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Land tactics of the single housing unit in the informal urban growth in Albania.

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Abstract

Learning from the informal transitional phases is a process that focuses on the diversity and multiform in which land and building alike are shaped and re-shaped in the territory. Moreover, there might be various reasons as to why this perpetual condition persists in informal areas in the Albanian context. This diversity is analyzed and named according to the impact that it has on the territory, including land fragmentation and densification. The purpose of this research is to illustrate transitional phases, of the informal settlements, to identify the cases of the multiform and to open up an irrevocable professional debate on the matter that not all informal settlements are the same in the territory. This starts from the local Albanian practices of building informally to the now-day form of territorial transition. All of the practices have one thing in common; they are half-realized utopias. Such is the urbanization process in Albania which has never co-occurred within the settlement and parceling in informal areas. It is up to urban planners and landscapers to identify these conditions even if the public and institutional apparatus do not deal with them. Passing from the informal practices and into their territorial partialities, the methodology gives a tactical description of the territorial impact as a result of the three processes of the urban informal growth in Albania: a) building, b) parceling, and c) putting in infrastructure. These processes are considered as a transitional phase and analyzed in this study. The multiform of their alternations can be described as land tactics, with a high impact on fragmentation and densification. The result illustrates and shows that not all the informal settlements are the same, although the same typology of the housing unit. Architects, landscapers, and social workers can contribute to the methodological solutions, starting from a single inhabitant and practices described and then enlarged to the regional scale of all 55 informal areas. Keywords: land tactics, transitional phase, territorial impact, informal growth, single housing unit.
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

  
!

  
! "#
    $%                !    
 &'
             %   
( 
 %
%             

   !#
   )
#' ' ! 
# !       
            
!
        % 
            
 !*%* %
*   
'  
  %!    (  
 !      %   
       %  %    !" 
     %     
    ++
,!    % % %  !% 


  -
- .
-- !/
-.     0
. 1  +
/ $  2
0 3 4
+ 5 -6
7   --
 

      /6 
         !#(
 !   !       #" 
 8  5 9    '
 8: ! !
        ! %    
 7    %    ! %
   !            
 
.666!#%
          % 
+66%666-
 066%666 '  
      46+6    ;          !%        
    ++  %      //<        '  8  
      !            !    
 
'%'%
  & .662      ;
%  %=>.%
!! 1  -*  '    !
% .*  '    # (   
 /* % !      (  1 
 ; %!  
(8  
      1 
%   !
    (     
   .+      
-?5>-2@-6//A
. =>       3    '   
  !   .662% !#     
     .6-4  > 5 B  "      
'
      > 5 /  '
  5 $   
  !!
> 5  %    ' 
   !  C!%     
C! =>
   ! !       
 %   '  %    9
' 0
 !
 "
 !  '  !    ( 
 !  ! 8
      !    %   !
  ! !
! D E&!
 C%  !
( /6
    &  "     
/6
     % F1% % G % .6-6*%    
!   )*(
   *  %  %      
/>---H.6-4>53I J44/%-%5
5 $
01 &=>
#
         :K6%    
!      #  %            !      
  % !  %    !  
 #       8   %  ,
'+1 %*!.662%!
( '  
  %  %        
'%?5>62@-6//A2
; !% F.*%      

  $          "         !  %&'
'('))*!
 +
;  '   %      
' -*%     
   %  .*        
F*!% %  '%
L(  ;
% 
J !   .+H. -66H. $    
 %4%   ;
 % %
%'
   %"   %       
$%        L     

+'   1  %
 
$!% 
% !!
% C
1  
    
L  
2 ?5>62 @-6// A ! (  ' 
   7     
 '!"% % '
J' (>5  
  => 
                    
 
4 "  

