ArticlePDF Available

A Glimpse into the Lived Experiences and Challenges Faced of PWD Students towards Online Learning in the Philippines Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Amidst the global pandemic, everyone is allowed to be vulnerable and heightened by burnout. But the most unheard and most vulnerable voices linger among persons with disabilities. Persons with disabilities (PWDs) are one of the concerns in society. But, social exclusions and biases put PWDs in a disadvantageous position. There has always been an issue in employment, social roles, and accessibility to education. These issues are eventually turning into self-doubt and feelings of inferiority, which are reasonable evidence suggesting that persons with disabilities received negative attitudes from non-PWD individuals. This study's primary goal is to explore the lived experiences of PWD Students towards online learning during the pandemic, specifically, describe their experiences, challenges faced, and coping mechanisms. Employing the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), the findings of the study were: (1) PWD students experienced social exclusions primarily in the rise of online learning during the pandemic. (2) Most of the PWD students were challenged by the limitations of assistive technologies and internet connectivity. (3) PWD students remained resilient because of having a healthy support system behind them.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1206
A Glimpse into the Lived Experiences and Challenges
Faced of PWD Students towards Online Learning in
the Philippines
Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic
Ann Jesamine Dianito1 Jomarie Espinosa2 Jimboy Duran3
Jhoselle Tus4
1-3Research Students, Filipino Psychology 4Research Professor, Filipino Psychology
Jesus is Lord Colleges Foundation, Inc., Bocaue, Bulacan, Philippines
Abstract
Amidst the global pandemic, everyone is allowed to be vulnerable and heightened by
burnout. But the most unheard and most vulnerable voices linger among persons with
disabilities. Persons with disabilities (PWDs) are one of the concerns in society. But, social
exclusions and biases put PWDs in a disadvantageous position. There has always been an
issue in employment, social roles, and accessibility to education. These issues are
eventually turning into self-doubt and feelings of inferiority, which are reasonable evidence
suggesting that persons with disabilities received negative attitudes from non-PWD
individuals. This study’s primary goal is to explore the lived experiences of PWD Students
towards online learning during the pandemic, specifically, describe their experiences,
challenges faced, and coping mechanisms. Employing the Interpretative Phenomenological
Analysis (IPA), the findings of the study were: (1) PWD students experienced social
exclusions primarily in the rise of online learning during the pandemic. (2) Most of the
PWD students were challenged by the limitations of assistive technologies and internet
connectivity. (3) PWD students remained resilient because of having a healthy support
system behind them.
Keywords: Persons with Disability; PWD Students, Online Learning, COVID-19
1. INTRODUCTION
Amidst the global pandemic, everyone is allowed to be vulnerable and heightened by
burnout. But the most unheard and most vulnerable voices linger among persons with
disabilities. Persons with disabilities (PWDs) are one of the concerns in society. But,
social exclusions and biases put PWDs in a disadvantageous position. There has always
been an issue in employment, social roles, and accessibility to education. These issues are
eventually turning into self-doubt and feelings of inferiority, which are reasonable
evidence suggesting that persons with disabilities received negative attitudes from non-
PWD individuals (Au & Man, 2006). Stereotypes and alienation towards PWDs were
considered as disgrace, humiliation, and inequality in a society. As Bachelet (2018)
argued, PWDs have the same rights as the rest of the citizens. The rights to vote, live
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1207
independently in the community, enjoy social protection, access justice, and the
educational system.
There are various aspects of challenges encountered by PWDs regardless of the type
of impairment. The Republic Act 7277 of the Philippines, known as Magna Carta for
Disabled Persons, mentioned the seven types of disabilities: psychosocial disability,
disability due to chronic illness, learning disability, mental disability, visual disability,
orthopedic disability, and communication disability. The disabilities mentioned above
experienced the same stereotypes and alienation in the community, job, or school. PWDs
made up to one-sixth of 15 percent of the world's population. Out of 92.1 million
household populations in the Philippines, 1.4 million had a disability (Narido & Tacadao,
2016). Disability rights advocates urged the government to get the utmost attention and
fought to pass the Republic Act 7277. Made disability laws here in the Philippines aim to
protect PWDs from discrimination, provide every right, and transform society as the safest
place for a person with a disability. As eloquently stated by Momene (2015), normalizing
a non-PWDs' initiative to communicate with a PWD is one of the most effective ways to
erase the prejudice against having a disability.
Since the distraught impact of Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), it has been
challenging to continue everything, particularly the learning and educational system. It can
be proven by the recent announcement of the Department of Education (DepEd), which is
to implement the school opening on October 5, 2020. Online and blended learning have
brought earnest struggles to the students. But with the case of PWD students who find it
difficult even in the traditional education setting, it is expected that the efforts would be
double more in online learning amidst the pandemic. Mohammed (2020) indicated that
language interpreters would find it hard to communicate with students with hearing
impairments. The same goes for visually-impaired students whose apart from people who
usually assist. Students with disabilities are the most affected in online learning. The no-
child-left-behind goal of this school year seemed to be impossible for the PWD students.
As contended by Ravassard (2018), students with disabilities' initial enrollment had a low
rate. And, even some attend school, PWD students are more likely to drop out. The goal of
this school year should be to educate all types of learners during the global pandemic,
regardless if they are with disabilities or not.
This study will deepen the sensitivity towards PWD students' experiences in online
learning amidst the global pandemic. Determining every student's attitude with disability
in dealing with today's pivotal situation is one of the significant foundations of this
research. The acknowledgment for PWDs should exist in any society. It is necessary to
identify them as persons with disabilities rather than a disabled person. The results of this
study will extend its knowledge that can contribute as a future reference for further
researchers on the subject of PWD students and online learning. Moreover, this study
explores how students with disabilities handle such problems and how other people
support their unique needs. Generally speaking, this study seeks to discover and
understand the difficulties, edges, and challenges of PWD students towards online
learning during the global pandemic.
1.1 Research Questions
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1208
This study’s primary goal is to explore the lived experiences of PWD Students
towards online learning during the pandemic. Specifically, it sought to answer the
following questions:
1. What are the experiences of PWD students towards online learning during the
pandemic?
2. What are the challenges faced by the PWD students towards online learning during
the pandemic?
3. What are PWD students' coping mechanisms in dealing with online learning during
the pandemic?
2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Experiences of PWD Students
In a society, the majority of people feel discomfort around a person with
disabilities. It may be from the lack of interaction with PWDs; non-PWDs also feel
awkward because of insufficient knowledge of starting a conversation and acting without
offending a person with a disability (American Psychological Association, 2000). Since
then, society has had a hard time accepting and understanding people with disabilities.
Most parts of the culture make significant steps and approaches to the social inclusion of
PWDs. The PWD community strives to have a voice in addressing both visible and
invisible disabilities, along with more wide-ranging and thorough ways to social inclusion.
It is also essential to make some changes in a particular community wherein any form of
disability can be accommodated without noticing the apparent needs or adjustment of a
person with a disability. For instance, developing the educational system, employment,
and designing infrastructure that is PWDs friendly can help PWDs (Uniting Care
Community Options, 2014).
Manaf et al. (2016) indicated that conducting research on people with disabilities
requires better understanding, knowledge, and skills. As it is increasing extensively, the
researchers must prepare emotionally, spiritually, and physically to produce publishable
papers regarding the issues of PWDs. Researchers in this field should also fill themselves
with knowledge in dealing with a person with specific impairment amidst barriers and
difficulties. These skills include good social skills, good communication skills (e.g.,
primary sign language), and patience with the PWDs state of condition. Reyes et al.
(2010) stated that government agencies in the Philippines focus on the rights, needs, and
privileges of people with disabilities. These are the National Council on Disability Affairs
(NCDA), Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), Department of
Health (DOH), Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), Department of Education
(DepEd), Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), and the Department of
Trade and Industry (DTI).
According to Weiringo (2015), his study about students who did not complete high
school shows that the students' overall sense of belongings is low. This study explores and
identified the related factors of reasons that led to their decisions. The participants are
male and female high school students with disabilities. Furthermore, the type of
impairment was another aspect that causes a high rate of drop out of high school students
with disabilities. The participants also believe that a better school environment requires
more effort from the teachers and peers to sense belongingness. As stated by Kennedy
Krieger Institute (2020), as the world faces severe challenges in the COVID-19 pandemic,
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1209
education institutions' needs increase to provide and ensure the quality of education using
virtual platforms. During this time, the needs of giving importance to the education of
persons with disabilities must be the priority. However, despite the school's creativity and
flexibility, the institution is still having a hard time meeting students' individual needs
with disabilities. Fortunately, various organizations help meet the students' needs with
disabilities that help disseminate awareness of this problem.
According to United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
[UNESCO] Bangkok (2020), there is a need to empower students with disabilities during
this time of the pandemic. The Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau of Education mentioned
that the world's population, approximately 15% are living with disabilities, and that is
representing 1 billion people and due to the lack of information, the numbers of students
with a disability that are receiving inadequate educational support in this pandemic are
unclear. PWD students are facing barriers to education through remote-learning practices.
In health crises such as COVID-19, students with disabilities are receiving less help and
inadequately trained teachers. Furthermore, students with disabilities face difficulty
participating actively due to equipment, internet access, and especially designed materials
and support. These are the problems facing students with disabilities and without
disability, and this learning is producing more cost.
