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Clono-theodicy: A Biblico-qur’anic Defence of God in the ‘Cloning’ of Adam and Eve

Authors:
Ottuh P~Ur
o.
CHAPTER TWENTY-SIX
Clono- Theodicy: A Biblico-qur' anic Defense of God in
the 'Cloning' of Adam and Eve
Ottuh Peter
o.
Introduction
And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became
a living soul (Gen.2:7).
And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to hll upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the
flesh instead thereof. And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the
man. And Adam said, This is now bone of
my
bones. and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was
taken out of Man (Gen.2:21-23).
The written account of the creation of Adam and Eye must be one of (he most widely known stories of all time.
The entire account transcends religious, ethnic and social backgrounds. Adam and Eve were the first people to populate
God's new creation. They were placed by God in the Garden of Eden. It was a utopia unparalleled by human invention.
"Then the Lord God said, 'It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a helper as his partner" (Gen
2:18). This parmer was Eve. Eve was to be one of the most important and at the same time detrimental influences in
all of mankind. Eve was made from Adam's lower rib. after God put man into a deep sleep. "Then the man said, This
at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; this one shall be called Woman for out of Man this one was taken"
(Gen 2:23).
Scientists who say God used cloning to bring the first human beings into existence, have a real problem, because
there is no basis to extrapolate into the past to say that cloning has ever occurred during Creation. as there is no basis
for it. The Biblical creation story taken at face value. it is established that God created the first man, Adam from the
dust of the ground. His wife Eve was created in a different way. The first woman, Eve. was made from Adam's side (or
rib). There are many Christians and Muslims who. having accepted evolution or cloning, say that the "dust" in Genesis
'l,:,l.
actually represents the chemicals that God used to start the evolutionary or cloning process. In this way, Genesis
'l,:,l.,
according to them represents a summary of evolution or cloning - that is, chemicals-to-man. Yet people who
hold this belief have an insurmountable problem:
if
dusr-ro-Adam represents chemicals-to-man, then what does rib-
to-Eve represent? To be consistent, one needs an adequate explanation, and there is none - except if one accepts the
hypothesis of cloning. Eve did not come directly from dust. but from an already fully functionally created man. Does
that suggest cloning?
The word "cloning" is neither in the Bible nor the Qu'ran, but Cloning has many Biblical and Qu'ranic repercussions.
as well as moral. scientific and social problems. specially the possibility of cloning human beings. However, in 1996.
with the birth of a cloned lamb, Dolly in Scotland, 1it was found that there is a way to do the seemingly impossible and
since then, the possibility of cloning humans is not a matter of paramount importance to most scientists who think that
a human being can be cloned like God 'did' in the Bible when He 'cloned' Adam and Eve. In this paper, this notion is
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rejected, using our theodicy which is rooted in the Bible and the Qu'ran. ,\\nn: so, what does the Bible and Qur'an say
about cloning' This chapter will explore the answers to this
question.
Clarificanon
of
terms
Among the key operating words to be clarified are Clono-theodicy: Cloning; Adam and Eve; and Biblico-Qu'ranic.
Clono- Theodicy
The word "Theodicy" is derived from two Greek words: theos (God) and
dicey
(justice) which technically means "the
defense of the justice and righteousness of God in face of the fact of evil.'? This definition presents "rheodicy" as a
subject. In other words, the term "rheodicy" could also imply attempted solutions to the problem of evil in a good
world created
by
a good God. Human cloning (reproductive cloning) as 'Evil' informs our choice of the term "Clone-
theodicy". Clono-theodicy therefore, is the defense of God against the allegation that He created the first human
beings (Adam and Eve) by cloning (an 'invented evil'. The term, "Clono-theodicy" may be new, but it will be one of
the theodicies so formulated
~y
[he author to launch a systematic investigation into the 'theo-ccnrricisrn' of human
cloning as alleged by some scientists and cloning - cenrered religions (e.g. Raelianism). In this chapter, the Bible and
the Quran will be our paradigms.
