ArticlePDF Available

Learning to learn multilingualism: Review on Mehrsprachigkeit und Sprachenerwerb. 2018. In PRAGMATICS.REVIEWS 2020.8.1

Authors:
Online Publication of the
European University VIADRINA
Volume 8, Number 1
December 2020
Learning to learn multilingualism
by Edgar Baumgärtner
dx.doi.org/10.11584/pragrev.2020.8.1.3
www.pragmatics-reviews.org
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Learning to Learn Multilingualism
Jörg Roche, Elisabetta Terrasi-Haufe (eds.). 2018. Mehrsprachigkeit und Sprachenerwerb,
(Kompendium DaF/DaZ 4). Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto Verlag.
1. Introduction
This very comprehensive textbook was published by Jörg Roche and Elisabetta Terrasi-Haufe
in 2018, and is the fourth volume of the nine-part series ‘Kompendium DaF/DaZ’ (Deutsch als
Fremdsprache/Zweitsprache German as a foreign/second language). Jörg Roche, editor of
every volume in the series, describes its aim as deepening the education of foreign-language
instructors. In order to do so, the series focuses on sharing insights from research on language
acquisition, language teaching and multilingualism. According to the publishers, all volumes in
the series share the orientation toward insights from the cognitive sciences (p. 16). All of the
textbooks can be used in academic teaching as well as in further training, and are part of a
correspondence course at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU) and its European
partners.
Both editors work at the Institut für Deutsch als Fremdsprache at LMU and have collaborated
on different book series on methods in the DaF/DaZ field. Only one of the eight chapters in the
textbook was written without the involvement of one of the two editors (chapter 4 ‘Dynamische
Modellierung von Sprachenerwerb’ by Kees de Bot, University of Groningen). Apart from de
Bot and Jala Garibova (Azerbaijan University of Languages), the participating authors are all
associated with LMU (Svenja Uth, Claudia Maria Riehl, Eduard Arnhold).
The volume comprises 350 pages, including the introduction, list of references, illustrations
and index. Each of the eight chapters is divided into three subsections (learning units) and
begins with a one-page introduction as well as a list of key points (in a highlighted field). At the
end of every unit are a bullet-point summary and a list of comprehension and discussion
questions. Another recurring element is numerous suggestions for experiments that can help
readers experience and thereby better understand the chapter content (these are described in
a highlighted box containing further questions). This pattern helps the reader to gain orientation
to the different theories and models described in the textbook. The same format is followed in
all volumes of the series, which is also helpful to academic instructors and students. The choice
to use a single bibliography at the end of the volume is convincing, as it avoids duplication and
reflects the contributors’ shared research.
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2. Summary
2.1 Prelog & chapter 1 introducing multilingualism
The introduction is very clear on the theoretical framework. It carefully dismisses older theories
of multilingualism and criticizes generative linguistics for only seeking to explain early or
children’s language acquisition (p. 15). In contrast to nativist theory, cognitive-oriented theories
view late language acquisition as a different process from learning a language as a child.1 The
authors claim that newer research has been inspired by this assumption but has not
consistently pursued its methodological and application-oriented consequences. Specifically,
they argue, adult language learning should involve interaction with, and systematic use of, the
languages a person had already learned until that point in their life. Different fields of cognitive
science are considered particularly useful in terms of developing methods that keep in mind
the linguistic background of the individual being taught. Nevertheless, the authors stress that
insights from the cognitive sciences cannot always be transferred into the classroom on an as-
is basis, notwithstanding their value for understanding how languages are processed in the
human mind (p. 16).
Turning to the content of the volume, the overarching argument is that multilingualism is more
(or sometimes less) than speaking two or more languages on a native speaker’s level (cf. p.
33). Instead, multilingualism should be understood as the dynamic interaction of different
languages or even varieties (p. 199), serving different needs and functions, depending on the
domain in which the code in question is being employed. As globalization progresses,
multilingual functionality plays an increasingly important role that should not be mistaken for
learning (only) English or another lingua franca in addition to one’s first language (p. 37). From
the very beginning, the authors seek to point out the importance of linguistic diversity and
intercultural (language) learning, while also engaging with new approaches such as
intercomprehension (p. 64).