As eloquently stated by Tabuga (2010), uplifting the lives of PWDs does not
always be mirrored in giving cash subsidies, discounts, overtaking in lines, and even free
assistive technologies. The real goal and crucial need of people with disabilities are
removing physical and social barriers for comfortable living and social inclusion. In the
Philippines, there is so much room for improvement in adapting the participation and
presence of PWDs. The government should give attention to enhancing the educational
system and schools for people with disabilities, ensuring the continuity of small projects
made for PWDs (e.g., PWD roads, lanes, or parking), and providing medical healthcare
for every person with a disability. Furthermore, Filipinos have low awareness of PWDs.
Local governments' efforts should be double in disseminating information and educating
public transport groups, medical establishments, schools and universities, and other
facilities. There is valid evidence that awareness always correlates with education. For this
reason, education should be the center in uplifting the lives of PWDs. Government
institutions here in the Philippines should render effective ways to educate every person in
all types of disability.
2.2 Challenges of PWD Students
As Georgina (2017) stated, the real struggle of persons with disabilities will start
when they step out of their house. Although we are in modern society when it comes to
accommodating PWD's, especially in infrastructure, it still needs improvement. The
designs of buildings here in the Philippines have a severe usability problem to the PWD's:
self-closing doors with heavy return spring, uneven surface, lack of ramps, etc. However,
modern societies are not altogether unsympathetic to the PWD's. More than 180 million
young people with disabilities live worldwide, 150 million live in the developing world.
Typically, these people exclude from most schooling opportunities, economic, social, and
cultural activities. According to the American Psychological Association (2020), research
shows that people with disabilities are at risk for mental health problems. The
psychological distress in the general population and high-risk groups has increased and
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1210
can be found in the emerging research on COVID-19. People with a disability in this
pandemic are facing challenges and stressors that can worsen their mental health. Physical
distancing measures might cause intensified loneliness and isolation to PWD's. These had
associated with increased heart disease, dementia, and other health problems. With this,
the policies in this time of pandemic have been increases the discriminatory attitudes
toward disabled individuals, and it worsens the anxiety of PWD's and increases the feeling
of needing medical care (Groce, 2004)
People with disabilities encounter health inequalities resulting from variables at the
social, environmental, and framework level. Data from several settings shows that women
with disabilities have limited access to health records and face challenges to screening,
prevention, and care services. Often, women with disabilities are more likely than women
without disabilities to suffer physical and sexual abuse, thereby further damaging their
welfare (Vaughan et al., 2020). Cruz & Calimpusan (2018) stated that the issues faced by
the Deaf had divided into employability and entrepreneurship. With the absence of tertiary
programs accommodating them, the educational support structure for the Deaf was still
weak. In terms of cooperation, support networks of the Deaf, including the family and
community, were also small. There is less understanding of the Deaf community and
ability. Deaf individuals were viewed as individuals with disabilities and not with skills.
The level of employability of deaf graduates is low. There is very little access to
entrepreneurship, and the absence of capitalization is one major factor.
As a consequence of natural or human-made disasters, millions of people
internally displaced each year. While a large number are people living with impairment,
the prevalence and form of disabilities they encounter are remarkably little known.
Efficient procedures must be devised to recognize people with disabilities in relocation
circumstances to design programs that better respect rights and meet needs. In order to
represent the principles enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with
Disabilities, the recognition tools should not merely concentrate on disability, on the use
of a diagnostic approach, or the labeling of persons with disabilities. Instead, people
should ask more questions about accessibility and the assistance needs of an individual. In
ensuring sufficient assistance and security for all refugees, proper disability recognition
will go some way (Smith-Khan et al., 2015). Neeraja (2013) stated that a person with
disability shown an emotional and behavioral adjustment. It may commonly occurred to
those who have learning disabilities and reading disabilities.
According to the United Nations of Human Rights (2020), the COVID-19
pandemic threatens all society members, especially the persons with disabilities
experiencing a more significant impact due to attitudinal, environmental, and institutional
barriers reproduced in the COVID-19 response. During this crisis, many people with
disabilities may find themselves more isolated and unable to survive during lockdown
measures. PWD's also continue to face discrimination and problems in accessing
livelihood and income support, participation in new forms of education, and violence
protection. Distance learning services worldwide provide education and career
development opportunities for those who access a computer and the Internet. However,
because of the inaccessible nature of classes, potential students and teachers who do not
have access to these technologies cannot participate entirely. Those with visual and
hearing impairments include these people. (Burgstahler et al., 2004)
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1211
The World Bank (2020) revealed that some groups in a country still struggle to
practice rights regarding political, economic, and social life. These groups experienced
discrimination or unkind attitudes because of their identity, race, gender, and disability.
PWDs are most commonly to experience exclusion and inauspicious socioeconomic status
due to less education. The COVID-19 pandemic doubled the hurdles of children with
disabilities because of lacking access to essential services from SpEd teachers and
inaccessible assistive technologies such as audiobooks, print materials in Braille, and
audio provision or graphics specialized for PWDs. Furthermore, the pandemic also
resulted in more struggles of PWDs' parents or caregivers because they acted as teachers
without formal training in teaching students with disabilities.
In higher education institutions, students with disabilities were enrolled in various
academic programs, and universities have to provide the requirements to meet these
students' needs. The library building and the spaces inside it are an important area of
focus. While laws regulating public buildings' construction exist, disabled students can
face barriers to accessibility to library spaces, meaning that they do not benefit from
services and facilities. (Ilako et al., 2020)
As Almog (2018) stated, the issues regarding the identity of a person with
disabilities play a vital role in studies about disability. A need to develop an academic
foundation for every person with a disability in every part of the world. The disability
issues will become extent as to obscure if there is no such educational foundation.
Moreover, Almog (2018) also introduced the medical model of disability, emphasizing
social community responsibility to the PWDs. It highlights the particular hurdles of people
with disabilities that cause the disabled environment and humankind. For instance,
students with visual impairment will not feel disabled if there are enough accessible
reading materials such as Braille or audiobooks, and without stereotyping the ideas about
disabilities. Social identity is vital to change how PWDs think about themselves and the
included community. According to Milsom (2006), students with disabilities' school
experiences can be positively or negatively affected by students and school employees'
attitudes and actions and by general school policies. School counselors should take the
lead in analyzing the school environment concerning students with disabilities and, where
applicable, implement interventions or advocate for improvement.
Kabuta (2014) mentioned that students with physical disabilities in higher learning
institutions in Tazania face problems in an infrastructural situation, support system, social
and financial issues. This study found a high inadequacy of teaching and learning
materials and a lack of particular schemes, trained staff, funds, and scholarships for
students with physical disabilities. This study recommended that the government and other
stakeholders take special considerations and actions to accommodate students with
physical and different impairments in higher learning institutions. As Cole (2017) stated,
the teachers who lack proper training in educating students with disabilities struggle to
meet students' goals and everyday needs. People have little understanding of the students'
disabilities if they are not directly affected by it. As a result, a lack of knowledge has
become the largest barrier for students with disabilities. However, educational institutions
are finding ways to overcome these challenges and create equality in education.
Sachs (2011) stated that students with disabilities invested more time to meet their
studies' demands, participated in fewer social and extra-curricular activities, and used
computers and technology less. This study used higher education students and compared
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1212
students with disabilities and without disabilities for formal achievements and overall
participation in higher education. This study suggests that higher education still needs
improvement to reduce students' social inclusion with disabilities and adjust the standard
for their needs. According to the survey conducted by Reyes et al. (2010), 106 PWDs
from 31 barangays were interviewed. The significant findings in this survey are the
common reasons for persons with disabilities, not finishing their education are poverty.
Also, only 3 out of 10 respondents are aware of the policies intended to improve their
well-being. Among the 31 respondents who know the guidelines and discounts, only ten
enjoy at least one of these policies, discounts, and PWD ID.
2.3 Coping Mechanisms Used by PWD Students
Shigri (2018) indicated that people with disabilities had given enough sensitivity
and attention over the past decades, making it easier for society to grow empathy. The
disability awareness served as a key to attenuate the stereotypical thinking of the whole
community. As a result, it will become more comfortable when building an inclusive and
discrimination-free society. Over and above, disability awareness plays a vital role in
teaching the community how individuals can make essential changes brought anywhere,
such as home, school, and workplace. Nonetheless, not being able to learn acceptance and
continue seeing discrimination towards PWDs can result in an unpleasing community as a
whole. Kammerer (2015) claimed that misconception, stereotype, and prejudice could
only be solved through respecting, getting to know, and seeing a person beyond the
disability. This kindness will never occur for those who are not willing to run towards
PWDs. The first step to inclusion for people with disabilities is to understand (Lenart,
2020). Disability is not an obstacle to success. The real obstacle is the attitude of the
public toward persons with disabilities. The outdated beliefs about PWD are needed to
transform, beliefs that persons with disability are doing less than normal individuals. This
kind of attitude is the one that creates the barriers for persons with disabilities; rather than
mental and physical impairment, this kind of stigma is the one-factor creating significant
problems for persons with disabilities (Thomson, 2016). As eloquently stated by the
Mindfulword (2019), creating a better society also needs to empower people with
disabilities. This article mention that people might not give more thought to not being able
to do things that ordinary people do automatically. If the people are physically healthy and
psychologically normal, people may not be aware of the painful feeling of discrimination
of living with disabilities. However, it is not essential for people with disabilities to
compete with other people; PWD's lives must be fullest. The more important is that
persons with disabilities are reaching maximum achievement and independence regardless
of impairment.