Cloningl
A "clone" is a living organism produced asexually from a single ancestor. The term "cloning"
generally refers to the asexual production of a human or other animal whose genetic material is nearly
identical to that of an existing life, such as an embryo, fetus, or adult. Most scientists distinguish
between two types of cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. In
"reproductive
cloning",
a cloned embryo is created and implanted with the intent of bringing the clone to term
and birthing a genetically identical individual. In
"therapeutic cloning",
on the other hand, the
goal is not to produce a cloned human or animal, but rather to create cloned embryos for research
purposes, such as harvesting embryonic stem cells. After creating the embryo, embryonic stem cells
are extracted from the inner cell mass, thereby destroying the cloned embryo. What is the advantage
of using cloned human embryos as a source for stem cells?Therapeutic cloning provides embryonic
stem cells with DNA that matches a living patient. Because the cells are perfect genetic matches,
they could theoretically be implanted for therapeutic purposes without the fear of rejection by the
patient's immune system. The most controversial typology is reproductive cloning.
AdamandE~
Adam in Hebrew:
~CJD,
(Agam.,) means "dust; man; mankind"; in Arabic: bp, (Adam) also means man. In the
Sibylline Oracles, the name Adam is explained as a notaricon composed of the initials of the four directions; anatole
(east), dusis (west), arktos (north), and mesembria (south)." The Jews had their own acrostic interpretation of the name
Adam. In the 2nd century, Rabbi Yohanan used the Greek technique of notarichon to explain the name
lfJD
as the
initials of the words afer, dam, and marah, being dust, blood, and g21V
According to the Torah (Genesis 2:7), Adam is said to have been formed by God from "dust from the earth"; in
the Talmud of the first centuries of the Christian era he is, more specifically, described as having initially been a gglem
kneaded from mud. In the Torah, God is described, at Genesis
1
:26, as breathing the breath of life into the nostrils of
242
Ott.hPmrO.
the first man, and this is usually interpreted in Judeo-Christian circles as having brought life immediately to the
6m
man. The Torah then describes that God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, wben He removed part of his body,
usually interpreted as a rib (though a more literal translation is non-specific, n:faring to "side") from which he formed
Eve (Genesis 2:21).
Eve (Hebrew:
I)lil,
Hawwa, "living one"; Arabic: ~c, l:Iaww~ are characters from me book of
Gmesis..
where they figure as the first man and woman created by~. We find "Eve" as the name of the first woman at the
beginning of Chapter 4 of the Book of Genesis. Though the Qur'an does not give her name, she is known in Islamic
tradition by the Arabic name Hawwa", The Bible describes the creation of Eve in these
terms;
The Lord God said: 'It is not good that Man should be alone; I will make him a help meet' ...the Lord
God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam and He took one of his ribs...and made He a woman ...and
brought her unto the man ...and ...Adam said, " She shall be called woman ( G e n e s i s 2 : 1 8 , 2 1 - 3 ) .
The Qur'an confirms that Hawwa (Eve) was indeed created out of Adam but is silent on the spcrific process of her
creation (An-Nisaa' 4:1).
Biblico-Qur' anic
By Biblico-Qur'anic we mean that our discussion will be centered on the Bible and the Qur'an.
Was Adam and Eve cloned or created by God?
Nowhere in the Bible or the Qur'an is it recorded that man was created in two phases. It isjust a wrong interpretarion
of the texts of Genesis. If at all the texts of Genesis meant that then
why
is that idea not mentioned by the Bible writers?
Even in ancient times, the presence of two distinct accounts was noted, and regarded with some curiosity. 1he first
account says "male and female God created them," whicbhas been assumed by critical scholars to imply simultaneous
creation, whereas the second account states that God created Eve from Adam's rib because Adam was lonely. Thus to
resolve this apparent discrepancy, medieval rabbis suggested that Eve and the woman of the first account
Wtte
two
separate individuals. This first woman was identified in the Midrash as
Lili!:h,
a figure dsewhere described as a nigh.
demon," The word fiyfiyth can also mean "screech owl", as it is translated in the King lames Version in
gm
34:14.
although some scholars take this to be a reference to the same demonic entity as mentioned in the Talmud,"
Let us look at the two texts that mentioned the creation of man in the book of Genesis:
And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and
Id:
them have dominion ova- the fish
of
the sea, and
over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that cnxpeth upon the
earth. So God created man in his own image, in the imageof God created he him; male and female created he thcm....And
the evening and the morning were the sixth day (Gen. 1:26.27.31).