2.2 Chapter 2 modelling multilingualism
Despite the initial announcement of the intention to concentrate on newer explanations, the
authors never fail to mention traditional theories of multilingualism, for example in chapter 2.2
on "innere und äußere Mehrsprachigkeit" (p. 67, cf. Wandruszka 1979) and "Schwellen- und
Interdependenzhypothese" (p. 70, cf. Skutnabb-Kangas and Toukomaa 1977). Next to well-
known theses about e.g. territorial and social forms of multilingualism (p. 30, cf. Riehl 2014),
1 This proposition becomes highly relevant in chapter 7.2 on xenolects (p. 257) where the role of input for foreign
language learners is discussed.
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the volume also deals with dimensions of multilingualism that have not been investigated in
much depth, for example the role of belonging and identity. It is a pity that no further literature
is provided here (p. 35), but this is mostly not the rule.2 Here (p. 36) and throughout the
chapters, the authors stress that for most of human history multilingualism has been the norm
rather than the exception (for example on p. 36). In the process of nation-building starting from
the late 18th century, language homogenization has been used to shape national identities. As
a consequence, political and educational efforts to revive multilingualism are necessary,
especially in industrialized countries where minority languages are mostly marginalized by
dominant majority languages (p. 36, cf. Crystal (1997) and p. 37, cf. Weinreich (1953)). These
preliminary assumptions not only stand on their own, but also serve as a preface to the
discussion of bilingual education (see p. 49 for political aspects and p. 67 for didactics).
Although they are mentioned in the section header, chapter 2.1 does not properly address
questions of migration and its consequences. Instead, the author Jörg Roche discusses the
implications of the Sinus study at length (pp. 58-60), before turning to the (important)
conclusion that "ethnische Faktoren nicht milieubildend wirken" [...] and therefore cannot serve
as a benchmark for revival measures that help maintain ethnic segregation (cf. p. 66). Chapter
2.2 and 2.3 finally contain a great wealth of information, especially with respect to the question
of modeling multilingualism adequately.
2.3 Chapter 3 on (foreign) language acquisition
It is only logical that chapter 3 focuses on (late) language acquisition. This time, the author
quickly turns to contemporary theories in chapter 3.1, explaining the process of chunking
(among others) as well as introducing the concept of a basic variety. The chapter illustrates
the principles of a learner’s grammar, which the reader should be able to understand quickly
provided a minimum of prior linguistic knowledge. The experiment proposed on p. 102 offers
the chance to apply these insights immediately. Earlier, the author draws parallels between
the concept of a basic variety and, again, an older theory developed by Givón (1979) about
the supremacy of the pragmatic mode over the syntactic one when learning a language. Sadly,
the connections to gestalt psychology are dealt with very briefly (p. 101). Also, the importance
of the lexicon over grammatical structures is repeated multiple times but concrete examples
and references to literature are missing.
2 The textbook does discuss literature on social coherence and belonging in chapter 6.3 but at this point it
neglects to provide the relevant references.
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In spite of the clear orientation towards cognitive linguistics, the two editors of the present
volume openly discuss nativist approaches, namely in chapter 3.2. This is done not only with
the aim of pointing out the limits of this theory. Insights from form-based theories do indeed
help us understand learners’ grammatical development. However, in the authors’ opinion they
should be considered more as "Diagnoseinstrumente denn als Einladung zu externen
Korrekturen [...]" in the process of teaching a foreign language (p. 115). They reach this
conclusion after discussing the question of how to interpret deviations from norms in the
process of directed second-language learning (cf. Diehl et al. 2000: 372). On the one hand,
those in favor of a natural process in the acquisition of an L2 claim that variation occurs despite
grammar being taught. On the other hand, those critical of a "starke Formfokussierung im
Unterricht" suggest that training exercises may have contributed to the results observed by
Diehl et al. (2000), (cf. p. 111). Finally, Terassi-Haufe refers to her own work (2004) where
findings inconsistent with Pienmann’s teachability hypothesis (1998) are explained by
maturational factors as well as "unterrichtliche Maßnahmen" (p. 115).