,
$   !  %   % 
     #   %   #(  
   !%
'!%  
%     #LK   
 D ' % 
 %  ! 
!         
   % 
               
    "      
!     #  %    
!
  " 
! L     &
   %  % 
  1  
    !  &      %
    E (  &   
     '  
      -6     &
--  '
D&!
The rst lesson is that informal constructions are not simply a legal
problem, even when it is recognized that this phenomenon has considerable
implications and takes on dierent legal forms. The constructions may be illegal
for a number of reasons: they are built on land that is public or property
belonging to someone else, there are problems of marking or registration,
inheritance, marriage, property claims or compensation, disregarding urban
norms, or having obtained construction permits, the latter which may not
comply with de facto implementation. The constructions do not respect the
environmental conditions or they are built in a protected historical area. They
may be located in areas of low durability and pose a danger to the safety of
people, such as being built on agricultural land etc.
- Translated by the research author from[ CITATION Bes08 \l 1040 ].
 -&
 &% 
         &     
  L    There is a need to identify
these tactics on the map and, to open an irrevocable professional debate on the matter that
not all informal settlements are the same throughout the territory.
K %!'/66
D%  % %       
"# =>%
&.+MH.
-6 >!%  .6-K  %       ' I 
'##! 
!L    '
"'
--;&%! 
   % 
  %! -6< 
.
 1   !-. 
!    !
            
 /6-/
%   "% ! 
 %   -0        
!  '     %  %  
'%  % 
 8             
 
  
  C
    L      
    !          
"-+  =>%   > 5  %  
E   !  
 % ! 
& !-2 %  !
     ;  %       (
   "%1      L
!   
# /!
;          
  :    '% 
              
 -J% ( . I         !
-.   !' !
  -*%.* /* 
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-0 ;%   !   #    
     ! !   E      
 !' 
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%  
%!"  L%
(   L         
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! %#
 "
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          "  %     1 %  
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   % /*      '  
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  ! ': 
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   *
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! !    " R   "S%  R !S%  
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;(%*%R "S
     #L        ( 
$ -K %
     !      
$"R!S  
! #
(! 
;     % *  % R  "S  
 %%!  !!#L
%!! "
&( $"R!S
     % *  %       %
% " &%   #   
( 
;%*'%R "S
  &%%' 
 !"%!  ' :
( 
$"R!S%*'%
  .6%.-
   / !    !     !  
           T    
( 
-4?5>3-0@-6//A7!/2%
L% &!(
 %RSR S'&!   
%    !          
' 
-K?5>!@-6//A
.6I&!'   
: ! !"
.-I&!'"  

1
#2345
3"5
!
, 
 %(Building)  (Parceling)  (Urbanization)
    %           (Parceling)
      (      
!(  
.. F;.* 
L   % 
(  
(  (
 ;   
( %L 
   % !     %  (i.1) ; 0% 
'##!!F i.2, i.3 and i.4
; 0*           ./       
   %   
 1   $ ! 
%    #  F i.3  ; 0* 
..  F1%%G%.6-6*%
!  ! F7* %F*
 F*'
./   !
" T"
6
   !         %  
   !    !.0 F i.1   ;  0*  8
 '   ' 

 ! !
( ;    
(  )&% %( 
 ( .+  &%   %      !
    '  $  !    
 .2% 
!
    D%
( .J  !
  !    &    $!% 
( " .4
!  ! !'
 "
  ! 
 (     8
  &% L.K "   
  D          
   %  ! %   
  &
          '
      /6   
     '       /66 D
      ' B   .6-0    
  ! 
 (      !     ' 
 &  %!'
%   
!' /-
.0  %       
%U"?5>>C-+@-606A
.+-%.%/%0;0
.2   !
 &      /66 .  (  !    % 
            %  % 
' %.%;0
.J( %0;0
.4( %/;0
.KI&'%-I&!&
 !"!'!
 &!" % &!" 
! 
/63 '%.
/-( !' %0
7
,""
2!

