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General Theory of Relativity Contravenes Special Relativity

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General Theory of Relativity Contravenes Special Relativity

Abstract and Figures

The general theory of relativity has disabled the Galilei relativity principle (necessity about inertial frame), which is a postulate of the special theory of relativity while it generates the gravitational lens phenomenon. Since the gravitational lens phenomenon was confirmed, a foundation of the Special Relativity theory disappears. Each falsification requires new hypothesis: The method of "Light Coordinate System" makes the special theory of relativity more functional for light kinematics and cosmological analyses.
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General Theory of Relativity Contravenes Special Relativity
Özgen Ersan
(zgnrsn@gmail.com)
Abstract: The general theory of relativity has disabled the Galilei relativity principle
(necessity about inertial frame), which is a postulate of the special theory of relativity while it
generates the gravitational lens phenomenon. Since the gravitational lens phenomenon was
confirmed, a foundation of the Special Relativity theory disappears. Each falsification
requires new hypothesis: The method of "Light Coordinate System" makes the special theory
of relativity more functional for light kinematics and cosmological analyses.
Keywords: Gravitational lens; Inertial frame; Light Coordinate System; LCS Method.
Introduction
As known, the special theory of relativity (SR) requires the condition of uniform motion of
the body; according to the Galilei relativity principle, if the light source moves with a linear
and constant speed, it can be considered as an inertial frame. In the easy explanation of SR,
when the train travels with a linear and constant speed, it is processed as if it is stationary, and
based on the opinion that the light moves away from the light source in the train with the
relative speed value ' c ', hence, it is inferred that the units of time and length dimensions
must change.
To generalize “the specialwas a serious necessity. In order to achieve this, in the theory of
general relativity (GR), it was theoretically studied that acceleration is identified with gravity
and the gravitational lens phenomenon was proposed as an inference of this theory. The
gravitational lens was proven during the solar eclipse in 1919, and this result is cited as a
proof for the special theory of relativity. However, it is interesting that the Galilei relativity
principle has been ignored for this inference of general relativity.
Theoretical analysis and synthesis
In the general theory of relativity, the reason of the gravitational lens phenomenon was
explained as accelerating. However, the same logic of GR require inclined/diagonal path
(instead of the curved path) for the photon when the acceleration is also zero. So, gravitational
lenses will be formed again (figure 1).
According to GR, When a photon is sent from a light source at the S point on a wall in the
cabinet in a horizontal direction, the cabin will also travel upwards a little during the time
required for the photon to reach the opposite wall and the photon will appear on the P1 point.
The observer in the cabin combines the photon path in his mind as an SP1 diagonal; If the
cabin is accelerating, same mentality requires the curving path (SP2).
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Whereas, if the acceleration is zero, the photon’s way must be horizontal like SP0 according to
SR mentality (SR declares that perpendicular photon is ineffectiveness because of projection).
Other, If we consider the light/outmost frame (LCS/space) as the role of reference frame, the
photon’s path is detected as a horizontal line like S’P0 for the observer. In GR observer’s
opinion is erroneous. In essence of Galilei relativity principle, a body gets an additional speed
from reference frame's speed as a first speed. But a photon has not a measured mass and the
photon cannot get an additional (vertical component) from cabinet's speed. This status is a
serious claim of SR mentality.