The editors are also responsible for chapter 3.3, which addresses newer issues around foreign
language learning as well as older ones (such as fossilization and stabilization). In addition,
the subsection contains some valuable hints for teaching foreign languages with its focus on
the "Erhöhung der subjektiven Wahrnehmbarkeit eines sprachlichen Phänomens" (p. 127).
2.4 Chapter 4 language as a dynamic system
The preceding chapters can be considered a prelude to the findings reviewed in chapter 4,
"Dynamische Modellierung von Sprachenerwerb", which can be seen as the heart of the
volume. Starting with the note that it is important to consider the interactional development of
various languages an individual has gained, the author speaks of Entwicklung rather than
Erwerb in order to include processes like attrition and language loss in multilingual minds (p.
131, chapter 4.2 on p. 142). For the same reason, one should look not only at (grammatical)
rules within a language, but also at attitudes and patterns of language use, which are placed
at the center of any dynamic modeling of language acquisition.
The general rules of complex systems, discussed in chapter 4.1, very successfully address the
aforementioned critiques of older theories of multilingualism, and the methodological demands
arising from newer ones. This is despite the fact that languages are not mentioned even once
in this first subsection. Parallels are only introduced in chapter 4.2 ("Sprache als dynamisches
System"), which sadly lacks depth (only 8 pages). Apart from the fact that one cannot properly
explain complex dynamic systems in a nutshell, many statements in chapter 4.2. and 4.3 again
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lack references. For example, no literature at all is cited on p. 143 ("Diese Annahme wird von
Forschungserkenntnissen unterstützt, die ..."), on p. 144 ("es hat sich gezeigt, dass die ...",
"Wie die Forschung zur Sprachlernentwicklung gezeigt hat, ..."), and on p. 155: ("Hinsichtlich
der unterschiedlich ausgeprägten linguistischen Fähigkeiten zeigen die Ergebnisse
verschiedener Forschungsprojekte, dass ..."). On p. 147, the author of this chapter (Kees de
Bot) introduces "Emergentismus, der im Fall von Sprache so zu verstehen ist, dass ...", but
cites neither Keller (1994), nor Hopper (1998), nor any other key literature. He also refers to
findings mentioned in other volumes of the series without providing a page number, as on p.
143 ("vergleiche den Band »Sprachenlehren«") and p. 152 ("siehe hierzu den Band
»Sprachenlernen und Kognition«"). The latter volume does not seem to even refer to the
"kognitionslinguistische Systemperspektive".3 Finally, some passages are either inaccurately
written or poorly translated. Phrases such as "Es gibt viele Theorien über Sprache, was sie ist,
wie sie entstanden ist, und so weiter." (p. 146) or "Ein System entwickelt sich auf eine gewisse
Weise, weil sich das System so entwickelt." (p. 147) would certainly require some adjustment.
At times, the content even lacks clarity, as can be seen in the following quotation:
Sowohl beim Verlust der L1 als auch der L2 spielt das Alter in zweierlei Hinsicht eine
entscheidende Rolle. Es wirkt sich deutlich auf den Spracherhalt aus, ob es um den Zeitraum
vor oder nach der Pubertät geht: In der präpubertären Phase findet ein erheblicher Verlust statt,
während in der postpubertären Phase weitaus mehr bewahrt wird. Der gegensätzliche
Alterseffekt tritt im hohen Alter ein. (p. 155)4
First of all, it is entirely unclear what the pronouns es in the second sentence refer to. While
the author probably means them to refer to the onset of attrition of an acquired L1 or L2, it is
still difficult to imagine what the "opposite effect in terms of advanced age" exactly means in
this context (ibid., translation EB).
Despite these criticisms, it is important to stress the value of the introduction to complex
(dynamic) systems (4.1), the many analogies to and examples of language as a complex
system (4.2), and the summary of relatively new research on language loss and attrition (4.3).
The author contextualizes new findings very reasonably, and considers the role of both
acquisition and loss in the development of multilingualism.
