disciplines using more or less similar methods, such as economics (León-Gómez et al. 2021), social (León-Gómez et al. 2021,and education (Drajati et al. 2021). From this study, it is known that the study of Blended Learning in Higher education using biblimoteric analysis is still relatively small, especially in Indonesia. ...
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This study aims to identify and analyze main information, publication growth, the growth of this journal, growth by institution, research productivity, publications by country, publications by subject, publications by document type, thematic maps, network visualization, overlay visualization, density visualization, relationships between authors. The research used bibliometric method. Collecting data by searching through the Scopus database with the keywords Blended Learning in Higher education with the categories Article title, Abstract, Keywords in the period 2005-2021. Data were analyzed by year, author, origin of author and subject using Microsoft Excel 2010. Meanwhile, the publication development map was analyzed using R-Studio software, and VosViewer. The research results from this article itself found that the USA was the most contributing country regarding the topic of Blended Learning in Higher education with 16 documents and the most productive author on the topic of blended Learning in Higher Education was Najeh Alsalhi from Ajman University with 4 documents. Originality This study is the first to review and map the study of Blended Learning in Higher Education using bibliometric analysis, using data from year to year. All articles published in the journal have been reviewed in terms of methodology, country/country group of cases and topics/subtopics for future research.
... Development policies for regional economic growth, supported by the use of technology, will accelerate and encourage the increase in productivity in economic initiatives developed in the society. Community economic development through entrepreneurial education has an impact on economic growth, and efforts to increase community productivity will require technological innovation (León-Gómez et al., 2021). The realization of economic growth is among the main goals that almost every country wants to achieve. ...
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The main purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a causal relationship between the development of the tourism sector in selected African continent countries and foreign investments, total capital increases, and economic growth in these countries. For this, the Granger method, which measures the causality relationship, was preferred. The countries of Morocco, South Africa, and Tanzania were chosen as the sample countries. The data set required in the analysis process was obtained from the World Bank. As a result of the analysis, it was concluded that there is a causal relationship between different variables in all three countries. The causal relationships that have been found are usually one-sided. A causal relationship has been determined between the development of the tourism sector in Morocco and the income obtained from this sector and economic growth. In South African, it was concluded that there was a causal relationship between the foreign investments coming to this country and the total capital increases in the country. The Tanzani results show that there is a causal relationship between the development of the tourism sector in this country and total capital increases in this country.
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The features of the development of the tourism sector in the regions of the Russian Federation, which have an impact on the socio-economic development of the country, have been investigated. Analysis of the current state of the tourism sector, classified as the main types of economic activity, is relevant and important for increasing the competitiveness of the regions of the Russian Federation and ensuring the economic security of the state. The study is aimed to model and analyze tourist cluster formations in Russia. The study of tourist activity in the regions of Russia based on the indicators of the database of the Federal State Statistics Service was carried out using a new promising approach - cluster analysis using the scientific and methodological apparatus of artificial neural networks. The distribution of Russian regions into five tourist clusters has been obtained as a result of clustering multidimensional data using neural networks - self-organizing Kohonen maps, which are focused on self-study, and modern information technologies. In neural network modeling, the six-dimensional space of tourism development indicators was mapped, taking into account the topology, into a two-dimensional space, which made it possible to visualize the results of grouping regions by tourist clusters. The features of the development of the tourism sector in the regions of the Russian Federation have been revealed by the totality of the considered indicators The obtained results state that there is a strong variation in the number of regions by tourist clusters and the ametric nature of the development of tourist activity in the regions of Russia. The results of the study are of practical significance for the strategic planning of the tourism sector development, which ensures the development of domestic and inbound tourism. Analysis of the functioning of the tourism sector in the regions of the Russian Federation allows concluding the necessity to take a set of measures to stimulate effective investment activity in a number of tourism clusters, harmonizing the strategies of the state and business, which will contribute to the renewal and competitiveness of this type of economic activity.