Figure 1- The photon’s path in concepts of SR, GR, LCS
SR’s claim (a = 0): Horizontal path SP0
GR’s claim (a = 0): Diagonal path SP1
GR’s claim (a > 0): Curved path SP2
LCS’s claim (a =/ 0): Horizontal path S’P0
We see that the Galilei principle of relativity is suspended in GR. When we remember the
practical explanation of this principle: "It is taken into account that a pebble that is dropped
freely -from the ship observation mast- it will fall to the bottom of the mast - in the uniform
motion of the ship"; that is, this result is as if the ship is stationary (inertial frame). If the ship
has acceleration, the pebble falls to a different point from the bottom of the pole and the
inertial frame option which is the target of the principle, will be violated. When we consider
an emitted photon in the vertical direction instead of pebble, SR says that the photon will
point to the bottom of the pole in accordance with the Galilei principle of relativity, while GR
says that it will reach the back of the pole (Figure-2). Yes, the pebble acquires a horizontal
initial velocity component from the speed of the ship because of its mass as a body. The
essence of the event is this "transferring first speed component". SR claims when a ship
travels by a fixed speed and linearly can be used as an inertial frame (ie. the vertically
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oriented photon will point the bottom of the mast), while GR says that the photon will point
the back of the mast - even when the ship is moving uniformly; It has been said indirectly that
the Galilei principle of relativity is invalid in the photon-body motion relationship.
Figure 2 GR claims that SR’s postulate (about inertial frame) does not work.
Photon’s path for SR : S’P’
Photon’s path for GR: S’P1
Photon’s path for LCS: SP1
Since the SR admits that the photon will not be affected by the speed of its source, how does
the photon go to a different point from the bottom of the pole? Since this gravitational lens
prediction of GR has been proven, doesn't one of the main postulates of the SR become
ineffective?
LCS (Light Coordinate System: Light Coordinate System) method
In science the some signals require new hypothesis. The "Light Coordinate System" method,
which can explain all such incompatibilities in GR and SR, will assist for Light kinematics
and Cosmological analyses: According to this method [1]:
1.- First point of the photon A (xa; ya; za; Ta) is marked on LCS or space. The local objects
(source or observer) cannot be used for marking. Light is a universal reality, and the
processing framework should be the outermost (most capacious) frame (space = LCS).
2.- The light source passes through point A at the instant of Ta.
3.- The photon moves away from point A with the speed of c, its source with the speed Vu
(Vu is the speed of the light source relative to the LCS).
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4.- The speed of light is constant and it is c ‘. Light does not accelerate to obtain this speed.
5.- The photon travels in a straight line; its path can be bent by gravity.
6.-The photon does not get any additional component from the speed of its source. Nature has
a similar event (Lake surface analogy): The lake surface represents outer space or LCS; the
experimenter dropped the pebble (he represents the light source); the ring wave (represents
the light) formed on the lake surface (Figure: 3).
Figure 3- Lake surface analogy
7.- The distance between the photon and its source increases with the vectorial velocity c +/-
Vu; position is like the relationship of "a player and a ball" (hypothetical relativity). The
source/player can freely get new positions after sending the photon/ball.
8.- The upper limit of velocity in hypothetical relativity is 2c ‘. The diameter of the light
sphere -whose radius grows with the velocity c- grows with 2c (limit 2c is valid without
observer and this is within human cognitive capacity).
9.- When the speed of light is measured with the current measurement system (mirrored
double path and continuous photon flowing), the value of c is always found. The value c is the
velocity of the photon in terms of exact/genuine relative to LCS (not relative velocity
according to its source). One-way speed measurement for light should be perform. To find
the speed of moving away for a photon from its source (ie. c +/- Vu) must be organized a one
way experiment [2].
10.-The observer cannot be an actor of light kinematics analysis; because, his vision capacity
is limited by c value. However, light / photon always comes to the observer’s eye by c speed
(Figure 4). Astronomical observation data necessarily include an observer component; the
observer's component belongs to the present time and the target object's component belongs to
the past time. In cosmological analysis, it should be noted that the resultant data does not have
scientific integrity.
In the applied cosmological analysis made with the LCS method, the actual age of the
universe has been calculated as 19.28 billion years; universe’s radius has been calculated as
13.43 billion light years [3].
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Figure 4- Light arrives to observer with the speed
Discussion
1- GR ignores Galilei relativity principle while it wants to generalize SR; whereas, this
principle is one of SR's two elemental / essential postulates. Besides, SR says that the
perpendicular photon (according to rails) does not cause to revise units of length and time
because of projection. SR and GR cause confusing.
