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Exploring the Affective States of Social Presence in Fully Online Learning Communities

Authors:

Abstract

The Fully Online Learning Community (FOLC) model was developed at Ontario Tech University and is focussed, in part, on Moore's Transactional Distance Theory, which suggests that the psychological distance between individuals in the digital space should be minimized to decrease miscommunication and misunderstandings. It is evident that communication is not only the flow of speech from the sender to the receiver, but also includes transmission of thoughts and emotions of the sender sharing with the recipient(s), including the reactions of the decoder after information decoding. It becomes clear then that when working in the context of fully online courses, representations of facial expressions and body language are required to facilitate good communication and to decrease the transactional distance. This paper is about the development of a coding structure that will be used to analyze previously recorded focus groups of 4-5 participants engaging in a discussion based on the collage of images provided to them through an audio-video conferencing system. The video recordings of each focus group participant were analyzed for reactions to comments made by a ‘planted’ graduate student, who was asked to perform one of four specific roles throughout the focus group session. The individual recordings were analyzed for the following indicators: facial expressions (as determined by Noldus FaceReader®, an automated facial expression analysis software package), body language (providing insights to participant emotional reactions), and discourse content, which furnishes indicators regarding the instigation of the reactions and additional perceptions of the types of interactions which can occur between individuals in online learning settings. No current literature regarding coding of emotional content in naturalistic online settings was found. The results of the application of the finalized coding structure will inform researchers and others on how to instigate discourse for learning within the context of fully online learning community environments. Keywords: fully online learning community environments, facial expression analysis, body language analysis, social presence, collaborative learning
Running Head: EXPLORING AFFECTIVE STATES OF SOCIAL PRESENCE IN FULLY
ONLINE LEARNING COMMUNITIES
Exploring the Affective States of Social Presence in
Fully Online Learning Communities
Ufuk Yagci
University of Ontario Institute of Technology
Canada
ufuk.yagci@ontariotechu.net
Roland van Oostveen
University of Ontario Institute of Technology
Canada
Roland.vanoostveen@ontariotechu.net
EXPLORING AFFECTIVE STATES OF SOCIAL PRESENCE IN FULLY ONLINE LEARNING
COMMUNITIES
Abstract
The Fully Online Learning Community (FOLC) model was developed at Ontario Tech
University and is focussed, in part, on Moore's Transactional Distance Theory, which suggests
that the psychological distance between individuals in the digital space should be minimized to
decrease miscommunication and misunderstandings. It is evident that communication is not
only the flow of speech from the sender to the receiver, but also includes transmission of
thoughts and emotions of the sender sharing with the recipient(s), including the reactions of the
decoder after information decoding. It becomes clear then that when working in the context of
fully online courses, representations of facial expressions and body language are required to
facilitate good communication and to decrease the transactional distance.
This paper is about the development of a coding structure that will be used to analyze
previously recorded focus groups of 4-5 participants engaging in a discussion based on the
collage of images provided to them through an audio-video conferencing system. The video
recordings of each focus group participant were analyzed for reactions to comments made by a
‘planted’ graduate student, who was asked to perform one of four specific roles throughout the
focus group session. The individual recordings were analyzed for the following indicators: facial
expressions (as determined by Noldus FaceReader®, an automated facial expression analysis
software package), body language (providing insights to participant emotional reactions), and
discourse content, which furnishes indicators regarding the instigation of the reactions and
additional perceptions of the types of interactions which can occur between individuals in online
learning settings. No current literature regarding coding of emotional content in naturalistic
online settings was found. The results of the application of the finalized coding structure will
inform researchers and others on how to instigate discourse for learning within the context of
fully online learning community environments.
EXPLORING AFFECTIVE STATES OF SOCIAL PRESENCE IN FULLY ONLINE LEARNING