According to Taunt & Hastings (2002), the significance of asking more positive
questions about the attitudes and experiences of families of children with developmental
disabilities has progressively been recognized. In general, parents have shown to have
optimistic views about their child and their families about the future. There is a steady
decrease in physical function and a related decrease in quality of life (QoL) among people
with disabilities. It was reported that physical activity (PA) participation increases QoL
significantly. There is a small amount of research demonstrating how integrating student
service learning (SSL) with PA will boost the QoL of people with disabilities, despite
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1213
several studies proving that PA enhances one's QoL (Brolsma, 2020). Manolov (2020)
stated that there is a hidden lesson in this time of COVID-19 pandemic. The experiences
of students with disabilities are far different from students without disabilities. PWD
students are feeling more isolated and spending more time in isolation even without this
pandemic. Also, Manolov mentioned that youth with disabilities are role models; these
peoples are maturing and searching for who they indeed are. It shows valuable lessons that
people sometimes need isolation to understand their surroundings and achieve better
psychological well-being.
International awareness of the omission of people with disabilities from the
Millennium Development Goals has led to greater inclusion of people with disabilities in
the recently negotiated 2015-2030 Global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It is
vital to increase the awareness of people with disabilities in the Philippines, considering
the new global agenda for the inclusion of disabilities (Marella et al., 2016). Among PWD
trends, the prevalence and severity of poverty are more significant than that of the overall
population in Metro Manila. Among PWDs, which are linked to training and intercourse,
there is an excellent benefit disparity. After controlling an individual, parent, and
environmental characteristics, female PWDs are in all likelihood to earn far less than male
PWDs because of fewer opportunities to engage in financial activities (Ramon et al.,
2010). Taub (2006) stated that parents of disabled children share concerns common to all
parents, but they also have specific concerns special to their children's conditions. In their
work with parents of students with disabilities and the students themselves, the students'
teachers, and other students, competent school counselors can be more successful if they
consider parental perspectives. According to Brown & Jeffress (2018), one of the effective
ways to help students learn about PWDs is by learning other teaching skills and
competencies that make the loss of some degree of a particular capacity immaterial.
Instructors with what students identify as impairment will potentially become more
productive teachers. A common problem for SpEd teachers is thinking about whether the
students will be exposed to education without adverse consequences in a healthy setting.
According to Inciong & Quijano (2013), comprehensive education was formally
introduced by the Department of Education in the Philippines as a viable educational
option to educate as many children as possible. The 'Silahis Centres' ('school within the
school' concept) described as a viable model for implementing and promoting children
with disabilities in the Philippines in regular schools. Women and children with
disabilities here in the Philippines were found to have lower literacy and school
participation rates than males with disabilities. They found that the possible reasons for
this are the type and severity of impairment, accessibility in education, household size,
and income. Some recommendations included in the study are making sure that the
assistive devices given to PWD's children match their needs and also explore more ways
to train more teachers in handling children with disabilities (Agbon & Mina, 2017)
As Picard (2020) mentioned, to create an inclusive classroom where all students
are respected, there is a need to face specific challenges that need accommodation and
considerations. This study also shows a need to give importance to languages used
regarding assessing the student's type of disability because there is a possibility that
students with disabilities will sense that they are not as capable as their peers.
Furthermore, recognizing the students with a disability rather than disabled students is
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1214
vital in their existence. As stated by Tabuga (2013), two decades earlier, when the Magna
Carta for Persons with Disabilities was implemented, the Philippines laid the groundwork
for improving the health of people with disabilities (PWDs). Since then, several other
initiatives have developed to ensure that PWDs will have the ability to live the way they
want to. PWDs, however, seldom profit from these laws and other services created for
their advancement.
3. METHODOLOGY
The study used a qualitative approach, specifically Interpretative
Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). This study attempts to disseminate and provide
information into how particular individuals interpret the phenomenon in the given context,
as this study used qualitative idiographic psychological analysis.
According to Tuffour (2017), IPA has become the dominant qualitative research
technique. Its focus is on the convergence and divergence of experiences and its mission
to explore the thorough and complex study of small numbers of participants' experiences.
As it involves a detailed examination of the participant, the approach is
phenomenological. It attempts to analyze the personal experience and concerns the
perception of an entity or phenomenon by an individual rather than an attempt to make an
objective assertion of the item or event itself.
3.1 Participants
The participants of this study consisted of PWD students that were currently
enrolled in school during the pandemic. The researchers determined individuals with a
disability who have a long-term impairment that may interfere with the full mobility and
adaptability towards their potential to maximize their capacity.
This study started with a few participants, and the criteria were the following: (1)
must be a person with a disability, (2) and a college student enrolled in the school year
2020-2021. After considering each criterion, ten (10) participants were qualified as an
interviewee.
3.2 Instrument
The study utilized a semi-structured interview guide to gathering the pertinent data
and responses of the respondents. Also, on account of ethical considerations, this study
used a consent letter that was sent to the participants and viewed beforehand. The
questions from the interview guide were checked through content validation to verify their
reliability. Before interviewing ten (10) participants, the verification, revision, and
adjustment of the tool takes place.
3.3 Procedures
In many circumstances, it is crucial to construct a rapport between the researchers
and the participants. The rapport-building can be challenging amidst the COVID-19
pandemic. Nevertheless, it was established by developing a sense of trust towards each
other and making allowances for participants' situations, language, and cultural contexts.
As soon as the researchers become less of an ibang-tao, a semi-structured interview takes
place online using any application with a video or call feature as per request by the
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1215
participants. In a semi-structured interview, the interviewer can add follow-up questions
and allow the interviewer and interviewee's flow of thoughts (Canals, 2017).
The interview guide was composed of twenty (20) questions that may last for
forty-five (45) minutes to an hour. Following the initial stages, participants were
encouraged to raise any clarification, concerns, and unclear questions due to the technical
difficulties that may occur. A thorough transcription and analysis were conducted after an
online semi-structured interview to make sense of the gathered data. The interview
transcription includes the exact verbatim of each participant to avoid uncertainties of the
data collection contents.
4. RESULTS
The summary of the demographic characteristics of participants included in this
study was shown in Table 1. The study was composed of 10 PWD students residing in the
province of Bulacan and Metro Manila. The participants' ages ranged from 19-24 years
old, with six females and four males.
Table 1: Demographic Characteristics of Participants
Variable
Frequency
Age
19 21
9
22 24
1
Gender
Male
4
Female
6
Table 2 depicts the supplementary demographic information of participants in this
study. All of the participants were currently enrolled as a college student and learning
synchronously. Six were visually impaired for the type of disability, one was hearing
impaired, 2 has an orthopedic disability, and one was speech impaired.
Table 2: Supplementary Demographic Information
Variable
Frequency
College Year Level
1st Year
2
2nd Year
7
3rd Year
1
Type of Disability
Visual Disability
Totally Blind
4
Partially Blind
2
Hearing Disability
1
Speech Disability
1
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1216
The following sections will present the analysis of data gathered through a semi-
structured interview. The recordings were transcribed into texts thoroughly and used direct
quotations from various participants to elaborate on each concept. Four major themes
were identified in this study; namely, 1) the experiences of PWD students toward online
learning; 2) the challenges of PWD students toward online learning; and 3) the coping
mechanisms used by PWD students during the pandemic.
4.1 The Experiences of Pwd Students towards Online Learning
Inferiority prejudices and inequality put PWDs on the disadvantageous side of
society. Most participants in this study shared the same sentiments about social exclusion.
As shown in Table 3, PWD students' experiences were classified into three subthemes:
adversities in communication, social exclusion, and adjustment problems.
Table 3: Experiences Themes
Experiences
Frequency
Miscommunication in the given situations
5
Social exclusion
7
Adjustment problem caused by sudden changes
6
4.1.1 Adversity in Communication
The participants frequently experienced difficulties when it comes to
communicating and expressing particular needs to the instructors and classmates. Thus,
this theme would address how communication adversities occur in different aspects of
PWD students' lives. Conrad et al. (2017) suggested that proper communication with
PWDs was significant in improving society's attitude towards them. But the global
pandemic made communication harder as everything was done online. Dorothea shared:
Mas nahihiya akong i-approach 'yung mga teachers kapag may school
problems ako. Kasi hindi mo makikita 'yung expression nila, kung willing ka ba
talaga nilang tulungan then minsan matagal pa maseseen 'yung message mo.
Orthopedic Disability
2
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1217
The absence of communication between a PWD student like Dorothea and their teacher
was a struggle. When another participant was asked why do they need constant contact to
their teachers, Inez reasoned out:
Minsan po pag nagmemessage ako sa kanila or during virtual class, hindi ko
po alam kung paano sila iaapproach na ganito, hindi ko po makikita yung
picture sa powerpoint.
It did not directly answer the question, but what Inez had said implied that they
need to communicate to their teachers for assistance and let them know about their
disabilities. According to UNESCO Bangkok (2020), there is a need to empower students
with disabilities during this time of the pandemic. But in cases like Inez and Dorothea,
they barely received empowerment and attention from the people who should help them
during these times. Moreover, communication involves understanding. Inez continued:
So sabi ko, "ma'am hindi po kase nababasa ng screen reader yung mga
pictures." Tapos, pinipilit po talaga niya na baka sa software ko lang daw yun, i-
update ko daw. Mga ganon. Gawan ko daw ng paraan. Hindi ko po talaga
napakiusapan na magbigay ng alternate activity para sakin.
Kennedy Krieger Institute (2020) stated that as the world faces severe challenges
in the COVID-19 pandemic, education institutions' needs increase to provide and ensure
the quality of education using virtual platforms. As Inez shared her story, she emphasized
that even though the educational system makes an effort to expand its scope to all kinds of
learners, there were still some instances wherein educators were not trained on how
students with disabilities should be handled. During this time, the needs of giving
importance to the education of persons with disabilities must be the priority.