And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nosails the breath
of
life; and man
became a living soul (Gen.2:7).
And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to faIl upon Adarn. and he slept: and he took ooe
of
his ribs, and dosed up the
Reshinstead thereof; And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man. made he a woman, and ~rought her unto
the man. And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones. and flesh of
my
8c:sh:she shall be called Woman. because she
was taken out of Man (Gen.2:21-23).
"Let us make man ..." in Genesis 1:26. The plural "us" (and "our" in the phrase "in our image") is traditionally
understood to refer to God and the angels. or to be a "plural of majesty" (the "royal we"). More recent scholarship is that
it reflects the common Middle Eastern view of a supreme god (referred to in Genesis
1
by the generic noun "Elohim",
243
god, which is itself in a plural form, rather than by his personal name ofYahweh) surrounded by a divine court, the
Sons of God (Heb.
b~ dobim).B
Christian scholars have traditionally interpreted the
plur.rl ius"
as evidence for the
doctrine of the Holy Trinity.2
"Man" in Gc:nc:si.s 1:26-27, though is in the singular, when in the text a pronoun is used, it is rendered by the plural
"them", indicating that the word is used generically to cover "man and woman", and that a rendition of "mankind" or
"human beings" is not out of place.
"...in our image" (Genesis 1:26-27) -The phrase image of God has had many interpretations, although something
more than the simply anthropomorphic seems intended. Elsewhere in the Ancient Near East kings were called the
"image
of
god", symbolising their rule by divine appointment: the phrase may therefore indicate that mankind is God's
rcgc:nt on carth.l!I
c_.a living soul" (Genesis 2:7) - God breathes into the man's nostrils and he becomes nefesh hayya. The earlier
translation of this phrase as "living soul" is now recognised as incorrect: "nefesh" signifies something like the English
word "being", in the sense of a corporeal body capable of life; the concept of a "soul" in our sense did not exist in
Hebrew thought until around the 2nd century BC, when the idea of a bodily resurrection gained populariry.-'
••...a rib ..." (Genesis 2:21-24) - Hebrew tu/a' can mean side, chamber, rib, or beam. The traditional reading of "rib"
has been questioned recently by feminist theologians who suggest it should instead be rendered as "side," supporting
the idea that woman is man's equal and not his subordinate.V
In the Torah (Genesis 2:7), Adam is said to have been formed by God from "dust from the earth"; in the Talmud
(Tractare Sanhedrin 38b) of the first centuries of the Christian era he is, more specifically, described as having initially
been a gokm kneaded from mud. In the Torah, God is described, at Genesis 1:26, as breathing the
breath of
lift into
the nostrils of the first man, and this is usually interpreted in Judeo-Christian circles as having brought life immediately
to the first man."
The Torah then describes that God caused a deep sleep to
fall
upon Adam, whenHe removed part of his body,
usually interpreted as a rib (though a more literal translation is non-specific, referring to "side") from which he formed
Eve (Genesis 2:21). Once a matron asked Rabbi Jose, "Why did God steal a rib from Adam?" "Steal?" replied the
Sage.U
There is a lot of common ground shared by the Judeo-Christian tradition and the Islamic tradition with regard to
belief and practice. Both the Bible and the Qur'an tell the story of the creation of the first man, Adam. This story is
signibcant for its universal appeal, as it tells how mankind began its earthly existence. Indeed, the same story is repeated
in several surahs, such as AI-Baqarah, AI-A' raf, and Ta-Ha. In all these places, the emphasis is on the creation of Adam,
and we should understand that Adam here stands for Man in the generic sense. The Qur'an says: '~We created Man
from sounding clay, from mud molded into shape ... " (Al-Hijr 15:26). It also says: "He began the creation of Man from
clay, and made his progeny from a quintessence of fluid" (As-Sajdah 32:7-8). The creation of Eve is not described in
the Qur'an as in the case of Adam; though it is stated that a "mate" was created with Adam, from the same nature and
soul. The Qur'an says: "It is He Who created you from a single person, and made his mate of like nature, in order that
he might dwell with her in love" (AI-A'raf7:189).
The Qur'an finds "Eve" as the name of the first woman at the beginning of Chapter 4 of the BOOK of Genesis.
Though the Qur'an does not give her name, she is known in Islamic tradition by the Arabic name
Haunoa.