3 In other cases, the authors do not neglect to include page numbers. For example, on p. 165 the exact learning
unit is given in the reference to another volume of the same series.
4 In contrast to other citations I did not translate this passage into English. The aim was to show the original
wording.
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2.5 Chapter 5 on multilingual use of language
The problems mentioned above persist, but are much less pronounced, in chapter 5.1 and 5.2.
The examples lack interlinear glossing and other details (p. 164, "Englisch" missing in final
line) and there are some technical errors (p. 169, reference of "Auer 1995: 120" in bullet instead
of right-justified) a general problem in the volume, discussed below. While these may be
corrected in a new edition, it is much more important to consider the line of argumentation
against the artificial separation of languages in multilingual minds. Firstly, the authors compare
code-switching with interlingual variation of styles and registers (p. 163) without referring to
Coseriu’s (1988) concept of "Dachsprachen", which is discussed in chapter 6 of the same
volume. After a brief discussion of whether or not switching costs exist, Kees de Bot and Jörg
Roche conclude that not only multilinguals benefit from what is known as "Mehrsprachigkeits-
Vorteil" (p. 171). Therefore, one must ask how the so-called advantage of multilingualism
comes into being in the first place (cf. p. 173). The authors claim that switching between
languages and conversational situations both involve similar costs and benefits.5 They refer to
the inauthentic nature of experiments in which code-switching is elicited, in order to show that
switching is not a matter of one’s choice of language, but of a certain variety that best fits the
situation:
In usual conversations containing code-switching, [speakers] are never forced to switch codes.
They do so because it is in line with their purpose... Some words and constructions tend to occur
in a certain language. Perhaps even the term "language" is insufficient to describe the process.
A word or a phrase is used because it comes to one’s mind; which language the word originates
from is basically irrelevant. (p. 173, my translation).
In this respect, both multilinguals and monolinguals use "die praktische und kostengünstige
Variante und das können Entitäten aus dieser oder jener Sprache sein." (ibid.)
Chapter 5.2 (on transfer) maintains the approach of contrasting older and newer theories ("von
der Fehleranalyse auf der Basis von Kontrasten hin zur Performanzanalyse", p. 177, emphasis
added). The author (Kees de Bot) also provides a good overview of basic literature on the
phenomenon of transfer, as well as a short introduction to gestures and transfer (p. 184).
Chapter 5.3 (by Claudia Maria Riehl) then broadens the perspective on multilingualism by
discussing multiliteracy as another domain where transfer can be observed. It also contains
two illustrative examples (p. 189, 197) as well as many cross-references to materials within
the volume (e.g. to learning unit 8.2 and the concept developed by Koch und Oesterreicher
5 This argument is taken up again in chapter 7.2 on xenolects, which show great variation and can therefore be
analyzed in terms of code-switching (p. 251).
PRAGMATICS.REVIEWS 2020.8.1
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(1994) on p. 190), along with external references (cf. most recent study by Rosenberg and
Schröder (2016)).
2.6 Chapter 6 language variation
Among the aims of chapter 6 (by Jarla Garibova, Jörg Roche and Svenja Uth) is to explain
variation as part of multilingualism (p. 200). However, in my opinion it fails to do so. After a
short introduction to the theory of language as an architectural ensemble of varieties (Coseriu
1988), the authors raise more questions than answers. One of these is whether anything like
a standard language actually exists. In the end, the "postmodern" doubt is dismissed quite
rapidly by listing arguments (reasonable in themselves) in favor of a standard, such as
supraregionality, codification, institutionalization and literacy (p. 204). Subsequently, the social
interaction of varieties is discussed in terms of assimilation and division. Special attention is
given to regionalization as an example of a process in which convergence of varieties is due
to "the desire of assimilation" (Coulmas 2013: 7, cf. p. 205). In contrast, division happens
"[w]here social norms put a premium on social distinctness" and differences "tend to be
maintained" (Gumperz 1967: 228, cf. ibid.). All this is true, including the statement on p. 206
that variation on a social level creates variability on an individual level. The authors’
corresponding example of how different factors in a (foreign) language learner’s mind
dynamically interact with one another is a simple but striking indication of how the process of
language learning can be described as a complex adaptive system. However, neither chapter
6.2 on regional varieties (Jala Garibova and Svenja Uth) nor chapter 6.3 on social varieties
(Jala Garibova and Svenja Uth, assisted by Eduard Arnhold) clarify the extent to which these
insights are relevant to learning a foreign language. There most certainly is a difference
between learning and using varieties of a single language on the one hand, and learning
different and sometimes clearly unrelated languages on the other. That said, the chapter fulfills
all the other aims it sets itself, especially that of raising the awareness (of foreign language
teachers) to the operating principles of variation and variability on different levels (regional,
social, stylistic, etc.). Chapter 6.2 focuses on the question of what makes a dialect different
from a language. In many cases, structural criteria are less significant than the analysis of
political decisions (cf. p. 220). While it is truly exciting to read the overviews of different
theories, the connection to multilingualism and language acquisition is again missing. The
same applies to most of chapter 6.3, except for p. 227 where the authors point to the
educational potential of reflecting youth language as a diastratic variety.