4.1.2 Social Exclusion
As eloquently stated by Tabuga (2010), uplifting the lives of PWDs does not
always be mirrored in giving cash subsidies, discounts, and overtaking in lines. The real
goal and crucial need of people with disabilities are removing physical and social barriers
for comfortable living and social inclusion. But on the contrary, most of the participants
experienced the inability to participate in some activities, which affected their quality of
life as students. These experiences led them to feel social exclusion and jeopardize their
well-being. Este stated that:
Minsan po kapag by group na activities, naiilang po ko makisalamuha kasi
feeling ko kakaiba ako parang, ang baba ko ganun po. Tas one time pa nga po
nung first year kami, yung activity namin sa Physical Fitness. Kailangan
sumayaw diko nagawa kasi ayoko pagtawanan ba ko habang sumasayaw. Kaya
na-INC po yung grade ako.
Likewise, Todrick shared the same sentiments. He narrated:
Nung 1st year nga yung PE namin is wall climbing. Di ko kaya, kaya pinagawa
na lang ako ng ibang teacher ko ng ibang activity. Tapos ngayong 2nd year, Arnis
naman. Ang kaso wala naman akong both hands kaya nahirapan ako. Pero sinabi
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1218
ko naman sa faculty ng mga teacher pero wala pang update. Ngayong week nga
may activity kami sa PE pero di ko magawa, dahil di ko naman mahawakan ung
stick.
Este and Todrick both have an orthopedic disability that limits their physical
movements and functions. By making sure that PWDs have the same opportunities to
participate in a certain activity, society can eliminate barriers to achieving social
inclusivity. Furthermore, developing and designing PWD-friendly infrastructures can help
them accommodate their needs (Uniting Care Community Options, 2014). As Todrick
shared, Yung school namin hindi sya PWD-friendly, diba matataas yung building samin.
Eh may PWD student din kaming ka-school mates. Most of them physically yung
problem, may mga naka tungkod and minsan naka wheelchair tapos hinahatid siya
kasi di nya kaya umakyat ng building mag isa. Ina-acknowledge naman nila na
meron silang PWD student kaso ayun nga hindi PWD friendly and sa mga
infrastructure. Tsaka pala yung tulong and organization dapat mag focus sa mga
PWD students kagaya ko.
4.1.3 Adjustment Problems
Adjustment problems have been one of the most common responses of
participants. The majority of them have experienced a sudden change in the learning
environment. A study conducted by Neeraja (2013) revealed that learners with disabilities
have a trouble in internalizing problems and processing pieces of information accurately
when stressed. Teffy mentioned that:
Nahirapan lang ako mag-adjust nitong nag-college na kase wala namang SpEd
class. Tapos, online learning pa. Naranasan ko rin na ano, ako yung maghahanap
ng schedule ko sa exam. Ako yung gumagawa ng paraan para makapag-exam.
Given the transition from a face-to-face class to online classes, PWD students had
difficulty adjusting to the new normal. Alwyn, totally blind, shared his story on how he
needed to learn navigating each button in the Zoom and Google meet applications.
Natutunan ko mag-zoom. Kaya talagang tiniyaga kong pag-aralan yung user
interface ng zoom, user interface ng Google meet. So, syempre with the help of
screen reader. Yun talaga yung nakatulong sa akin kasi kung wala yung screen
reader, mas lalo akong mahihirapan.
Nevertheless, to cope with the situation, they chose to continue and take their
responsibility as students to the fullest. As Betty said,
Kailangan po maging responsible ka po kung paano ka po naging bilang isang
estudyante. Ngayon pong online, kailangan more responsible po dahil mas
mahirap na po. Kailangan din po kung ano po yung ginagawa mo nung face-to-
face, ayun din po sa online mas more effort pa po gawin mo yung mga activities,
tsaka yung maki cooperate din po kahit mahirap yung communication minsan.
4.2 The Challenges of PWD Students Towards Online Learning
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1219
This superordinate theme discusses the struggles that were encountered by the
participants due to online learning. Among all of the four subordinates shown in Table 4,
the limitations of assistive technologies and internet connection have the highest
frequency, which was associated with the participants' answers.
Table 4: Challenges themes
Frequency
10
6
5
4.2.1 Limitations of Assistive Technologies and Internet Connection
The COVID-19 pandemic doubled the hurdles of children with disabilities because
of lacking access to essential services for PWD students (Worldbank, 2020). The
participants faced problems in terms of assistive technology and stable internet
connectivity. With this, they express that they were having difficulties because of its
limitations and unavailability. Dorothea stated:
Noong midterms namin, kasi may time limit ang pagsasagot. Kapag nag-lag or
biglang nag-error data connection mo, tuloy-tuloy pa rin 'yung time kaya ayun
hindi ako nakapagsagot nang maayos. Anim 'yung subjects namin, tapos tatlo roon
mababa scores ko dahil sa naabutan na ng time.
Betty shared the same thoughts,
Minsan po mahirap din po yung connection kasi po naranasan ko yung diba
habang nagdidiscuss yung professor, biglang nawawala yung connection yun yung
mahirap talaga. Di ko po alam gagawin kapag ganon, bigla po nawawala.
The availability of internet connection has been challenging to every participant. In
addition to that, some of them also encountered problems concerning the limitations of
assistive technologies. Betty, totally blind, talked about specific software that was
commonly used by them.
May tinatawag po kaming NVDA na software dito po sa computer, ayun yung
ginagamit ko as screen reader. Kapag sa cellphone naman po, may tinatawag po
kaming Talk Back para po mabasa po nya lahat ng mga nilalaman ng na sa
screen. Kung ano po yun mga halimbawa chats, massages, ganon po.
However, Inez mentioned that assistive technology also has its limitations.
Tas recently naman po, yung sa Business ICT application po na subject namin.
Sa Excel po kaso yung activity na binigay. Yung mga nakalagay sa cell, mga
pictures po. Kami po kasing mga blind may screen reader na bumabasa ng mga
text sa laptop. So sabi ko, "ma'am hindi po kase nababasa ng screen reader yung
mga pictures."
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1220
Burgstahler et al. (2004), argued that distance learning services worldwide could
only provide educational opportunities for those who have access to computers, assistive
devices, and the internet. But, students like Inez and Betty were not covered by this so-
called 'education for all.'
4.2.2 Social and Financial issues
In ensuring sufficient assistance and security for all people with disabilities, proper
recognition should occur (Smith-Khan et al., 2015). Most of the participants faced social
and financial issues during the pandemic. Some of them implied that they had a hard time
finding assistance that they can get from their peer groups. As Alwyn stated,
“Problema siguro sa akin yung ano, yun nga… wala akong aasahan kundi ang
sarili ko. Yung mga kaklase ko naman kasi hindi ko pwedeng i-obliga.
Likewise, Austin shared the same sentiments when asked about his challenges
towards online learning
Yung pag reach out sa mga classmate ko kapag may groupings or lesson na
hindi ko talaga maintindihan.
On the other hand, some participants expressed financial issues as one of their
challenges during the pandemic. United Nations of Human Rights (2020) contended that
many people with disabilities might find themselves unable to survive this lockdown as
they face problems accessing livelihood and income support. Todrick shared:
Ayy oo, kasi diba daming problema. Unang-una is financially, nag sarado kasi
yung junk shop namin ngayon kasi nga pandemic diba.
4.2.3 Susceptibility to Cognitive and Mental Health Issues
Research shows that people with disabilities are at risk for mental health problems.
The psychological distress in the general population and high-risk groups has increased
and can be found in the emerging research on COVID-19 (American Psychological
Association, 2020). With this, most of the participants faced feelings of isolation and
vulnerability to mental health issues. Some of them had difficulties when it comes to
maintaining their concentration during an online class. As Dorothea said,
maraming distractions lalo na kapag may mga kapatid kang maliliit na kasama
sa bahay. Yung tipong mas malakas boses nila kaysa sa teacher mo.
Likewise, Alwyn mentioned that he had a hard time during the first weeks of
online learning
Siguro nahirapan ako harapin yung fact na syempre iba na yung way of learning
ngayon... mahirap sa una pero through time naman kasi nakakapag-adjust ka at
siguro ayun nalang din. Parang naging routine ko nalang din. Parang normal na
lang din.
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1221
A study conducted by Reyes et al. (2010) revealed that stress and poverty were the
most common reason why people with disabilities did not finish their education. Another
participant, Betty, implied that online learning doubled PWD students' hardships.
Naisipan ko po na huminto, nung una lang. Kase sabi ko po kase kung nung
face-to-face lang, nahihirapan na kaming mga PWD, paano po kaya ngayong
online learning na? Diba.
4.3 The Coping Mechanisms of Pwd Students towards Online Learning
This central theme discusses the ways of how the participants engage in problem-
solving and how they take responsibility for the situation. Under the significant theme of
coping mechanisms are the following subthemes: the support system from their friends
and family, sense of responsibility, and a positive mindset toward their conditions and in
the given situation. As seen in table 5, the latter appears to be the most commonly used
coping mechanism by the participants.