The Bible
describes the creation of Eve in these terms:
"The Lord God said: 'It is not good that Man should be alone; I will make him a help meet' ...the Lord God caused
a deep sleep to fall upon Adarn ...and He took one of his ribs ...and made He a woman ...and brought her unto the man
...and ...Adam said, " ... She shall be called woman" (Gen. 2:18, 21-3).
The Qur'an confirms that Hawwa (Eve) was indeed created out of Adam but is silent on the specific process of her
creation. It stares:
o
mankind! reverence your Guardian-Lord, Who created you from a single person, created, of like nature, His mate,
and from them twain scattered [like seeds]countless men and women;-reverence God, through whom ye demand your
mutual [rights], and [reverence] the wombs [that bore
you];
for God ever watches over you (An-Nisaa' 4: 1).
\
244
Ottuh
Pdn'
O.
Both the descriptions in the Bible and the Qur'an clearly show that the creation of Hawaa (Eve) also was unique
as she was the only woman created from a man. But unlike the Bible, the Qur'an does not say that Hawwa was created
from Adam's rib, but says that she was made "of like nature."15We may note, however, that the biblical statement above
is not contradicted by the Qur'an, and what is more, it is supported by the Hadith reported by Abu Hurairah. He
relates that the Prophet Muhammad said that:
Treat women kindly. Woman has been created from a rib and the most curved parr of the rib is the uppermost. If you try
to straighten it, you will break it and if you leave it alone, it will remain curved. So treat women kindly.
This does not mean that Islam views women as biologically warped. but only that their basic nature demands
special consideration and kindness.
The rib implies that the process of creation of woman differed from Atbm and was unique. The Bible says, "God
said, 'It is not good that Man should be alone; I will make for him a help
meet,"
and the Qur'an speaks of humanity's
"Guardian-Lord ...(creating} from a single person, ...oflikenature, his mate," Wc may say that the rib is symbolic of
the husband's duty to treat his wife as part of himself, as well as the wife's dc:pcndm.ce on the husband for care and
protection.
Comparing the process of cloning and creating of Adam and Eve will be necessary in order to determine whether
God created or cloned the first human beings into existence.
In human cloning, two basic methods or techniques are used. These are artificW twining and nuclear transfer
methods. Natural twining is already occurring in nature when for instance in humans. idm.tical twins or triplets are
born. This happens naturally when the fertilized egg (also called zygote), in its early stage of devdopment, divide into
two or more separate parts, each then develops into a genetically identical individual By imitation of this natural
process, in the 1980s this same process was artificially stimulated in cattle, and cows.171be rac:archcrs were said to have
deliberately performed their cloning experiments on genetically abnormal embryos that had no chaace of survival. This
process is used as a way of multiplying human embryos. It has also been used extensively in animal models.
The second method is called "Nuclear Transfer" (NT) or "Nuclear Substitution." It inVoM:s transfaring the nucleus
from diploid cell (Le. containing 30-40,000 genes and full set of paired chromosomes) to an unfi:rtilizcd egg cell from
which the maternal nucleus has been removed or enucleated. 18First, in nuclear transfer, clooists
atr.ICt
an unfertilized
egg cell from a female, and enucleate (remove) the cell's nucleus from it (note that the cell nucleus contains the DNA).
From the body of the animal to be cloned, clonists obtain a suitable cell, such as a skin cell, the nucleus which contains
its owner's genetic blueprint. Next, they insert this cell into the enucleated egg and pass an elccuic current through it.
This fuses the cell with the egg cytoplasm. With its new nucleus, the egg now divides and grows as if it were fertilized,
and a clone of the creature from which the body cell was taken begins to grow. The embryo can them be implanted
in the womb of a surrogate mother, where, in a rare instance when all goes well, it will grow to term. Alternatively,
the embryo may be kept only until the inner cell mass can be used to obtain embryonic stem cells that can be kept in
culture. Scientists believe that this basic process should be applied to human beings with a view to acquiring embryonic
stem cell. The above processes can be summarized in simple terms as follows:
Step 1:Take any cell from your body (from the skin), for example;
Step 2: Take an egg cell (ovum), from the ovary of any woman;
Step 3: Take the nucleus out of the egg cell;
Step 4: Put together the cell of your skin and the egg without nucleus. It will start to multiply forming a microscopic
ball of many identical cells;
Step
5:
In about 6 days place it in the uterus of a woman (Le. a surrogate mother); and
Step 6: In 9 months a baby will be born just like you, an identical twin of you ... without any genetic characteristics of
the woman who gave the ovule and provided the uterus, and gave birth to your twin.