PRAGMATICS.REVIEWS 2020.8.1
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2.7 Chapter 7 communication in multilingual contexts
In no way does the critique above apply to chapter 7, written by the editor Jörg Roche (7.1 on
ethnolects, 7.2 on xenolects and 7.3 on pidgins and creoles together with Svenja Uth). This is
already evident in the reference to Wandruzska (1979) in the introduction as well as in section
7.1.1 (this one unfortunately referenced incorrectly to "Lerneinheit 2.1" on pp. 233 and 234).
By appreciating that mixed languages can bridge the "innere Mehrsprachigkeit" with which
young children easily experiment and the "äußere Mehrsprachigkeit" with which adult foreign
language learners sometimes struggle, the reader will better comprehend the application-
oriented advice given repeatedly through the chapter. The author not only provides the reader
with the most common model of ethnolects (Auer 2003, cf. p. 235), but also gives a long list of
examples from research, especially from Wiese’s work on Kiezdeutsch (2006, 2012; p. 236).
The illustration of its (grammatical) innovations makes it easier to understand that ethnolects
are not (only) about simplification and reduction, but also about how speakers creatively
exploit, develop, and rearrange various linguistic structures. Kiezdeutsch therefore does more
than to express the speaker’s belonging to a certain group (p. 237). Moreover, they are fully
capable of switching between different registers, including standard (cf. p. 241), which
ultimately proves that Kiezdeutsch is not the code of some parallel society.
Throughout the chapter, the reader is constantly reminded why new insights into language
variation are valuable knowledge when teaching a language (p. 234). Sometimes the structural
descriptions of an ethnolect like Kiezdeutsch are somehow incorrect or at least superficial:
"Veränderung der deutschen Satzstellung in SVO" on p. 236 or "Verb steht an anderer Stelle"
on p. 237, when the context is in fact V3-constructions. This is somewhat compensated for
with the use of "Funktionsverbgefüge" ich mach dich Messer (p. 237-238) as an example for
grammatical innovation. Therefore, credit must be given to the author for showing that a
primary ethnolect or a dialect like Kiezdeutsch is far more complex than its usurped forms,
taken up by youth via mass media (secondary ethnolects) or even produced in direct mockery
(tertiary ethnolects, cf. pp. 239-240). In the end, the bridging function of ethnolects is best
explained by pointing to how they enrich the majority language and thereby demonstrate "die
natürlichen Kräfte der Mehrsprachigkeit" (p. 241). Roche then identifies another bridging
function of ethnolects with methodological potential for language learning. By looking at intern
and extern multilingualism as terms that exist on a continuum, one could lower the entry level
for learning a second language and thereby expand the critical period for lasting language
acquisition (pp. 242-243). In chapter 7.2, the author points out commonalities between ways
of speaking to children (motherese) and to adult language learners (xenolects). Parallels to the
concepts mentioned in chapter 3 (basic variety, pragmatic mode) are not only brought up, but
PRAGMATICS.REVIEWS 2020.8.1
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also turned into questions for the reader (p. 259). Likewise, the highly interesting but far too
short section on pidgins and creoles contains some inspiring questions (cf. question 4 on p.
