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The paper deals with key features of some autonomous assets, i.e., unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles used for marine surveillance and reconnaissance missions. Firstly, performances of Airbus Zephyr S HAPS (Solar High Altitude Pseudo-Satellite), Tekever AR5 Life Ray Evolution and the AR3 Net Ray medium altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been analyzed. Then, ECA Group A18 and A9 autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) features have been presented. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) approach is applied to position appropriately these UAVs and AUVs in the context of maritime security operations. The need for further investigation in the field is revealed as well. The analyses vehicles are assets deployed with the European Commission’s (EC) COMPASS2020 project and tested over European seas.
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... In some cases, the rays received from other weak scattered paths can also be considered, apart from two strong paths. However, a dispersion around the maritime receiver is observed when the transmitter is located at a very high altitude [9]. As compared to the terrestrial (i.e., near the urban area) environment, a maritime receiver is expected to face more sparse scattering, which may lead to simplification in the airto-sea channel modeling. ...
... For this case, UAVs are deployed as aerial users in the maritime communication networks, they can still face many mobility management issues, especially when there is no LoS link between the maritime base station and the aerial users [8]. Although aerial users can still be served by the side lobs of base station antenna, it may cause loss of connection, and handover failure due to lower antenna gains in the side lobs [9]. Hence, excellent mobility management for enabling reliable connections between UAVs and ships sailing over the sea level is of essential relevance. ...
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... Airbus Zephyr provides new opportunities, new business models, and new services to the connectivity market. It is also applicable for adaptive mission planning at distances greater than 185.2 km (Bauk, 2020). In Google Loon Project, Google has used a HAP balloon integrated with a 4 G network, flying at an altitude of 18-50 km to provide long-term wireless connectivity to rural areas (Hayajneh et al., 2016). ...
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Zephyr -Zephyr S turning dreams into reality on its maiden flight
  • Airbus
Airbus. 2018. "Zephyr -Zephyr S turning dreams into reality on its maiden flight". [Online]. Available at: https://www.airbus.com/defence/uav/zephyr.html. [Accessed: 12 November 2019].
Zephyr -Pioneering the Stratosphere
  • Airbus
Airbus. 2019. "Zephyr -Pioneering the Stratosphere". [Online].