Table 5: Coping mechanism themes
Coping Mechanism
Frequency
Support system
10
Sense of responsibility
9
Positive mindset
9
4.3.1 Support System
Shigri (2018) stated that people with disabilities had given enough sensitivity and
attention over the past decades, making it easier for society to grow empathy. The
participants needed to be surrounded by people who were willing to give them assistance
and served as their inspiration despite the challenges. Neil shared:
Nagpapalakas ng loob ko yung mga pangarap ko, yung pamilya ko. Lalo na
yung nanay ko. Matanda na yung nanay ko, hindi naman ako pwedeng laging
nakaasa lang lagi sa mga kapatid ko dahil syempre nakatapos na sila. May sarili
na silang buhay. Yun yung nagtutulak sakin na ipagpatuloy ko pa rin yung pag-
aaral ko kasi isipin mo pag nakapagtapos ako ng pag-aaral tapos meron pakong
magandang trabaho. Parang dun palang maipagmamalaki na ako ng pamilya ko
kahit ganito ako.
Austin, totally blind, shared the same thoughts about how his family assists him in
any way they could help.
Mama ko, Ate ko atsaka kuya ko po. Pag kailangan ko ng assistance sa isang
gawain, tinutulungan naman nila ako. Halimbawa, kapag kailangan ko ng pag
need videohan, kasi may nga activity pa rin kami sa P.E. Yung mga kailangan
videohan, so nakatutok lang yung ate ko.
Taub (2006) stated that parents of disabled children share concerns common to all
parents. But instead of worrying about their children, they have shown optimistic views
and support in helping them do the things they think they cannot do.
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1222
4.3.2 Sense of Responsibility
The majority of the participants shared and expressed how persistent they are
despite the situation. Due to their sense of responsibility as students, they were able to
continue not just for themselves but also for their loved ones. Este has an orthopedic
disability, and a single mother also stated:
Una po na-inspire po ako magcontinue ng pag-aaral dahil po sa anak ko. Iniisip
ko po kasi yung magiging future nya. Pangalawa po mahirap po, as PWD, na
makahanap ng trabaho kaya mas pinili ko mag-aral at hanapin kung ano yung
kaya ko pang gawin.
Likewise, Austin shared the same sentiments:
Yung motivation ko parin kase lagi ko sinasabi sa sarili ko na pag huminto ako
di ko na maabot yung mga pangarap ko sa buhay.
Students like Este and Austin supported Manolov (2020) when he mentioned that
youth with disabilities were role models. The courage they have shown valuable lessons
that people sometimes need. PWD students were much matured to search for who they
indeed are amidst the isolation.
4.3.3 Positive Mindset
A positive mindset was the most effective and most common coping mechanism
used by the participants. Through the help of their positive thinking, they were able to face
their struggles. Teffy stated:
Siguro... Ano, lakas lang ng loob tas wag magpapatalo sa mga problems na yun
kahit minsan sobrang hirap na. Kase normal lang naman yung mga challenges sa
buhay eh, nasa iyo na yan kung anong gagawin mo dun. Tulad ako, yung
disability ko ginagamit ko siya as inspiration para mas lalong magsipag.
Austin shared how challenges turned him strong and independent amidst his
disability
Number one, naisip ko lang talaga na yung mga challenges ko from the start is
yun din yung naging reason ngayon kung bakit ako mas naging strong and
independent. As a student man or as a person. Yung disability ko, at yung mga
negative things na napagdadaanan ko is what makes me of who I am right now.
Kammerer (2015) claimed that one should see PWDs beyond their disabilities. In
that way, misconceptions, prejudice, and stereotype can be eliminated in this society.
Students like Austin and Teffy shared the same mindset that makes them survive despite
their challenges during online learning.
5. DISCUSSION
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1223
This study aims to explore the lived experiences of PWD students amidst online
learning due to COVID-19 pandemic. To elaborate on these matters, it was sorted into
three themes: the experiences of PWD students, the challenges of PWD students, and the
coping mechanisms used by PWD students toward online learning. Moreover, the findings
of this study were fulfilled by conducting an in-depth interview. The responses from the
participants expanded these three major themes into corresponding subthemes. The results
from the previous chapter will be interpreted and discussed further in this section.
Regarding the participants experience on the occurrence of the online learning,
most of the participants expressed how they have often experienced difficulties
communicating and addressing their specific needs to instructors and classmates. It was
evident that most of them, the participants, struggled to have excellent or proper
communication. These participants' problems and concerns indicate the need to put more
effort into both teacher and the student. The participants consider the adversities in
communication to be one of their biggest problems in this new environment. With this,
failing to attain proper communication is affecting the participants in different ways.
However, having adequate communication for both teacher and the student will result in a
favorable outcome. Nevertheless, there were still people around them whose willing to
uplift them from the situation.
People with disabilities still experienced social exclusion. This study's participants
have to deal with this inside the school, public places, or even in online classes these days.
Most of the PWD students felt that studying in an inclusive school seems to be impossible.
One of the commonalities between the participants was the feeling of being excluded. This
feeling was implied through each participant's story about how exclusion frequently led to
discrimination and stereotypes. Society's acknowledgment of the needs of PWDs will help
as a baseline in eliminating social exclusion. Non-PWDs should also know that social
inclusion for people with disabilities cannot be brought in unless there are no
considerations and respect.
Moreover, adjustment problems during the onset of the online class were also
observed from the PWD students. Considering the transition from face-to-face courses to
online courses, the participants had a tough time adapting to the new normal and new
learning ways. It has been observed that most of the participants initially struggled to get a
grip on using technical devices, especially for those students who were visually impaired.
It was also evident that some of the participants faced adjustment problems caused by
transitioning from special education into mainstream education, which teaches in a very
different way. However, no matter how challenging the situation was, the participants still
chose to continue their dreams.
In terms of the challenges that the respondents are facing during this pandemic,
one of the commonalities of all the participants was the challenge in terms of the
limitations of assistive technologies and internet connection. While it may seem like
almost everyone has access to the internet, the majority of the participants shared and
expressed their difficulties because of the unavailability of stable internet. These instances
were familiar to them that made it hard to attend synchronous classes and to do online
activities. In today's world, the quality of education can be achieved by having stable
internet connectivity. Furthermore, challenges due to the limitations of assistive
technology were observed from most of the participants. Assistive devices were made to
help the functionality of a PWD. According to the participants that are visually impaired,
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1224
they commonly used a screen reader that reads everything in a computer screen or phone
screen for them. Even though it helps them with words, this assistive device cannot
obviously read nor describe pictures. Due to this, the participants had a hard time doing
activities that were related to any visual illustration.
Thus, the sudden changes in the environment also caused most of the participants
to struggle socially and financially. It remains evident that a student with a disability needs
assistance from their peer groups and monetary. It was shown in the results that some of
the PWD students had a hard time reaching out to others when they need to ask
something. In addition, few participants raised sentiments about the challenges in terms of
financial aid. Almost every people faced this problem during these times, but PWDs face
other different yet difficult challenges. With this, the participants implied that more than
anything, this kind of issue was needed attention and awareness.
It was also noted that the majority of the participants had feelings of isolation and
loneliness during these days. The disconnection, sudden changes, disrupted routines
greatly impacted the mental well-being of the participants. Due to this matter, PWD
students become vulnerable to cognitive and mental health issues. The participants
implied that online classes doubled the struggles each had. There were some instances that
one of the participants almost dropped out because of the stress during online learning. In
addition to the difficulty brought by the rage of the new normal, the participants also
experienced distractions and a decreasing span of focus. Furthermore, few participants
also expressed the struggles caused by people's views and treatment.
Likewise, in terms of the support system, it was essential for the participants to be
surrounded by people who, despite the obstacles, were willing to support and served as
one's motivation. It was always regarded that PWDs were a group of people with a wide
range of needs. Through the help of other people, the participants were able to do the
things that may seem impossible for them. Also, the majority of the participants felt
relieved because they were not alone facing every day's challenge. Some of the students
with disabilities place an emphasis that one's support system also serves as an inspiration
to strive and continue life.
Amidst the isolation, the participants indicated that they had difficulty finding
dedication, inspiration, and other reasons to face each challenge during the pandemic. It is
interesting how most of the participants persevere to reach an adequate standard of living.
The sense of responsibility to family or to the community was one of the things that make
these PWD students survive.
The kind of mindset that most of the participants shared was a healthy mindset and
a positive mindset. It was shown in the results that this strength helps PWD students for
personal growth and resiliency. Because of positive thinking, the participants were able to
look at one dimension of challenges and turned it into multiple angles. Some of the
students with disabilities also mentioned that being optimistic was not only a solution in
today's challenges, but it can also serve as a life skill.
All in all, each subtheme of this study served as a glimpse of the lived experiences
of PWD students toward online learning during the pandemic. The rage of the
Coronavirus pandemic put the world on pause. It has been an immense challenge because
as the pandemic started, the online classes continued. From the perspective of a student
with a disability, these new ways of learning would double every hurdle they have in each
day, even in a face-to-face class.
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1225
6. CONCLUSION
This study aimed to discover and understand the experiences, challenges, and
coping mechanisms of PWD students towards online learning during the global
pandemic. Upon interviewing 10 PWD students, three major conclusions emerge from
this study's findings: (1) PWD students experienced social exclusions primarily in the rise
of online learning during the pandemic. (2) Most of the PWD students were challenged
by the limitations of assistive technologies and internet connectivity. (3) PWD students
remained resilient because of having a healthy support system behind them.
As the PWD students experienced social exclusions, they also felt that they live in
a physical environment that was not accessible for them. In society, school, public places,
and even in their own house, the participants were reminded that they were different
because of a certain situation. Each of the participants indicated that more than just the
social exclusion, they also experienced miscommunication and adjustment problems.
Also, this theme let the PWD students to reflect on their experiences and what people
around them should do about it. For instance, social exclusions in any place can be solved
through the way how people include PWDs in everyday interaction. Society should view
them as students with disabilities rather than disabled students, and as full and active
members of the society rather than mere objects of goodwill and charity.