Este estudio presenta un análisis bibliométrico de un total de 113 publicaciones sacadas a la luz entre los años 1996 y 2021, que analizan la formación académica en materia sostenible en las universidades de turismo a nivel mundial. El principal objetivo de este análisis es identificar las investigaciones más relevantes en este campo y las tendencias más actuales de investigación en la base de datos de la Web of Science. Con este fin, efectuamos un examen de la productividad de los autores, revistas y regiones geográficas más prolíferas. A continuación, se realizaron los análisis de redes de coautoría y co-ocurrencias de palabras clave.
Este artículo plantea una discusión relacionada con las teorías del turismo y los elementos utilizados para objetivar las representaciones vinculadas al turismo rural desde una perspectiva comunitaria. El objetivo de esta investigación es establecer articulaciones relacionadas con los alcances de un enfoque, de un modelo y de un sistema turístico y su relación con el turismo rural comunitario. Este análisis se realiza a partir de una revisión de literatura con el fin de plantear algunas conexiones relacionadas con las reflexiones académicas en las cuales se establece el turismo como disciplina académica. Los resultados evidencian que algunos de los postulados del turismo establecen aspectos más cuantitativos y en otros hay un mayor predominio de las teorías de ciencias humanas y sociales. En conclusión, comprender estas relaciones permite plantear un esbozo para la construcción de un estado del arte en la producción del conocimiento en la coyuntura de la COVID-19, con el propósito de fortalecer las teorías alrededor de los aspectos rurales en el turismo desde una óptica comunitaria.
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Tourism growth is a significant factor in the economic development around the globe, and eco-innovation and tourism policies could improve the tourism development and needs the researchers’ attention. Thus, the present article investigates the impact of eco-product innovation, eco-process innovation, eco-organizational innovation, eco-tourism policies, and social media on sustainable tourism development in Indonesia. This article has used primary data collection methods like questionnaires to collect the data from the selected respondents. The research also applied the smart-PLS to check the association among variables and test the hypotheses. The results revealed that eco-product innovation, eco-process innovation, eco-organizational innovation, eco-tourism policies, and social media have a positive nexus with sustainable tourism growth in Indonesia. This shows that through social media, the tourism firms keep in contact with the stakeholders, can have information, and share their own ideas with them. In this way, they can keep their tourism practice innovative and according to the requirements of stakeholders. This article guides the regulators to develop effective policies that improve sustainable tourism growth using eco-innovation and eco-tourism policies.
Now, humanity has been going through a period of crisis generated by a virus that is hardly overcome. Its emergence has generated panic, medical, social, and economic, challenging individuals and legal entities to manage their resources in such a way as to overcome this crisis with as little loss as possible – and why not? – and find opportunities or solutions for economic growth. In this paper, we intend to analyze the activity of the “top ten” companies from Bihor County in the field most affected by this pandemic, “hotels and restaurants.” We analyze the activity of these companies in comparison with the “road freight transport,” a sector for which we believe that opportunities for economic growth have arisen. In assessing the classification in the top ten companies in these fields, we have considered the level of turnover, net profit achieved, and the average number of employees. So, we are studying twenty companies, ten for each mentioned field, following the management of resources from 2015 to 2020. The questions we want to find answers to in this paper refer to developments of the key indicators regarding the activity carried out (turnover, receivables, debts), human resources (average number of employees), material resources (fixed or current assets), and financial resources (cash availability). Following the study, conclusions are drawn on analyzing the indicators achieved in 2020 compared to those achieved during 2015–2019.
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Sharing economy is an area that has been attracting increased interest from entrepreneurs and academics thanks to its notable growth. is study intends to present a quantitative panorama of studies related to the sharing economy, and to identify research trends and propose an agenda for future studies. In order to accomplish this, we applied the bibliometric method (bibliographic coupling) to data extracted from the Scopus Database. is is a relatively new eld of study, originating in the socio-marketing interests related to the act of sharing and evolving from there until the most recent studies, which are based on sharing platforms and new technologies. Based on the identi ed research trends and their overlapping of one another, we propose some questions that may be the target of future studies and would contribute to this eld of research.