269: "Welche Konsequenzen ergeben sich für den Sprachenerwerb und den Sprachunterricht
aus den Erkenntnissen über Pidginisierung und Kreolisierung? Wie lassen sich
Kreolisierungserscheinungen im Sprachenerwerb vermeiden?"). However, the discussion of
methodological implications is far from exhaustive, and is limited to the final paragraph of each
of the first two subsections. As for the question of how to make use of the high variability of
xenolects when teaching a foreign language, advice is given only in the very last sentence:
It makes sense to properly consider addressees’ input model when teaching a language to
young people and children, and when teaching technical terminology. This also applies to the
selection of communicative tasks and readings or grammatical exercises. (pp. 258-259, my
translation)
This shortcoming is compensated for in two ways. Firstly, in the sample solutions on the
publishers’ website one can find detailed responses to the questions mentioned above.6
Secondly, the final chapter 8 is explicitly dedicated to methodological questions. It will be
discussed in the following section, before drawing an overall conclusion in chapter 3 of the
present review.
2.8 Chapter 8 paving the way for research on multilingualism and applied linguistics
The first section of chapter 8 opens with an interesting notion. Rather than treating mistakes,
the aim of studying learners’ varieties should be to understand how varieties impact the ways
in which individuals learn. Nevertheless, the authors and editors give examples of longitudinal
data in order to illustrate the progress of a foreign language learner’s syntactical skills. They
then quickly turn to the interactional use of the same learner’s variety (p. 274). In this way they
show which strategies learners employ and how they cope with cultural challenges alongside
the challenges of the new language as such (p. 277). Furthermore, the pragmatic dimension
of language learning is addressed. With the concept of scaffolding (p. 279), the authors also
introduce practical guidelines for helping to develop language skills.
Chapter 8.2 focuses on differences between oral and written language (absence of
interlocutor; planning and production, phenomena according to Koch and Oesterreicher
6 Available under http://meta.narr.de/9783823381822/M4_Musterloesung_Wissenskontrollaufgaben.pdf. See for
example the answer on question 4 in chapter 3.2 asking for the didactical consequences of the basic variety and
its implications for learning and teaching a language. It includes a methodological discussion of the theses
presented by Klein and Dimroth (2003) on non-directed second-language acquisition.
PRAGMATICS.REVIEWS 2020.8.1
26
(2011)) which are crucial for comprehending the different skills one needs to develop when
writing texts in a foreign language. The author (Claudia Maria Riehl) then introduces different
models for recording language competence. Combined with Koch and Oesterreicher’s well-
known model mentioned above, one can understand the need for foreign language teachers
to distinguish between texts’ different modes of discourse, which they often disregard (p. 295).
Finally, chapter 8.3 (Jara Garibova) gives a nice brief overview of almost any question a
researcher might be concerned with: from basic principles of empirical studies (such as the
observer’s paradox and methods of eliciting data) via the generation of a corpus (including
transcription, annotation and triangulation) and through to ethical aspects of field research. It
would have probably made more sense to begin the chapter with these explanations, but this
way the reader is left with the urge to embark on research right after they finish the textbook.
3. Evaluation and final remarks
Before I conclude with my overall impression of the textbook, I would like to list some technical
mistakes that could have been avoided with more careful proofreading.
In general, the authors take great care to use both masculine and feminine pronouns, but do
not manage to do so consistently throughout the whole book. One can read masculine forms
like "Sprecher" (p. 235) followed ""a few pages later by both forms, as in "durch den Sprecher
oder die Sprecherin" (p. 241). There is some faulty formatting, for example inconsistent bold
printing of keywords (p. 65), italics that are missing in citation (p. 236, "jetzt bin ich 18") or
misused (p. 249, "statt"), and missing opening brackets (p. 252, before "T1801") or paragraph
breaks (p. 255 in dialogue excerpt "12P: Aber wann nicht nerven (...)"). The list of
orthographical errors is much longer, and ranges from missing conjunctions (no "zu" before
"akzeptieren" on p. 41), letters ("berücksichtig" on p. 71), blank spaces ("dasaktuelle", p. 82),
prepositions ("auf" on p. 266 in table 7.4) and commas (p. 24, 63, 148, 176, 183). In contrast,
some commas are superfluous (p. 113, 179, 183, 194). These errors may be corrected in a
second edition, which would certainly be well-anticipated.