One of the main findings that came forth within the data analysis was that PWD
students faced daily challenges such as limitations of assistive technologies and internet
connection. While it may appear that almost everyone has access to the internet, due to
the lack of stable internet connectivity, the participants shared and articulated their
difficulties. Thus, this study proposed that more than anything, attention, consideration,
and assistance were required for these challenges. Additionally, the participants in this
study shared that they also faced other struggles that added fuel to the fire, such as social
and financial issues and their vulnerability to cognitive and mental health issues.
Notwithstanding, PWD students stayed resilient in spite of the negative
experiences and challenges they have encountered. Their family and peer groups
supported them in any ways they can. From helping them to do their school works up
until inspiring and motivating them every day. Strong sense of responsibility and positive
mindset are part of their coping mechanism. The findings have shown that these abilities
allow PWD students to achieve personal development and healthy well-being. Students
with disability were able to look at one dimension of obstacles because of constructive
thinking and transformed it into several angles.
Furthermore, the study recommends that the society and the educational system
acknowledge every student's needs with a disability. An inclusive environment for PWDs
can only be accessed through the combined effort of both institutions. Special Education
schools are scarce here in the Philippines. Consequently, public and private universities
should make ways to adapt distance learning virtually for learners with disabilities. Thus,
the findings of this research can serve as the baseline for further studies regarding the
PWD community. Future studies may also delve deeper into the lived experiences of each
type of disability.
References:
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1226
1. Agbon, A. & Mina, C. (2017). School Participation of Children with Disability: The
Case of San Remigio and Mandaue City, Cebu, Philippines. Discussion Paper Series
No. 2017-59.
https://pidswebs.pids.gov.ph/CDN/PUBLICATIONS/pidsdps1759_rev.pdf&ved=2ah
UKEw
2. Almog, N. (2018). Everyone Is Normal, and Everyone Has a Disability: Narratives of
University Students with Visual Impairment, 6(4).
http://dx.doi.org/10.17645/si.v6i4.1697
3. American Psychological Association (2020). Enhancing Your Interactions with People
with Disabilities. https://www.apa.org/pi/disability/resources/publications/enhancing
4. American Psychological Association (2020). How COVID-19 Impacts People with
Disabilities. https://www.apa.org/topics/COVID-19/research-disabilities
5. Au, K., & Man, D. (2006). Attitudes toward People with Disabilities: A Comparison
between Health Care Professionals and Students. International Journal of
Rehabilitation Research, 29(2), 155160.
https://doi.org/10.1097/01.mrr.0000210048.09668.ab
6. Bachelet, M. (2018, December 3). OHCHR and The Rights of Persons with
Disabilities. United Nations Human Rights.
https://www.ohchr.org/en/issues/disability/pages/disabilityindex.aspx
7. Brolsma, D., (2020). People with Disabilities Perception of Quality of Life After
Participation in a Student Service Learning Program. [Master's Thesis, California State
University] http://scholarworks.csun.edu/handle/10211.3/216714
8. Brown, W., & Jeffress, M. (2018). The Impact of Having an Instructor with Disability
on Student Attitudes toward People with Disabilities.
https://books.google.com.ph/books?hl=en&lr=&id=iINSDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=P
T446&dq=info:hAhcb92IslgJ:scholar.google.com/&ots=sxlPaJW5lT&sig=0qpbvYB9
NxuWNQdugl-ue7fxl5o&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
9. Burgstahler, S., Corrigan, B., & McCarter, J. (2004) Making distance learning courses
accessible to students and instructors with disabilities: A case study 7(3), 233-246.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2004.06.004
10. Canals, L. (2017). Instruments for Gathering Data. Qualitative Approaches to
Research on Plurilingual Education. https://doi.org/10.14705/
11. Cole, C. (2017, February 21). Special Education: A Hindrance to Disability
Acceptance. Rooted in Rights. https://rootedinrights.org/special-education-a-
hindrance-to-disability-acceptance/
12. Cruz, F., Calimpusan, C. (2018). Status and Challenges of the Deaf in One City in the
Philippines: Towards the Development of Support Systems and Socio-Economic
Opportunities 6(2), 61-74 http://www.academia.edu/download/62370570/ APJMR-
2017.6.2.0920200315-93280-1dr65kk.pdf
13. Department of Education. (2020). Official Statement on the Opening of Classes.
https://www.deped.gov.ph/2020/08/14/official-statement-on-the-opening-of-classes/
14. Geronia, E. (2017, August 10). Life as a PWD in the Philippines. Esquire.
https://www.esquiremag.ph/life/health-and-fitness/the-life-of-a-pwd-in-the-
philippines-a1760-20170810-lfrm
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1227
15. Groce, N. (2004). Adolescents and youth with disability: Issues and Challenges. Asia
Pacific Disability Rehabilitation. 15(2), 13-32.
https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/15132/
16. Ilako, C., Maceviciute, E., & Muwanguzi, J. (2020). Creating Inclusive Library Spaces
for Students with Disabilities (SWDs): Perceptions and Experiences. Sundqvist A.,
Berget G., Nolin J., Skjerdingstad K. (Eds.). Sustainable Digital Communities.
iConference 2020. Vol 12051. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-
43687-2_39
17. Inciong, T., & Quijano, Y. (2013). Inclusion of Children with Disabilities: The
Philippines Experience 24(2), 173-191.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2004.10600208
18. Kabuta, L. (2014). Problems Facing Students with Physical Disabilities in Higher
Learning Institutions in Tanzania. [Masteral Dissertation, University of Tanzania].
https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/33425411.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwjdy6SUt9HsAh
19. Kammerer, P. (2015, September 28). Why are people so afraid of those with a
disability? South China Morning Post. https://www.scmp.com/comment/insight-
opinion/article/1862018/why-are-people-so-afraid-those-disability
20. Kennedy Krieger Institute (2020). Special Education in the Era of COVID-19.
https://www.kennedykrieger.org/stories/maryland-center-developmental-disabilities-
newsletter/maryland-center-developmental-disabilities-newsletter-2020-issue-
2/special-education-era-COVID-19
21. Lenart, C. (2020, August 14). Disability Awareness: They Said We Couldn't
https://disabilityawareness.us/socialization-disabilities
22. Magna Carta for Disabled Persons 1991. (RA 7277). s. 4.C (PH)
23. Magsambol, B. (2020, June 9). Distance learning: A looming Crisis for Students with
Special Needs. Rappler. https://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/in-depth/distance-
learning-looming-crisis-students-with-special-needs
24. Manaf, A., Mohd, M., & Aswan, A. (2016). Challenges in Conducting Research on
Persons with Disabilities (PWDs): Personal Journey. Employment Among Persons
with Disabilities. 2nd International Social Development Conference
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322337875_CHALLENGES_IN_CONDUC
TING_RESEARCH_ON_PERSONS_WITH_DISABILITIES_PWDs_PERSONAL_J
OURNEY
25. Manolov, D. (2020, July 28). What is the 'New Normal' for Youth with #ThisAbility?
The Hidden Lessons from COVID-19. Voice of Youth.
https://www.voicesofyouth.org/blog/what-new-normal-youth-thisability-hidden-
lessons-COVID-19
26. Marella, M., Devine, A., Armecin, G., Zayas, J., Marco, M., & Vaughan C. (2016,
August 2) Rapid Assessment of Disability in the Philippines: Understanding
Prevalence, Well-being, and Access to the Community for People with Disabilities.
Population Health Metrics ISSN: 1478-7954 https://pophealthmetrics.biomedcentral.
com/articles/10.1186/s12963-016-0096-y
27. Mohammed, W. (2020, July 3). How COVID-19 Affects Education for People with
Disabilities in Ghana. Global Voices.
https://www.google.com/amp/s/globalvoices.org/2020/07/03/how-COVID-19-affects-
education-for-people-with-disabilities-in-ghana/amp/
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1228
28. Momene, R. (2015, December 18). Negative Stereotypes and Attitudes Linked to
Disability. Atlas Corps. https://atlascorps.org/negative-stereotypes-and-attitudes-
linked-to-disability/
29. Narido, S., & Tacadao, M. (2016). A Study on Employment Profile of Persons with
Disabilities (PWD's) in Selected Regions in the Philippines. Institute for Labor
Studies. https://ils.dole.gov.ph/a-study-on-employment-profile-of-persons-with-
disabilities-pwds-in-selected-regions-in-the-philippines/
30. Neeraja, P. (2013). Adjustment Problems Faced by Children with Learning
Disabilities. Journal of Education and Practice. 5(4). ISSN 2222-1735
31. Picard, D. (2015). Teaching Students with Disabilities. Vanderbilt University.
https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/disabilities/
32. Ramon, A., Soya, M., Reyes, C., Tabuga, A., Yamagata, T. (2010). Income Disparity
Among Persons with Disabilities Assessed by Education: Findings from a Field
Survey. http://hdl.handle.net/2344/921
33. Ravassard, M. (2018). Right to Education: Person with Disabilities. UNESCO.
https://www.right-to-education.org/issue-page/marginalised-groups/persons-
disabilities
34. Rios, D., Magasi, S., Novak, C. & Harniss, M. (2016). American Journal of Public
Health. Conducting Accessible Research: Including People With Disabilities in Public
Health, Epidemiological, and Outcomes Studies.106(12), 21372144.