245
"The"Step 4" above will lead to Therapeutic Cloning (whose goal is human medication), while the "Steps 5
&
6"
will lead to RcprodtJCtiw: Ooning (whose goal is human replication). All the procedures described above do not in any
way fit into the -creating- procedures that God used in creating Adam and Eve. This means that both Adam and Eve
are not clones considering the definitions of a clone.
Oonin&: a BibIico-Qar'anic reappraisal
Ahhough the Bible never directly addresses cloning, God's Word presents several principles to guide our convictions
rona:ming human cloning (Reproductive Cloning). First of all, God alone is sovereign over life and its creation. Psalm
100-.3
aboru.
"Know that the Lord is God. It is He who made us, and not we ourselves; we are His people, the sheep
of His pzture.. - Here, David encowages us to remember God's role as Creator, while also reminding us that we do not
CIaII:
oundwa.
We are to submit to Gods sovereignty in this and all areas of our lives, recognising that the ultimate
wisdam :and power of creation belong to Him. Cloning attempts to reverse these roles. By lauding cloning as a great
a::hiuuncnt by man, we circumvent God's divine plan and forget that "the Lord is God" and the only one capable of
acating that which is good (Gen. 1).
Ecdesiastes 11:5 provides insight into this divine plan for creation: "Asyou do not know the path of the wind, or
how the body is formed in a mother's womb, so you cannot understand the work of God, the Maker of all things." As
humans, our viewpoint and understanding are so limited. God's omniscience far better equips Him to be the Creator
and Controller oflife. With His boundless wisdom and knowledge, God creates life in His image and callsit good (Gen.
1:26-27, 31). As evident by the continual failure of man's attempts to replicate God's creation through cloning though,
our limited knowledge inhibits our ability to match these creative abilities. Rather than duplicating or improving upon
lik, our frailty introduces abnormalities to what was a "very good" creation (Gen. 1:31).
Gods sovereignty alone provides a solid argument against cloning research. However, so-called therapeutic cloning
e\'al. introduces an additional violation. By killing an embryo for its stem cells, therapeutic cloning destroys a life deeply
valued by God. Although the scientific community often dismisses young embryos as mere masses of cells, God places
a high value on life at all stages, even from conception. Numerous passages in the Bible confirm this assertion. For
example. in Psalm 139:13-16, the psalmist David paints a picture of the human embryo and his or her relationship to
the Creator. Speaking to God, David proclaims:
For you created my inmost being; you knit me together in my mother's womb. I praise you because I am fearfully and
wondedidly made. ...
My
frame was not hidden from you when I was made in the secret place. When I was woven together
in the depths of the earth, your eyes saw my unformed body. All the days ordained for me were written in your book before
one of them came to be.
ti
As the Psalm reveals, God carefully watches over the embryo, recognising the existence of a life from the very
moment when the embryo is "made in the secret place." By ordaining each day of the embryo's future, God recognises
li& in the embryo and unquestionably intends that the embryo be allowed to fully develop into a human being and
live out the ordainment. Wby would God Himself construct and plan the future of a life that does not yet exist and
will never come to pass?
According to Isaiah 49:1-5 and Jeremiah 1:5, Isaiah and Jeremiah, two Old Testament prophets were both called'
bdOre their birth. Their calling indicates that God views each of them as a unique human life long before they left the
womb. Not only that, but God also valued them and designed them with careful intent. God also makes a specific
command concerning the protection of the unborn life in Exodus 21 :22-25. Verse 23 states the punishment for killing
a child within the womb should be "life for life." By this statement alone, God indicates His view of the unborn child
as a li& to be protected by society and government on the same level as more developed life. Cloning violates this
commandment each time an embryo is lost in a failed cloning attempt and each time an embryo dies during stem cell
harvesting.