2- The analysis actor (test subject) must be considered as a single/identified photon; also we
must use a perforated plate filter for directing the photon. Similar disciplines prevent the
automatic processes of brain like in GR (brain may paraconsciously combines the points S
and P1).
3- However, we may think that SR has consistent in itself. Because SR and LCS say that the
paths of photon are horizontal. But the path is SP0 for SR; and the path is S'P0 for LCS (Fig.1)
4- SR marks the point of starting of the photon with the presence of the source. To prefer a
tangible reference frame is a mechanical habit; therefore SR had neglected to assign a
common reference frame. Whereas space or LCS is functional reference frame (at least the
surface of a sheet of paper) for light kinematics and cosmological analyses.
5- We may comprehend that to decide the subject of an analysis or theory has significance. If
SR would aim light kinematics, probably the method of LCS would be generated; whereas SR
verified the concept of Fitzgerald contraction that supported/revived the aether paradigm.
6- The photon never can acquire an initial velocity component from the moving body. Galilei
relativity principle is valid for the relationship of masses. Newton's third action-reaction law
does not work for photon-body/mass relationships because of the same reason.
7- To accept every measured speed as the meaning of the speed of moving away from its first
reference frame is also a mechanical habit. The measured value of light's velocity 'c' may be a
speed according to only outmost frame (space: Reference frames are ranking in hierarchical
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order). This is possible and in the comprehending capacity of human's mind. To find the same
value for every directions is a powerful evidence.
8- Acceleration does not become an argument to generalize the SR; because gravitational lens
realized without acceleration. The reason of the gravitational lens may be gravity; since the
photon travels electromagnetically. In any case, only gravity is taken into account as a factor
in the prediction of black hole formation.
9- SR considered the motion relationship of the photon and its source as a car and its road
relation (genuine relativity). However, this relationship (photon and its source) is like a
player-ball relationship (hypothetical relativity) in accordance with LCS mentality. The light
velocity measurement experiment (mirrored double paths and continuous photon flowing) can
also measure the universal velocity of light in space (cannot measure the velocity of moving
away from its source) due to its set-up; for all directions, the same result is an experimental
evidence. These two nuances are the weakest points of SR and GR.
10- SR had analysed the motion of the photon which travels only towards + x direction like its
source. Methodology requires all of directions. SR declares the “ineffectiveness for
perpendicular photon because of projection. Whereas, The distance between the points of
perpendicular photon and its source -for the time Ti- is a positive value and SR claims that
this distance increases with the speed ‘ c ’. That is, actually SR mentality contradicts in itself
by perpendicular photon. This photon never be simultaneously placed at the point P’ and at
the point P1 (figure 2). SR’s analysis based on + x direction and cartesian coordinates hides
this contradiction (polar coordinates better represent the natural reality).
Conclusion
GR contravenes SR; even SR contradicts in itself. The perpendicular oriented photon
collapses the theories SR and GR.
Karl Popper says, “If a hypothesis analysed with x number of factors gives some signals of
incompatibility, it should be re-analysed with x + 1 factors” [4]. SR is built on only two
postulates. Therefore SR and GR have defects. However, light kinematics should be analysed
with at least ten main factors listed above. The new LCS method has been developed thanks
to miscellaneous discussions of SR.
References
[1] Ersan Ö. Methodological Requirements for Calculating the Age of Universe”
Link: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332543051
[2] Ersan Ö. One Way Speed of Light
Link: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342438271
[3] Ersan Ö., Ersan I, Physics Essays, 2013, 26, 1 (Doi:10.4006/0836-1398-26.1.49)
[4] Popper Karl, The Logic of Scientific Discovery
Link: http://self.gutenberg.org/articles/The_Logic_of_Scientific_Discovery
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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Methodological Requirements for Calculating the Age of Universe
  • Ö Ersan
Ersan Ö. "Methodological Requirements for Calculating the Age of Universe" Link: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332543051