COMMUNITIES
Keywords: fully online learning community environments, facial expression analysis,
body language analysis, social presence, collaborative learning
EXPLORING AFFECTIVE STATES OF SOCIAL PRESENCE IN FULLY ONLINE LEARNING
COMMUNITIES
REFERENCES
Ekman, P. (1989). The argument and evidence about universals in facial expressions of emotion.
In Wagner, H., Manstead, A. (Eds.), Handbook of social psychophysiology (pp. 143–164).
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Garrison, R., Anderson, T., & Archer, (2000). Critical inquiry in text based environment:
Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education. 2(2–3), 87–
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Moore, M.G. (1993). Theory of transactional distance. In Keegan, D. (Ed.). Theoretical
Principles of Distance Education. New York: Routledge.
Normoyle, A., Liu, F., Kapadia, M., Badler, N. I., & Jorg, S. (2013). The Effect of Posture and
Dynamics on the Perception of Emotion. Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied
Perception (SAP '13), 91-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2492494.2492500
Noldus Information Technology. (n.d.). FaceReader. Retrieved from
https://www.noldus.com/human-behavior-research/products/facereader
Scudder, S. F (1980) Communication Theory as a Universal Law
. Retrieved from
https://en.mwikibooks.org
EXPLORING AFFECTIVE STATES OF SOCIAL PRESENCE IN FULLY ONLINE LEARNING
COMMUNITIES
vanOostveen, R., Childs, E., Gedrbrant, J., & Awwadah, K. (2018). Exploring social
immediacy/intimacy in fully online learning communities through synchronous tools. Poster
presented at the Ed-Media World Conference on Education Multimedia &
Telecommunications, June 25-29, 201, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Conference Paper
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Motion capture remains a popular and widely-used method for animating virtual characters. However, all practical applications of motion capture rely on motion editing techniques to increase the reusability and flexibility of captured motions. Because humans are proficient in detecting and interpreting subtle details in human motion, understanding the perceptual consequences of motion editing is essential. Thus in this work, we perform three experiments to gain a better understanding of how motion editing might affect the emotional content of a captured performance, particularly changes in posture and dynamics, two factors shown to be important perceptual indicators of bodily emotions. In these studies, we analyse the properties (angles and velocities) and perception (recognition rates and perceived intensities) of a varied set of full-body motion clips representing the six emotions anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. We have found that emotions are mostly conveyed through the upper body, that the perceived intensity of an emotion can be reduced by blending with a neutral motion, and that posture changes can alter the perceived emotion but subtle changes in dynamics only alter the intensity.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to provide conceptual order and a tool for the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and computer conferencing in supporting an educational experience. Central to the study introduced here is a model of community inquiry that constitutes three elements essential to an educational transaction—cognitive presence, social presence, and teaching presence. Indicators (key words/phrases) for each of the three elements emerged from the analysis of computer-conferencing transcripts. The indicators described represent a template or tool for researchers to analyze written transcripts, as well as a guide to educators for the optimal use of computer conferencing as a medium to facilitate an educational transaction. This research would suggest that computer conferencing has considerable potential to create a community of inquiry for educational purposes.
Theoretical Principles of Distance Education
  • M G Moore
Moore, M.G. (1993). Theory of transactional distance. In Keegan, D. (Ed.). Theoretical Principles of Distance Education. New York: Routledge.
Communication Theory as a Universal Law
  • S Scudder
Scudder, S. F (1980) Communication Theory as a Universal Law. Retrieved from https://en.mwikibooks.org
Exploring social immediacy/intimacy in fully online learning communities through synchronous tools
  • Exploring
  • States
  • Social
  • In
  • Online
  • R Communities Vanoostveen
  • E Childs
  • J Gedrbrant
  • K Awwadah
EXPLORING AFFECTIVE STATES OF SOCIAL PRESENCE IN FULLY ONLINE LEARNING COMMUNITIES vanOostveen, R., Childs, E., Gedrbrant, J., & Awwadah, K. (2018). Exploring social immediacy/intimacy in fully online learning communities through synchronous tools. Poster presented at the Ed-Media World Conference on Education Multimedia & Telecommunications, June 25-29, 201, Amsterdam, Netherlands.