"Thesepassages, among numerous others, provide solid evidence that the embryo possesses life and that God
Himsdfh2s previously ordained the days of that life. By the law of God and the law of the nation, taking this innocent
human life is wrong (Exod. 20:13, Prov. 6:16-19, etc.). If God Himself has enough respect for life, even the life of an
246
Ottuh Peter O.
embryo, to grant it purpose and meaning, how can we justify the destruction of human life, no matter what the ends?
Cloning and its advocates far too quickly dismiss life as a tool for scientific advancement and medical therapies. The
Bible draws a very clear line between the nature of animals and humans. People are created differently ('in the image
of God' -- Genesis 1:27) and separately from the animals. In verses 2:6 and 2:8, God entrusts humans with dominion
over the animals, but humans are never told to have the same kind of dominion over other humans.
Each fertilized human egg, including any that results from cloning, is a new human individual. Perfecting the
cloning technique requires several experiments, and many embryos will be destroyed in the process. Indeed, the dark
experiments in Massachusetts have so far been a massive failure - the embryos died before they became large enough
to produce stem cells. Human cloning is closely tied to the issue of abortion and the real beginning of human life; for
one, if defects are noticed in developing clones, abortion would be the preferred solution.P Furthermore, no serious
biologist who is familiar at all with the human body would argue against the dear fact that all the DNA coding needed
to build each individual's physical features is there right at the egg's fertilization. No new genetic information is ever
added to a developing embryo. An embryo is human from the beginning. And according to the Bible (Exodus 20:13)
and virtually all ethical standards, it is wrong to intentionally kill such innocent human life.
Cloning is in opposition to the Biblical institution of the family. Because a manufactured human clone could
never have two parents, the process of cloning would go against the doctrine of the family (i.e. a father and mother) as
ordained by God in the Book of Genesis. In a world that increasingly denies the authority of the Bible and its very first
book, Genesis, people who view the Creation account as a myth will disregard standards such as the divine institutions
of the family and dominion, as well as the sacredness of human life made in the image of God (Genesis 1:27). Sadly,
human cloning will become more acceptable to those who reject the Creator and
His
Word.
Discussing cloning from the perspective of the Qur'an is a tedious task. Hence caution is paramount in presenting
Islamic views about cloning. Although ethical issues associated with assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro
fertilization have been dealt with in some detail by Muslim jurists belonging to the major five legal rites, four Sunni and
one Shi'! schools, to the knowledge of this writer, the subject of possible human cloning has not yet been discussed.
The facts about cloning are just now emerging. In the light of better understanding of the facts regarding cloning, both
through embryo splitting and nuclear transplantation, and the impact it could have upon the way Muslims conceive of
human life and its purposes, it is reasonable to expect revisions in the ethical and legalassasment of these experiments
among the scholars of Shari' a. The article has summarized theological, ethical and legal dimensions of the issues
associated with cloning in Islam with due attention to the possible differences in the interpretation between the Sunni
and the Shi' i
legisrs.
We will now look at the Qur'an and see if there is any room for human intervention in the workings of nature
associated with reproduction (cloning). In Chapter 23, verse 12-14, reads:
We created (khalaqna) man of an extraction of clay, then we set him, a drop in a safe lodging, then We created of the drop a
clot, then We created of the clot a tissue, then We created of the tissue bones, then we covered the bones in flesh; thereafter
We produced it as another creature. So blessed be God, the Best of creators!
Muslim commentators have drawn some important conclusions from this and other passages that describe the
development of embryo to a full human person. First, that human creation is part of the divine will that determines
the embryonic journey to a human creature. Second, that it suggests that perceivable life is possible at the later stage in
biological development of the embryo when God says: "thereafter We produced him as another creature." Third, that
it raises questions whether fetus should be accorded a status of a legal person once it lodges in the uterus in the earlier
stage. Fourth is that it allows for a possible distinction between a biological and moral person because of the silence
of the Qur'an over when the ensoulment occurs in this process. Majority of the Sunni and some Shi' 1scholars make
a distinction between two stages in pregnancy divided by the end of the fourth month (120 days) when, according to
some traditions ascribed to the Prophet, ensoulment takes place. On the other hand, majority of the Shi'I and some
Sunni legists have exercised caution in making such a distinction because they regard the embryo in the pre-ensoulrnent
stages as alive and its eradication a sin.