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The aim of the study is mapping the thematic structure of the circular economy research by mapping research outputs related to it. The methodology consists of developing a bibliometric study based on data obtained from the Web of Science and the Scimago Journal & Country Rank from 2016 to 2019. Some descriptive and bibliographic maps and strategic diagrams are shown; they are generated by SciMAT and VOSViewer. In addition, there is also a bibliometric analysis using alternative metrics. The analysis highlights a new perspective on the subject, analysing the concept from the business administration perspective and not only from the traditional viewpoint of the environmental sciences and industrial production. Finally, the analysis identifies future implications of the circular economy linked to the field of business management.
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The dark side leadership literature remains a highly relevant yet fragmented and ambiguous literature stream. Therefore, we conduct a bibliometric analysis using co-citation and pathfinder analysis to describe and visualize the intellectual origins of the field by combining predefined word lists with expert validation. Our results suggest that there are key authors as well as other distinctive characteristics of research that also guides future research. Thematic clusters of the dark side literature suggest heightened emphasis on single dark traits such as narcissism while other constructs such as psychopathy receive little attention. Articles by Tepper can be linked to a central position in the network. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
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This study examines the relationship between international tourism and COVID-19 cases and associated deaths in more than 90 nations. We use a cross-country regression analysis and find a positive correlation between international tourism and the cumulated level of COVID-19 confirmed cases and death by April 30, 2020. Our regression analyses show that countries exposed to high flows of international tourism are more prone to cases and deaths caused by the COVID-19 outbreak. This association is robust even after controlling for other socioeconomic determinants of COVID-19 outbreak and regional dummies. Based on our estimations, a 1% higher level of inbound and outbound tourism is associated with 1.2% and 1.4% higher levels of confirmed COVID-19 cases and death, respectively, controlling for other factors. When we normalize the number of cases and death by size of population, the statistical significance remains robust, especially for the COVID-19 deaths, while the effect size reduces.
Tourism is one of most perspective and dynamic businesses in the world. It is of great significance to plan and develop tourism purposefully and sustainably though the search for compromises between environmental, economic and social aims of society. The sustainable tourism development management has to retain high satisfaction degree of tourists' needs, assure significant experience for consumers, increasing their consciousness under issues of sustainability, and propagating practices of sustainable tourism among them. The significance of sustainable tourism sector development ambition is analysed in this paper through the lens of strengthening its competitiveness. The paper analyses scientific literature and seeks to discover the main forms and factors for the strengthening of the tourism competitiveness by implementing economic, social and environmental targets of tourism destination territories development. The broad systematic literature review provided for some interesting findings: The business participants are interested in the implementation of new technologies in tourism services having positive impact on environment and local communities; however, a lot of challenges exist how to change environment, increase of consumers' motivations for sustainable tourism services and to change their behaviour towards more sustainable one. The current Covid 19 outbreak and high risks of future pandemics have risen new challenges for sustainable tourism development. In this paper the main sustainable tourist development challenges are addressed and new insights for the strengthening of competitiveness of sustainable tourism destination are provided. The future research guidelines are set based on analysis performed. Highlights • The systematic review of literature on sustainable tourism • The trade‐off between sustainability and competitiveness • The main challenges of sustainable tourist development • New insights for the strengthening of competitiveness of sustainable tourism • The future research guidelines are set based on analysis performed
Based on the Essential Science Indicators database, this study analyzed 1225 top papers of rice research from 2008 to 2018, which include 1219 highly cited papers and 24 hot papers in the field. VOSviewer software was used to visually analyze documents. Results showed that 5100 authors belonging to 1428 organizations from 84 countries/territories authored the papers in 277 core journals. There are 10 papers that have received more than 1000 citations. Top five core journals are Plant Cell, Plant Physiology, PNAS, Food Chemistry and Journal of Experimental Botany. Top 5 countries and regions were China, USA, Japan, England and Germany. Top 5 organizations identified are Chinese Academy of Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Huazhong Agricultual University, Nanjing Agricultural University and Zhejiang Univ.
