Conference Paper

Paying attention to rhythm in HCI: Some thoughts on methods

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Abstract

To focus on rhythms within the lived relations between humans and technology is to focus on unfolding processes, dynamic temporality, and patterns of change and continuity. Rhythms infuse the political, the social, the personal and the technological. Through anticipation and expectation rhythms also point towards the future and its tendencies. Drawing inspiration from Rhythmanalysis, Somaesthetic Design and Entanglement HCI this paper explores methods for analysing rhythm within HCI and discusses the challenges of recording the ephemeral, articulating experience and understanding the non-human. Like rhythm, the methods outlined involve process, temporality and difference. There are the embodied practices of developing sensitivity, paying attention and thinking by doing. Then there are the representational practices of revealing through sound, working with moving images, shifting temporal scales and expressing dynamics graphically. These methods are presented as suggestions and tentative principles for ways of thinking with and through rhythm and aim to inspire further exploration.

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... In VR and for some specific use-cases, it is occasionally possible that some time constrains may exists, e.g., with timers for gaze-based selection, or (standard or serious) games. For interaction situation in which it is reasonable to have the application influence the rate at which user is interacting, and in order to explore approaches to control perceived interaction fatigue, gestural rhythm is one of the promising exploration roads, as advocated by Costello [12]. For example, Mueller et al. [14] proposed to "Help players identify rhythm in their movements", and to acknowledge the rhythm in a sequence of gestures. ...
Chapter
In this work, we examine the effect of mid-air gesture rhythm on user experience in Virtual Reality. In particular, we investigate gesture regularity, speed and highlighting with a sound guide. We measure the effect of these components on the perceived fatigue, presence, difficulty, success and helpfulness. Our findings indicate that an irregular and slow rhythm leads to a lower arm fatigue. We also find that such an irregular rhythm could increase the user perceived difficulty of the task and the absence of a sound guide could decrease the sense of presence.
... Dans la plupart des systèmes interactifs, les utilisateurs ont un contrôle total sur l'exécution des automates d'application.Cependant, en RV et pour certains cas d'utilisation spécifiques, il est parfois possible que des contraintes de temps existent, par exemple, avec des minuteries pour la sélection basée sur le regard [80,109,164] ou les gestes de pose [75,76,171], ou dans certains jeux (standards tels que les jeux de rythme ou sérieux tels que des simulations). Pour une situation d'interaction dans laquelle il est raisonnable que l'application influence la vitesse à laquelle l'utilisateur interagit, et afin d'explorer des approches pour contrôler la fatigue d'interaction perçue, le rythme gestuel est l'une des voies d'exploration prometteuses, comme le préconise Costello [111]. Par exemple, Mueller et al. [119] ont proposé "d'aider les joueurs à identifier le rythme dans leurs mouvements", et de reconnaître le rythme dans une séquence de gestes. ...
Thesis
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Récemment, sont apparus de nouveaux casques grand public de réalité virtuelle (RV) aux capacités comparables à ceux utilisés en laboratoire. L'usage de ces technologies est devenu plus courant et les sessions d'utilisation sont devenues plus longues (jeux vidéo, expression artistique, travail à distance, sport, rééducation...). Durant ces temps d'interaction, les utilisateurs ont leurs bras dans les airs parfois sans repos possible. Aussi, ce type d'interaction dans l'air, qualifié de ``mid-air'', est connu pour provoquer de la fatigue au niveau des bras que l'on nomme ``effet Bras de Gorille'' en interaction humain-machine (IHM). Comprendre ce phénomène pour la conception des applications en RV devient un élément essentiel afin d'assurer un confort d'utilisation et aussi d'éviter des blessures.D'abord, nous discuterons les travaux antérieurs traitant le sujet des interactions mid-air puis de la fatigue musculaire avant de présenter des études portant sur ces deux sujets. Puis, au travers de plusieurs expériences, nous avons cherché à étendre notre compréhension de cette fatigue lors de divers exercices en RV. En particulier, nous nous sommes intéressés à différentes synchronisations des mains, au rythme et au rapport contrôle-affichage (CDR), en nous appuyant sur les contextes d'applications pouvant occasionner de longues sessions d'utilisations comme le jeu vidéo et l'expression artistique.Premièrement, nous avons étudié les différences entre interactions uni et bi-manuelles en terme de fatigue au cours de différentes tâches répétitives de sélection de cibles. Il est apparu que la synchronicité de main devait être choisie au regard de la tâche à effectuer pour optimiser le rapport entre fatigue et efficacité. De plus, il semblerait préférable de laisser à l’utilisateur la possibilité d’utiliser ses mains comme il le souhaite afin qu'il auto-régule sa fatigue. En outre, il se pourrait que les changements de postures des utilisateurs soient des indicateurs de la fatigue. Enfin, nous avons pu vérifier que certaines directions de mouvements étaient plus fatigantes, en particulier celle verticale et certaines diagonales. Secondement, suite notamment à l'analyse des retours des participants, nous avons exploré l'impact d'un rythme imposé aux gestes sur la fatigue des bras et l'expérience de l'utilisateur (UX), lors d'un exercice de suivi de cibles. Ce rythme, en particulier s’il est irrégulier et lent, semblerait pouvoir réduire la sensation de fatigue et améliorer l’expérience de l’utilisateur. De plus, si le rythme est souligné par un son simple, le participant pourrait percevoir la tâche comme étant plus fatigante mais également plus engageante qu'en l'absence de son. Enfin, nous avons voulu observer les effets de variations du CDR sur la fatigue et l'UX. Cette expérience a pris place dans un instrument de musique virtuel immersif (IVMI) afin de motiver les gestes mid-air des participants. Ils ont dû explorer un cube musical alors que leurs gestes étaient visuellement amplifiés ou réduits, plus ou moins fortement. Quand le CDR est modérément modifié, il pourrait avoir un impact bénéfique sur l'UX lors de l’interaction avec un IVMI. Aussi, étonnamment, nous n'avons observé aucun impact significatif sur la fatigue alors que, pour une grande variation du CDR, les utilisateurs parcouraient moins de distance avec leur main et que cette distance était corrélée à la fatigue. Étudier le CDR sur des temps d'interaction plus longs nous permettra peut-être d'observer un impact sur la fatigue.En conclusion, nous avons pu retirer des implications intéressantes sur les choix de conceptions les plus judicieux à effectuer lorsque l'on veut proposer des applications peu fatigantes en RV. Nous avons également proposé des idées de futurs travaux qu'il serait intéressant d'étudier, comme l'utilisation de la manipulation redirigée entre des zones de CDR différenciées ou l'étude des changements de postures comme indicateur de la fatigue.
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A Question of Movement
  • Coates Marcus
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Ethnography in the digital era : From fields to flow, descriptions to interventions
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