247
The classical formulations based on the Qur'an and the Tradition provide no universally accepted definition of
the term 'embryo' with which we are concerned in our deliberations today. Nor do these two foundational sources of
the Shari' a lend themselves to recognise the modem biological data about the beginning of life from the moment of
impregnation. A tenable condusion, derived by rationally inclined interpreters of the above-cited verse of the Qur'an,
suggests that as participants in the act of creating with God, (God being the Best of the creators) human beings can
actively engage in furthering the overall well estate of humanity by intervening in the works of nature, including the
early stages of embryonic development. to improve human health.
Nevc:rtbdess, the Qur'an takes into account the problem of human arrogance which takes the form of rejection
of God's fit:quent reminders to humanity that God's immutable laws are dominant in the nature and human beings
cannot willfuIly create "unless God, the Lord of all Being, wills" (81:29). "The will of God" in the Qur'an has often
been interpreted as the "processes of nature un-interfered with by human action." Hence, in Islam human manipulation
of genes made possible by biotechnical intervention in the early stages of life in order to improve the health of the fetus
or doning in the meaning of embryo splitting for the purpose of improving the chances of fertility for a married couple
is regarded as an act of faith in the ultimate will of God as the Giver of all life.
Condusion
From our discussion so
fur
from the Bible and the Qur'an, wisdom dictates that we stop cloning experimentation
especiaUyreproductive cloning before the genie gets further out of the bottle, or more accurately- before Pandora's Box
is open any wider. Both Scriptures dearly show us that the means to cloning is sinful, and will surely lead to more sin.
Human cloning looks more and more like our own Tower of Babe!. Let's be content to know that God made us, and
that we did not make ourselves (Psalm 100:3). May we use our minds and technology to draw closer to him rather than
building monuments to human pride that will only harm and hurt one.
The condusion is that Eve was not created as just a "done" of Adam with appropriately different reproductive
organs, physically and psychologically there are many differences which to date have not been sufficiently investigated
and documented by the scientists. Just as the fact still remains, that anyone who has truly proved God exists; that God
is not only Creator, but life giver, Designer, Sustainers, and Ruler over all his creation, knows that the human family
began with one man, and that a
wife,
miraculously created form his own body and as unique and original a creation as
Adam himself, formed the first family. Though Gods miraculous creation of Eve was far from cloning,
it
is interesting
to note in passing that God's own Word says He used Adam's rib - physical bone and tissue - to create Eve.
248
0thIh PdD'
o.
Endnotes
1. I. Wilmut, "Are There Any Normal Cloned Mammals." Natu" MMici1lL 8 (2002): 215-216.
2.]. Hick, Evil and the God
of
Love, London: Coli ins, 1966,3.
3. EO.O. Ottuh, "Human Cloning: A Philosophico- Theological Appraisal~,A Ph.D Thesis (unpublished) (Ekpoma:AmbroseAlli University,
2008), chapter. 2.
4.
F.
Rana and
R....H.ugh,
Who WasAdam: A Creation Moth/Approach to the OritJn
tfM-.
London: Penguin, 2005, 557.
5. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
6.
Also in the Talmud,
Lilith
is identified as the mother of these creatures, The demons wen: aid
to
pn:y on newborn males before they had
been circumcised, and so a tradition arose in which a protective amulet was placed arouud thr DOCk of newborns. Traditions in the ~
concerning
Lilith,
and her sexual appetite, have been compared to Sumerian mvtholosr cooaming thr demon lri-riliJ-lil-l.-lre, by scholars
who postulate an intermediate Akkadian folk etvmolOJ:! interpreting the
lil-ltt-Ilt!
portion of thr JIaIDeas a corruption of
/ifIla,
a female storm
demon originating in Sumer.
7. htt.pl/www trinitarianbib/mcirtyorglsite/articl~/trinity.atP (2009)
8.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
9. bttp://www.trinitarianbibkfociety.or .Ifite/arti&s/trinit)
asp
(2009)
10. http://www.trinitarianbib/rsociety.orglsite/arti&s/trinitl-IMP (2009)
11. http://voiceofi)'ov.bloflPot.com/uarcMlabeUTorah(2009)
12. For the reading "side" in place of traditional "rib", see Ikisenberger. Azila TaliL
'1bc:
matiop ofAdam .-
in.J-Mis-:
A ~
JfnIT7Ud
tf
Jewish Lift and Thought,
9/22
(1993): 342.