In summary, while this textbook has several different authors, one can easily see the common
thread running through almost every chapter. This is reflected not only in the frequent cross-
referencing but also in the common bibliography. In addition to using it as a textbook in a
seminar, one can read the book backwards as in introduction to research on language
acquisition and multilingualism. Indeed, the book’s greatest merits are its up-to-the-minute
research insights into language acquisition and multilingualism, and its potential to raise
PRAGMATICS.REVIEWS 2020.8.1
27
awareness to the challenges still facing second language learning. However, teachers and
those responsible for foreign language training will ultimately benefit most from this book, even
if they find it occasionally demanding in terms of prerequisite linguistic knowledge and
somewhat lacking in references to further literature.
References
Auer, Peter. 2003. "Türkenslang": Ein jugendsprachlicher Ethnolekt des Deutschen und
seine Transformationen. In Annelies Häcki Buhofer (ed.), Spracherwerb und Lebensalter,
255–264. Tübingen & Basel: Francke.
Coseriu, Eugenio. 1988. "Historische Sprache" und "Dialekt." In Jörn Albrecht, Jens Lüdtke,
Harald Thun, and Eugenio Coseriu (eds.), Energeia und Ergon. Sprachliche Variation
Sprachgeschichte Sprachtypologie. Studia in honorem Eugenio Coseriu, vol. 1, 4561.
(Tübinger Beiträge zur Linguistik 300). Tübingen: Narr.
Coulmas, Florian. 2013. Sociolinguistics: The Study of Speakers’ Choice. Cambridge:
Cambridge Univ. Press.
Crystal, David. 1997. The Encyclopedia of Language. Second edition. Cambridge:
Cambridge Univ. Press.
Diehl, Erika, Helen Christen, Sandra Leuenberger, Isabelle Pelvat, and Thérèse Studer.
2000. Grammatikunterricht, alles für der Katz? Untersuchungen zum Zweitsprachenerwerb
Deutsch. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Givón, Talmy. 1979. From Discourse to Syntax: Grammar as a Processing Strategy. In John
P. Kimball and Talmy Givón (eds.), Syntax and Semantics, 81112. New York: Academic
Press.
Gumperz, John J. 1967. Language and Communication. Annals of the American Academy of
Political and Social Sciences 373. 219231.
Hopper, Paul and Michael Tomasello. 1998. Emergent grammar. The New Psychology of
Language, 155175. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
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Keller, Rudi. 1994. Sprachwandel. Von der unsichtbaren Hand in der Sprache. 2nd edition.
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Klein, Wolfgang and Christine Dimroth. 2003. Der ungesteuerte Zweitspracherwerb
Erwachsener. Ein Überblick über den Forschungsstand. Qualitätsanforderungen für die
Sprachförderung im Rahmen der Integration von Zuwanderern, vol. 21, 127161. (IMIS-
Beiträge). Osnabrück: IMIS.
Koch, Peter and Wulf Oesterreicher. 1994. Schriftlichkeit und Sprache. Schrift und
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Edgar BAUMGÄRTNER
is a research assistant and doctoral candidate at the Chair of Pragmatics and Contrastive
Linguistics at the European University Viadrina (EUV) in Frankfurt (Oder) and scholar of the
Hans Böckler Foundation. His research interests include language acquisition,
multilingualism, and language loss. In his dissertation he focuses on dialects in a German
speaking speech island in the Altai Region (Russia). He studied at the Freie Universität
Berlin, the EUV and the Altai State Pedagogical University in Barnaul (Russia).
Edgar Baumgärtner: Review on Mehrsprachigkeit und Sprachenerwerb. 2018. In
PRAGMATICS.REVIEWS 2020.8.1
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