https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303448
35. Schreuer, N. & Sachs, D. (2011). Disability Studies Quarterly. Inclusion of Students
with Disabilities in Higher Education: Performance and Participation in Student's
Experiences. 31(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.18061/dsq.v31i2
36. Shigri, N. (2018, January 21). The Importance of Disability Awareness: Home and
School. Medium. https://medium.com/arise-impact/the-importance-of-disability-
awareness-home-and-school-eead2276f349
37. Smith-Khan, L., Crock, M., Saul B., & McCallum, R. (2015). To 'Promote, Protect and
Ensure': Overcoming Obstacles to Identifying Disability in Forced Migration 28(1),
3868. https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/feu020
38. Tabuga, A. (2010). Factors Motivating Participation of Persons with Disability in the
Philippines: The Discount Privilege in Goods and Services. PIDS Discussion Paper
Series 2010-28. https://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/126818
39. Tabuga, A. (2013) Policy Awareness and Participation by Persons with Disability in
the Philippines. PIDS Discussion Paper Series 2013-11
http://hdl.handle.net/10419/126922
40. Taub, D. (2006). Understanding the Concerns of Parents of Students with Disabilities:
and Roles for School Counselors. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X0601001S07
41. Taunt, H., & Hastings, R. (2002). Positive Impact of Children with Developmental
Disabilities on Their Families: A Preliminary Study. Education and Training in Mental
Retardation and Developmental 37(4), 410-420.
https://www.jstor.org/stable/23880074
42. The Mindful World (2014). Creating a Better Society: The Importance of Empowering
People with Disabilities. https://www.themindfulword.org/2014/creating-better-
society-importance-empowering-people-disabilities/amp
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1229
43. Thomson, S. (2016, December 2). World Economic Forum. Disability is Not an
Obstacle to Success. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/12/disability-is-not-an-
obstacle-to-success-these-inspirational-leaders-prove-that-9bfc2816-a172-4a67-836e-
95c1609f63eb/
44. Tuffour, I. (2017). A Critical Overview of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis:
A Contemporary Qualitative Research Approach. https://doi:10.4172/2472-
1654.100093
45. Tus, J. (2019). Students’ Personality, Self-Efficacy, and Its Impact on the Academic
Performance of the Senior High School Students. Electronic Research Journal of
Social Sciences and Humanities, 1, 92-96.
https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12250412.v1
46. Tus, J. (2019). The Impact of the Personality Traits on the Academic Achievement of
the Senior High School Students. Journal of Global Research in Education and Social
Science, 13(6), 208-212. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12250409.v1
47. Tus, J. (2019). Self-Efficacy and It’s Influence on the Academic Performance of the
Senior High School Students. Journal of Global Research in Education and Social
Science, 13(6), 213-218. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12250355.v1
48. Tus, J. (2020). The Influence of Study Attitudes and Study Habits on the Academic
Performance of the Students. International Journal Of All Research
Writings, October, 2(4). https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.13093391.v1
49. Tus, J. (2020). The Demographic Profile of the Residents of the Partner Community of
St. Paul College of Bocaue: A Basis for Community Action Program. Asian Journal of
Arts, Humanities and Social Studies, 35-44.
https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12250355.v1
50. Tus, J. (2020). An Assessment of the School Culture and Its Impact on the Academic
Performance of the Students. International Journal Of All Research
Writings, May, 1(11). https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12250424.v1
51. Tus, J. (2020). Self Concept, Self Esteem, Self Efficacy and Academic
Performance of the Senior High School Students. International Journal of Research
Culture Society, 4(10). https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.13174991.v1
52. Tus, J. (2020). Academic Stress, Academic Motivation, and Its Relationship on the
Academic Performance of the Senior High School Students. Asian Journal of
Multidisciplinary Studies, 8 (11). https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.13174952.v1
53. Tus, J., Lubo, R., Rayo, F., & Cruz, M. A. (2020). The Learners' Study Habits and Its
Relation on their Academic Performance. International Journal Of All Research
Writings, 2(6), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.13325177.v
54. UNESCO Bangkok (2020, May 4). Empowering Students with Disabilities During the
COVID-19 Crisis. https://bangkok.unesco.org/content/empowering-students-
disabilities-during-COVID-19-crisis
55. United Nations Human Rights (2020, April 29). COVID-19 and the Rights of Persons
with Disabilities: Guidance. Office of the High Commisioner.
https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Disability/COVID19_and_The_Rights_of_P
ersons_with_Disabilities.pdf
56. Uniting Care Community Options (2014, February). Overcoming Obstacles to Social
Inclusion. UCCO. https://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/images/stories/committees
/fcdc/inquiries/57th/Disability/Submissions/70_UnitingCare_Community_Options
Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396
13664 www.ijariie.com 1230
57. Vaughan, C., Atkinson, L., Devine, A., Zayas, J., Ignacio, R., Garcia, J., Bisda, K.,
Salgado, J., & Marco, M. (2020). Enabling Action: Reflections upon Inclusive
Participatory Research on Health with Women with Disabilities in the Philippines.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12468
58. Wieringo, R. (2015). A Case Study of the Experiences of Students with Disabilities
who did not Complete Highschool. [Doctoral Dissertation, Liberty University of
Lynchburg]. http://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi%3Farticle%3D
2161%26context%3Ddoctoral&ved=2ahUKEwjirrLxjeDsAhW8w4s
59. Worldbank (2020). Understanding Poverty: Social Inclusion of PWDs. IBRD-IDA.
The Worldbank Group. https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/social-inclusion
60. Yap, J., Reyes, C., Ramon J., & Tabuga, A. (2010). Poverty reduction for the disabled
in the Philippines: Livelihood analysis from the data of PWDs in Metro Manila.
http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Jrp/151.html.
... When the interview was about to end, the participants were urged to offer any clarification, concerns, or confusing queries resulting from any technological challenges [29]. After the interview, the recorded data were gathered and prepared for transcription of the exact and complete verbatim of the participants to eliminate data ambiguities [29]. ...
... When the interview was about to end, the participants were urged to offer any clarification, concerns, or confusing queries resulting from any technological challenges [29]. After the interview, the recorded data were gathered and prepared for transcription of the exact and complete verbatim of the participants to eliminate data ambiguities [29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
An online interview with recording was conducted utilizing a validated semi-structured interview guide in data collection. This study employs Phenomenology under qualitative research design and conventional content analysis techniques to analyze and interpret the data narratives of the participants. The study's findings revealed that the BTLEd students experienced problematic home staying and frustrating family circumstances during the pandemic crisis. Thus, the researchers concluded that the BTLEd students' home environment experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic significantly negatively impacted their psychosocial well-being. This paper includes recommendations for future research.
... Apart from surviving during a pandemic, the challenges and constraints that students face during online learning can lead to additional stress that may affect their physical and mental well-being (Chakraborty et al., 2020). These educational constraints are even heightened among students with physical disabilities as they experience social exclusions online and limited access to assistive technologies (Dianito et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
When studying possible impacts and consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, changes and challenges in students' learning activities as a result of the temporary school closures and the shift to online distance learning are likely to be observed. One of the more prominent changes is the move from face-to-face (FtF) learning to online distance learning with the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC). In the Philippines, students' current learning conditions rely on digital technologies that advance education through virtual learning environments and platforms. This paper explores the lived experiences of students using CMC as part of their online distance learning. The study also aims to analyze the influence of CMC, as part of the pedagogical shifts during the pandemic, on students' perspectives on learning and classroom interaction. On this basis, the paper reflects on how the shift to online education has affected students' psychosocial characteristics and well-being. For this study, in-depth interviews were conducted among Filipino senior high school students (n=27) and college students (n=20). Drawing from the social information processing theory (SIPT), findings revealed that the student's use of CMC has resulted in: technology serving as an alternative to FtF interactions, academic (de)socialization, and impersonalized learning environments. With academic learning relying solely on digital technologies during the pandemic, students experienced an increasing digital divide in terms of internet connectivity. Moreover, students felt that learning activities in their online classes lacked social orientation and had limited practical skills development. As a result, the learning of students has become impersonalized, which has led to emotional and mental health disturbances. As a conclusion, the study suggests reevaluating and reflecting on the existing struggles of students to better implement CMC as a potential instructional delivery during an ongoing pandemic.
Article
Full-text available
Changes in the way of living changed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, including education. Thus, to keep students learning during this situation, an online learning modality was implemented, affecting the nature of the traditional way of learning-where students cannot socialize and are frequently alone. Moreover, this study investigates the correlation between self-esteem and anxiety among college students. The results showed a significant relationship between self-esteem and anxiety (r=.121) based on statistical findings.
Article
Full-text available
Stress and happiness are broad issues and in this kind of situation, people are not well informed about them. Particularly during the pandemic, students face the new normal of learning-online learning. Thus, this study investigates the relationship between stress and happiness among senior high school students. Based on the statistical analysis, indicates that there is an existing relationship between stress and happiness (r=0.134) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the study suggests that reducing the workloads of senior high school students can lower stress and increase their happiness.
Article
Full-text available
School is a competitive environment where students are expected to fulfill a variety of activities and responsibilities. To effectively manage academic stress necessitates coping qualities. Thus, due to online class learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, perceived stress is linked to lower happiness levels as measured by state and trait measurements. Further, this study employed a descriptive correlational design to determine the relationship between the variables among 157 senior high school students. As a result, the statistical findings show a significant relationship between stress and happiness (r=.038).