Purpose Quantitative bibliometric approaches were used to statistically and objectively explore patterns in the sharing economy literature. Design/methodology/approach Journal (co-)citation analysis, author (co-)citation analysis, institution citation and co-operation analysis, keyword co-occurrence analysis, document (co-)citation analysis and burst detection analysis were conducted based on a bibliometric data set relating to sharing economy publications. Findings Sharing economy research is multi- and interdisciplinary. Journals focused upon products liability, organizing framework, profile characteristics, diverse economies, consumption system and everyday life themes. Authors focused upon profile characteristics, sharing economy organization, social connections, first principle and diverse economy themes. No institution dominated the research field. Keyword co-occurrence analysis identified organizing framework, tourism industry, consumer behavior, food waste, generous exchange and quality cue as research themes. Document co-citation analysis found research themes relating to the tourism industry, exploring public acceptability, agri-food system, commercial orientation, products liability and social connection. Most cited authors, institutions and documents are reported. Research limitations/implications The study did not exclusively focus on publications in top-tier journals. Future studies could run analyses relating to top-tier journals alone, and then run analyses relating to less renowned journals alone. To address the potential fuzzy results concern, reviews could focus on business and/or management research alone. Longitudinal reviews conducted over several points in time are warranted. Future reviews could combine qualitative and quantitative approaches. Originality/value We contribute by analyzing information relating to the population of all sharing economy articles. In addition, we contribute by employing several quantitative bibliometric approaches that enable the identification of trends relating to the themes and patterns in the growing literature.
This study examines the relationship between tourism specialization economic growth, and human development in a transition economy. It proffers a conceptual link between tourism specialization and human development through a division of labor framework. Dynamic comparative advantage, Sen's capability approach, and the translog production function characterize the conceptual relationship. The Limited Information Maximum Likelihood (LIML) estimates this relationship's nature in the case of Poland. Tourism specialization has a short-term effect on economic growth and a negative and indirect link to human development. Economic growth seems the channel that supports human development expansion, indicating short- and long-term significant, positive effects. Human capital reveals a U- shape pattern in its relationship with economic growth and human development. The study's implications are two testable propositions and two policy options suggesting tourism specialization's potential impact on private and public incomes, which are relevant developmental channels in transition economies.
Tourism development is crucial for economic growth in Small Island Developing States, but its management involves trade-offs between ecosystem services and social and cultural identities. This paper aims to contribute to the debate around the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals through an investigation of the sustainable management of tourism and coastal ecosystem services. The paper presents a choice experiment and latent factor analysis to disentangle relevant aspects of sustainable tourism in Small Island Developing States for potential visitors. Willingness to pay is reported for the different factors revealing preferences variability for previous and prospective visitors. Pro-environmental attitudes influence individual tastes and policy makers should consider these traits in order to attract visitors and private funding. Our findings show that prospective tourists are interested in the wider aspects of the tourism experience which in turn require the careful management of social and environmental resources in Small Island Developing States.
The bottleneck model introduced by Vickrey in 1969 has been recognized as a benchmark representation of the peak-period traffic congestion due to its ability to capture the essence of congestion dynamics in a simple and tractable way. This paper aims to provide a 50th anniversary review of the bottleneck model research since its inception. A bibliometric analysis approach is adopted for identifying the distribution of all journal publications, influential papers, top contributing authors, and leading topics in the past half century. The literature is classified according to recurring themes into travel behavior analysis, demand-side strategies, supply-side strategies, and joint strategies of demand and supply sides. For each theme, typical extended models developed to date are surveyed. Some potential directions for further studies are discussed.