13. R. Patai, TheJewishAlchemists, Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 1994,456.
14. Patai, 456.
15. M. Ayoub, The Qur'an and its Interpreten, Suny: Albany, 1984,
16. The Hadith by Al-Bukhari
17. Ortuh, 97.
18. Ottuh, 97.
19. Cited in National Cancer Institute "Epigenerics in Cancer Prevention: Early Detection and RiskA.ssessmenL- hqp:!/www3
G'nra.govI
ptevention/epigeneticslsum mary.html (2009).
20. Cheshire, et al. "Stem Cell Research: Why Medicine Should Reject Human Cloning,"
MtryO
Clinic Procesng 78 (2003): 101()"1018.
f:
249
... Although this was not successful, the successful cloning of embryo cells was accomplished later in the 1970s by John Gurdon. There were other attempts until July 1997 when at the Roslin Scientific Institute a lamb number 6LL3 called Dolly was born through cloning (Campbell, Wilmut, Schnieke, McWhir, and Kind 1997;Ottuh 2010c). In Kolata"s opinion cloning would directly offer a means to cure diseases or a technique that could extend the means to acquiring the development of organisms as a whole. ...
...  Religious discussion is no longer limited to professional theologians. It has expanded to encompass other professionals, including scientists, and other faiths, as well as education of religious adherents (Ottuh 2010c;Thomas 2013). This means, that theological and religious stances have gradually aspired and progressed to be informed communities of moral discourse on issues of reproductive and genetic technologies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous uncertainties are hanging over the biotechnology of human cloning which has prompted medical ethicists and religious organizations to ask questions that bordered on its ethical and religious considerations. In cloning humans, ethical and religious issues arise both in its clinical and laboratory settings hence, the morality of manipulating human genes is the foremost ethical issue among scientists and religious scholars. Therefore, this paper evaluated the human cloning technology using the personalism and prudential personalism ethical-religious models to arrive at a workable moral paradigm. To achieve this objective, the paper employed the phenomenological and critical-literary literature review methods. The paper argued that previous ethical and religious researches have not adequately employed the "ideal" ethical models to appraise the morality of human cloning hence; using the personalism and prudential personalism ethical-religious models were appropriate to reveal that every human life has worth and its commodification is an aberration. The paper concluded that based on the paradigm of prudential personalist ethics, cloning humans (especially, human reproductive cloning) negates respect for human life, human dignity, and communal goods hence it should not be practiced.
... Although this was not successful, the successful cloning of embryo cells was accomplished later in the 1970s by John Gurdon. There were other attempts until July 1997 when at the Roslin Scientific Institute a lamb number 6LL3 called Dolly was born through cloning (Campbell, Wilmut, Schnieke, McWhir, and Kind 1997;Ottuh 2010c). In Kolata"s opinion cloning would directly offer a means to cure diseases or a technique that could extend the means to acquiring the development of organisms as a whole. ...
...  Religious discussion is no longer limited to professional theologians. It has expanded to encompass other professionals, including scientists, and other faiths, as well as education of religious adherents (Ottuh 2010c;Thomas 2013). This means, that theological and religious stances have gradually aspired and progressed to be informed communities of moral discourse on issues of reproductive and genetic technologies. ...
Article
The finding that cloned mice, produced by transfer of nuclei from cumulus cells, develop obesity but do not transmit the phenotype to their offspring provides further evidence that cloned embryos are vulnerable to epigenetic change.
Human Cloning: A Philosophico-Theological Appraisal~
  • O Eo
  • Ottuh
EO.O. Ottuh, "Human Cloning: A Philosophico-Theological Appraisal~,A Ph.D Thesis (unpublished) (Ekpoma:AmbroseAlli University, 2008), chapter. 2.
Who WasAdam: A Creation Moth/Approach to the OritJn tfM-. London: Penguin
  • F Rana
  • R . . H Ugh
F. Rana and R....H.ugh, Who WasAdam: A Creation Moth/Approach to the OritJn tfM-. London: Penguin, 2005, 557.
The Qur'an and its Interpreten
  • M Ayoub
M. Ayoub, The Qur'an and its Interpreten, Suny: Albany, 1984,