. 
   %
            
  %!"
   &   !   !  
!!
)
   99         
              
! .%&%!  
        '       
% %
!!' 
' "%
  
                      
&
     1        
        '     
 )%'
      &%=> >
5 D ! %
  %           
           
  "/. =>      
       &       
' 
;    %   > 5   
   ! '% 
    !   '       
        #      
'   %      !"    
  %
 ++7  %
  
   &  (     
 &   !  D      
"
8!
-  %5%1%7%G,V%;F.660* ' 
>QAdequate & Aordable
Housing for AllF.+*55

. %QF.660*Stato di eccezione. Homo sacer, II, I,.7
7
/ &%Q%GW%I$F.6-.*An introduction to property theory.
5 !5
0 1%7F.664*Misteri i Gjashte. Cili eshte kurthi qe mban peng zhvillimin dhe
integrimin e ekonomise shqipetare ne boten moderne.P5
/.  %?5> /@-6//A%" 
   1 "         & 
=>" : !
RSRS'    &
 !:!! (&

+ 1%7%%%G%F.6-6*Between energy and the vacuum.
P5
2 => F.6-2*raportestatistika.3'
HH!!!'H!# HH.6-2H-6H3##,#
#.6-2
J 7 %F-KK-*Disegnare il futuro: il problema dell'e<cacia nella
pianicazione urbanistica.7$
4 7%>F-KK2*La democrazia non abita a Gordio.$; 
K 7" %$F-K4.*The Ecology of Freedom.57"
-67%%GC "%XF.6-6*Kant's Doctrine of Right: A Commentary.
55
--5%38F.660*Encyclopedia of the City.3
-.5#5CF.666*Annual Report 2000, pg. 29.
5#
-/5%F.66K*Competenze possibili. Sfera pubblica e potenziali sociali nella
città.$X 7"
-0%C%Q%%Q%%G%=F.66.*Poverty in Albania : A
Qualitative Assessment.>+.68%587"Y87"
87"  
-+%7F.6-0*Understanding Policy Decisions.
-2%8>F.66/*  %I/.
-J;%IF.6--*3' 
 ; 3
-4CF.6-2*FK*Z
>
-K, %F.6-4*Dening the hindering factors of the informal settlements in
the General Regulatory Plan of Shkoder Municipality - Projecting Shkodër.
#!"%
$7
.6, %F.6-2* '%
1st INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE
ON PROFESSIONAL SCIENCES.F-.*%$
.-,%$F.660*John Locke Origins Private Property.5

..!%CF-K2/*The future of political science.>!["
./!-6JH.6-0P("=\
.0%CF-KJ0*The production of space.F>#> #%*
7 "!
.+14/J4F..6J-KK4*Per inspektimin e ndertimit.,
D
.21K04.F6/60.662*Per legalizimin, urbanizimin dhe integrimin e
ndertimeve pa leje.P
.J%5IF-K+K*$Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the
American Society for Public%JK#44
.4%5F-K+K*The science of 'muddling through'. 
3!
.K$]]^#$]]3_F-KK4*Las Formas de Crecimiento Urbano.
7 I 5

/6>%F.66-*Handbook of Public Policy Evaluation.QI
 
/-+6H.6-0%1“Për disa ndryshime dhe shtesa ne Ligjin nr.9482, datë.P
Q
/.%%%%G5%;F.6-J*Governare l'ingovernabile. Politiche
degli slum nel XXI secolo, pg.19.%$I'I
//'%IF.6-6* ^% ^%' ;7%Spazio
pubblico. Declino, difesa, riconquista.F.0+*3I
/0!%3F.6-0*Sun Tzu: L'arte della guerra.O '7'
/+%CF-K0J*Administrative Behaviour: A study of DecisionMaking
processes in Adminsitrative Organization.;
/2%CF-K0J*Administrative Behavior:A Study of Decision-making
Processes in Administrative.>!["$  
/J1X 8F.66+*8!  Bauwelt Stadt
/4%CF.66+* "% 3%
5Ethics and Information Technology%4J
/K"%F.6-.* I
06>CCF.66/*5
Q3C
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>C
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;. ! F1%
%G%.6-6*0
;/ ;( R "S
R!S    
 J
;0!!  
 ( 
 -6
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