Article
Full-text available
Online learning is one of the solutions that schools around the Philippines are using to lessen the impact of COVID-19 on education. It is in line with the health protocol of the government, but students have a hard time coping with this new way of learning that has caused some effect on their mental health and social skills. Some students have a problem getting the support they need, which has resulted in their having mild to severe depressive symptoms. Social support has the effect of weakening the effect of depressive symptoms on students. This study aims to investigate the relationship between social support and depression among the senior high school students. Based on the statistical analysis, it indicates that social support and depression have a significant relationship (r=0.129).
Article
Full-text available
Many people feel the suffering and struggle, especially the students; they feel pressure, lack of confidence, and social anxiety due to isolation and change of learning modality caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, this study investigated the relationship between self-esteem and burnout among public students in senior high school. Statistical findings suggest a significant relationship between self-esteem and academic burnout (r=.115).
Article
Full-text available
Over the past few years, all schools were closed down, and learning modalities were shifted online due to COVID-19. The sudden transition of learning subsequently affects how students interact, resulting in difficulty in accepting themselves, which can be aligned to the discontinuous enhancement of self-esteem. This kind of situation consequently results in students stopping their inner growth which is essential for managing emotions such as loneliness. This study investigates the significant relationship between self-esteem and loneliness perceived by college students. The statistical analysis demonstrates a significant relationship between self-esteem and loneliness (r= .131).
Article
Full-text available
Due to the overall high number of COVID-19 cases in the Philippines, students are restricted from studying in their homes. Hence, online learning developed consequences that influenced their self-concept and anxiety. The sudden and unexpected adjustment from face-to-face classes to online learning had significant effects on students' self-concept and educational achievement. Even though many students have received awards for their determination and hard work, their psychological health and self-concept remain their main priorities during the current pandemic. Anxiety is something that students face from time to time, as being lonely can impact their confidence. Moreover, this study investigates the relationship between self-concept and anxiety among college students. The statistical findings revealed a significant relationship between self-concept and anxiety (r =.148).
Chapter
The role of higher education in advancing opportunities for women with disabilities cannot be contested. Education provides substantial, proven benefits for people in terms of individual development and producing appropriate human resource capital that is integral in spurring productivity, which is crucial in the elimination of poverty, disease, and ignorance, thus ultimately improving societal welfare. Observations indicate that access to higher education opportunities for women with disabilities remains low more so in Kenyan institutions of higher learning albeit an elaborate legal and policy framework for the education of persons living with disabilities. Institutional and personal factors are some of the obstacles to access and participation of women with disabilities to higher education. This conceptual chapter provides a general background to this topic and theorizes on some of the issues that hinder women living with disabilities from accessing higher education opportunities.
Article
Full-text available
People with disabilities experience health disparities arising from social, environmental, and system‐level factors. Evidence from a range of settings suggests women with disabilities have reduced access to health information and experience barriers to screening, prevention, and care services. This results in greater unmet health needs, particularly in relation to sexual and reproductive health. Women with disabilities are also more likely to experience physical and sexual violence than women without disabilities, further undermining their health. Community‐based participatory research (CBPR) can generate knowledge and underpin action to address such health disparities and promote health equity. However, the potential and challenges of disability inclusion in CBPR, particularly in contexts of poverty and structural inequality such as those found in low‐ and middle‐income countries, are not well documented. In this paper, we reflect on our experience of implementing and evaluating W‐DARE, a three‐year program of disability‐inclusive CBPR aiming to increase access to sexual and reproductive health and violence‐response services for women with disabilities in the Philippines. We discuss strategies for increasing disability inclusion in research and use a framework of reflexive solidarity to consider the uneven distribution of the benefits, costs, and responsibilities for action arising from the W‐DARE program. Highlights • Disability inclusive community‐based participatory research can address health inequalities. • Inclusion increases quality and impact of research, but has material, personal and political costs. • The costs of inclusive research are disproportionately born by co‐researchers with disabilities. • Participatory research can contribute to new solidarities for sustained health‐promoting action.
Article
Full-text available
Academic performance is dependent on multiple factors, two of which are stress and motivation. It is an essential aspect for senior high school students as they are nearing college life and because having better academic performance yields better opportunities in life. The study used a descriptive-correlational approach to examine the students' stress and motivation and their relationship with their academic performance. The data was gathered through the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). The study's findings revealed that students' stress and motivation were average and above average, respectively. Moreover, the academic performance of the students was mostly satisfactory and very satisfactory. Furthermore, the study found that stress and motivation have no significant relationship with students' academic performance.
Article
Full-text available
Self–related perceptions have turned into an essential subject in education, given its impacts on students' behavior and academic performance. These self-related psychological perceptions include self – concept, self – esteem, and self – efficacy. Education in the Philippines represents the ever-changing facets of life. Augmenting the current educational system through the implementation of the K to 12 curriculums. Thus, this study's primary purpose was to determine the students' self-concept, self-esteem and self-efficacy, and academic performance. The respondents of the study were senior high school students. The descriptivecorrelation research method was utilized to describe the respondents' profile in terms of self-concept, selfesteem, self-efficacy, and academic performance. The null hypothesis at .05 alpha level of significance was tested to determine the impact of self-concept, self-esteem, and self-efficacy on the students' academic performance. The computed multiple regression analysis results revealed that self-concept, self-esteem, and selfefficacy do not significantly affect senior high school students' academic performance. Moreover, it is suggested that the school personnel and parents monitor and provide the needed support and guidance to their children while searching for their identities. Also, devise additional programs for their students' proper guidance and make progress on the learning activities and teaching-learning plan to maximize their learning experience and boost the students' performance in class.
Article
Full-text available
Students' academic performance embodies an essential part of the constellation of factors determinant of student success. Also, it plays a very significant role in education, primarily as a concrete tool to assess the student's learning process. Psychologists and researchers have attempted to comprehend how students vary in processing, retaining, and retrieving learning information and have used various personality, attitudinal, cognitive styles, and ability measures. Thus, this study's primary purpose was to determine the students' study attitudes, study habits, and academic performance. Further, this examined the influence of study attitudes and study habits on their academic performance. The study respondents were the senior high school students in a Catholic School in Bulacan, Philippines. The Descriptive-correlation research method was utilized to describe the respondents' profile in terms of their study attitudes, study habits, and academic performance. A total of one hundred thirty (130) senior high school students participated in this study. The null hypothesis at .05 alpha level of significance was tested to determine the influence of study attitudes and study habits on the students' academic performance. The computed multiple regression analysis results revealed that study attitudes and study habits do not significantly affect senior high school students' academic performance.
Article
Full-text available
A school is a place that molds the individual in a very holistic manner. It is a training ground where students can develop, harness, and maximize their potentials to be a responsive and excellent man as a product of their learning process. Furthermore, this study aims to assess the respondents' perceptions of their school culture and its impact on their academic performance. The research method utilized in this study was a descriptive correlational approach. The respondents were 141 Grade 11 students from a Public School. Findings were statistically computed with linear regression analysis and concluded that the respondents' perception of the school culture does not significantly affect their academic performance. Further, based on the findings of the study it concluded that (1) the school with its teachers keep them motivated and challenge them to do their best, (2) the rules and regulations implemented in their school are not punitive, (3) students who follow the rules and regulations perform better than those who do not, (4) the school activities are beneficial to the well-being for the students, (5) their assessment tests received from their teachers provides them preparedness and confidence towards their final examination, and (6) feedbacking from their teachers provide them ways on improving their academic performance. Moreover, the implications of the study were discussed, and recommendations were suggested.
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to investigate the influence of personality traits on the academic achievement of the Senior High School at St. Paul College of Bocaue. This study used the descriptive-correlation research method that utilized a standardized instrument as a primary data gathering tool. The respondents of the study were the Grade 11 Senior High School students at St. Paul College of Bocaue. The result of the study showed that the “Big Five” personality traits of the students were at an extreme level. Likewise, the result suggests that the students are very creative, focused on tackling new challenges, pays attention to detail, likes to be the center of attention, likes to meet new people, feels empathy and concern for other people. Moreover, the students experience a lot of stress, worry about many different things and feel anxious about their environment. Furthermore, the null hypothesis was tested at the 0.05 alpha level of significance to determine the impact of personality on the academic achievement of the students. The computed multiple regression analysis results revealed that personality traits do not significantly affect the academic achievement of the students.
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the influence of self-efficacy on the academic performance of the Grade 12 Senior High School students at the St. Paul College of Bocaue. The findings of the study concluded that the level of the self-efficacy of the respondents was high. Likewise, the findings suggested that the students are resilient and determined in the face of setbacks, feel assured that they will be able to learn the classroom discussion and excel on their assessment, and they tend to be more intrinsically motivated to learn new knowledge. Furthermore, the computed linear regression analysis results revealed that self-efficacy does not significantly affect the Senior High School students’ academic performance. This suggests that even if the students have a high level of self-efficacy it doesn’t influence their academic performance in class. However, it doesn’t mean that the school should not give importance to develop the students’ self-efficacy. Hence, it is suggested that the school should continue its academic programs that will continuously develop the student’s well-being in the process of acquiring relevant experiences and skills in the school.
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of this study was to determine the personality and self-efficacy on the academic performance of the students. Further, this examined the impact of personality, and on their academic performance. The descriptive-correlation research method was utilized to describe the respondents' profile in terms of their personality, self-efficacy and academic performance. A total of one hundred thirty-seven (137) grade 11 senior high school students of St. Paul College of Bocaue participated in this study. The null hypothesis was tested at .05 alpha level of significance to determine the impact of personality, self-efficacy on the academic performance of the students. The computed multiple regression analysis results revealed that personality and self-efficacy do not significantly affect the academic performance of senior high school students. Introduction: