Comparative Antimicrobial Studies between
Commercial Deodorants, Alum, Sodium
Bicarbonate and Lemon Against Sweat Odor
Rehab Mohamed Atta El-Desoukey1; Alanoud M. Al-Qahtani2; Mshail A.
Alqhtani2; Nafla N. Alotaibi2; Ghada S. almotawa2; Sharifah H.AlDosari2; Hawa-
zen A.AlSahli2; Samar A. Alsahli2; Sahar A. Alsahli2; Meshael M. Alqhtani2 and
Waad A. Alarifi2
1Microbiology and Immunology Department, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt
2Biology Department, Faculty of Science and humanities in Al Quwai’iyah; Shaqraa University, KSA
Sweat glands emission is without anyone else unscented, and armpit rottenness is brought
about by the microbial biotransformation of the scentless discharge into unpredictable musty
molecules . Therefore, a good antiperspirant item could forestall the development and
action of the debasing apocrine organ discharge bacteria like Staphylococcus epidermidis
and Corynebacterium species . Nowadays, in most antiperspirant items, antibacterial
specialists, for example, quaternary ammonium mixes like triclosan, aluminum salts, and
sweet-smelling scent covering operators are used. Aluminum salts, notwithstanding their
appropriate antibacterial impact, increment the danger of Alzheimer’s ailment and bosom
and prostate cancers [3-6]. Many of other antibacterial specialists saw as successful against
skin microorganisms are aggravating or sensitizing . There is additionally the danger of
protection from standard anti-microbials. In this manner, herbal medicine having antibacterial
impacts against Staphylococci and vigorousare on the other hand accessible for the treatment
of armpit odor [7-9]. The antibacterial action of heating pop (sodium bicarbonate) was
surveyed utilizing diverse test draws near. Momentary presentation tests demonstrated huge
antibacterial effect. Sodium bicarbonate (SB) hindered the development of microorganisms
Lactobacillus plantarum, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Alums are
utilizable for a scope of modern procedures. They are solvent in dihydrogen monoxide; have
an astringent, corrosive, and sweetish taste; The compound material as alum has numerous
Wings to the Research Research Article
*Corresponding author: Atta El Microbiol-
ogy and Immunology Department, National
Research Center, Giza, Egypt
Submission: September 01, 2020
Published: February 08, 2021
Volume 4 - Issue 5
How to cite this article: Rehab Mo-
hamed Atta ElDesoukey, Alanoud
Alotaibi, Ghada S Almotawa, et al. Com-
parative Antimicrobial Studies between
Commercial Deodorants, Alum, Sodi-
um Bicarbonate and Lemon Against
Sweat Odor Bacteria. Cohesive J Micro-
biol Infect Dis. 4(5). CJMI. 000597. 2021.
Copyright@ Rehab Mohamed Atta
ElDesoukey. This article is distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution 4.0 International License,
which permits unrestricted use and
redistribution provided that the original
author and source are credited.
Cohesive Journal of Microbiology & Infectious Disease
Deodorant products forestall the development and action of the debasing apocrine organ microbes
living in the armpit. Normal antibacterial specialists in the market like triclosan and aluminum salts,
regardless of their reasonable antibacterial impacts, increment the danger of Alzheimer’s malady, bosom
and prostate malignancies or actuate contact dermatitis. Notwithstanding spreading of bacterial oppo-
to locate another antimicrobial compound with negligible reactions. In this manner, normal antiperspi-
rants like lemon juice having antibacterial impacts are of intrigue. The aim of the present study was to
verify the in vitro comparative antimicrobial effects of different deodorants, alum, sodium bicarbonate
and lemonjuice suspensions against two major bacteria responsible for axillary odor (Staphylococcus
epidermidis and corynebacterium) by agar well diffusion method. The results acquired explained that all
analyzed normal substances and commercial deodorants have a noteworthy antibacterial impact against
the axillary related scent bacteria with various inhibitory zone measures recommended that the natural
deodorants were much better in addition to that extracting the ingredients of commercial deodorants
for the manufacturers.
Cohesive J Microbiol Infect Dis
Copyright © Rehab Mohamed Atta ElDesoukey
advantages as it has antibacterial impact on microbes, likewise, it
has against yeast impact that represses the development of Candida
albicans in which its impact on the maturing procedure . Potash
alum when added to water reports bactericidal effect, against
different plague causing enteric pathogens like Vibrio cholerae and
Shigella dysenteriae by bringing down the pH of water (from 6.0
Rutaceae. It is developed for the most part for its alkaloids, which
are having anticancer exercises and the antibacterial potential in
spectrum of organic action including antibacterial, antifungal,
antidiabetic, anticancer and antiviral activities . So, this study
aimed to verify the in vitro comparative antimicrobial effects of
different deodorants, alum, sodium bicarbonate and lemon juice
suspensions against two major bacteria responsible for axillary
odor (Staphylococcus epidermidis and corynebacterium) by agar
well diffusion method.
Materals and Methods
Collection of examined samples
Five types of deodorants in addition to baking soda (sodium
bicarbonate), alum and lemon were purchased from markets in
a) 5g of each sodium bicarbonate and grinded alum were
dissolved in about 10ml of hot and cold distilled water in
sterile test tubes.
b) 5ml of each type of deodorant was dissolved in about 10ml of
hot and cold distilled water in sterile test tubes.
c) 5ml of lemon juice was dissolved in about 10ml of hot and cold
distilled water in sterile test tubes.
d) The tubes were kept for 1 week at room temperature until use.
Preparation of inoculums
The strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis,
corynebacterium) were inoculated in nutrient broth for overnight
at 37 °C for bacteria.
The preliminary investigation of antimicrobial effect of
various extracts of various deodorants, alum, sodium bicarbonate
and lemon juice were performed by utilizing agar well diffusion
method . The affectability of all extracts was tried against
epidermidis and corynebacterium). The anti-microbial activity was
measured by the inhibition zones produced in millimeter. All trials
µg) utilized as positive control while
distalled water (100µg) utilized as negative control for antibacterial
antibacterial effect against the axillary associated odor bacteria with
different inhibitory zone measures. The most effective antibacterial
against Corynebacterium from the commercial deodorant was the
hot aqueous extract of D5 followed by D2 hot aqueous extract while
D3 has no effect on it. Also, the most antibacterial effect against
Corynebacterium from the examined natural substances was by cold
aqueous extract of sodium bicarbonate followed by cold aqueous
extract of alum and then lemon. the most effective antibacterial
against Staphylococcus epidermidis from the commercial deodorant
was hot aqueous extract of D5 followed by D2 hot aqueous extract
while D4 and D6 has no effect on it. In addition to that the most
antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus epidermidis from the
examined natural substances was by cold aqueous extract of alum
followed by cold aqueous extract of sodium bicarbonate and then
In general, it was found that an underlying negative impact of
deodorants, yet not deodorants, on bacterial plenitude utilizing
a customary culture-based methodology. Deodorants are able to
do emphatically lessening the biomass of the armpit microbial
network, to a great extent autonomous of the memorable item
utilization of people. Numerous antiperspirants are ethanol-based
and likely more water solvent and simpler to wash away than
deodorants; and deodorants contain aluminum-based salts that
diminish sweat by shaping hastens that truly square perspiration
organs . And along these lines may lessen assets important for
the development of microbial networks. Dissimilar to numerous
taxa on the body, these two taxa have been generally very much
portrayed with respect to their biology. Types of Corynebacterium
are related with the prevailing smells of the armpits and people with
more Corynebacterium are probably going to have more grounded
personal stench . Stopping the utilization of antiperspirant
and deodorants was related with lower levels of Corynebacterium,
in accordance with desires, given that organizations that sell
underarm items intend to decrease stench through decrease in
generally speaking bacterial tallies. Despite the fact that it has
emphatically among people, representing such variety has been
a test, one that has driven a few creators to recommend that
the synthesis of the skin biome may basically be stochastic, a
component of chance colonization’s and capricious elements. The
piece of the armpit microbiome is profoundly unsurprising, being
ruled by Staphylococcaceae and Corynebacterium, and emphatically
affected side-effect use. Types of the Staphylococcaceae incorporate
helpful symbionts [18,19]. The more extensive wellbeing results of
Cohesive J Microbiol Infect Dis
Copyright © Rehab Mohamed Atta ElDesoukey
antiperspirant and deodorants use are not all around examined.
In spite of the fact that it has been proposed that antiperspirant
as well as deodorants use is related with occurrence or period of
best case scenario [21,22]. Regardless of whether antiperspirant
or deodorants will in general kindness less advantageous or even
pathogenic bacteria species doesn’t appear to have ever been
thought of. Late work demonstrates that the microbial network
structure of the skin, including its commensal/advantageous
occupants, applies noteworthy impact on human wellbeing and
illness, especially in the rise of pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus
aureus, S. epidermidis, and Propionibacterium acnes [18,19,22].
So, this study aimed to verify the in vitro comparative
antimicrobial effects of different deodorants, alum, sodium
bicarbonate and lemon juice suspensions against two major
bacteria responsible for axillary odor (Staphylococcus epidermidis
and corynebacterium) by agar well diffusion method trying to
to demonstrate the effectiveness of some famous commercial
deodorants against the bacteria responsible for sweat odor
especially as some people use many and found the smell still
present which may be due the low or no effect of these commercial
deodorants in killing these bacteria so the odor is still present.
From these examined natural deodorants was sodium bicarbonate
which contains carbonate anions. Carbonate anions associate
legitimately with the complex of transferrin-or lactoferrin-bound
metals, for example, Fe and Cu . Apo-transferrin is additionally
known to interface with 2 HCO3
or CO. These carbonic particles
respond legitimately with arginine deposits of transferrin in
restricting locales of 2 projections [24,25]. Sodium bicarbonate at
50mM expanded the antibacterial action of ovotransferrin against
E. coli W1485, though ovotransferrin without NaHCO3 didn’t show
antibacterial action . For the most part, Fe-restricting limit
of ovotransferrin is known to diminish under acidic pH [27-29].
Little examinations were performed to explore NaHCO3
action and present outcomes couldn’t help contradicting Cervantes
adherence . NaHCO3
impediment of bacterial development which concurred with that
referenced by Silhacek and Taake who discovered incredible
movement of SB on Streptococcus mutans development . The
antibacterial properties of sodium bicarbonate have been known
for a considerable length of time, yet the atomic comprehension of
its component of activity is as yet inadequate. Also, another natural
examined deodorant were alum. Alum (sub-atomic equation:
KAl(SO4)2.12H2O) is a lackluster, unscented crystalline strong that
turns white in air . The clinical employments of alum in mouth
washes, immunizations improvement, haemostasis and hindrance
of V. cholerae development in water have been portrayed [33,34].
issue which powers scientists to search for choices decisions.
Characteristic synthetic mixes are among these other options. In this
examination, alum salt was tried against axillary ordinary bacterial
vegetation which produces upsetting smell. Alum had strong
inhibitory impacts against M. luteus, S. epidermidis, C. xerosis and
B. subtilis at various concentrations based on the stock weakening
tests, the MIC of 7.5mg/mL showed up as ideal centralization of alum
malodor. Previous examines have uncovered that alum is successful
against a wide assortment of microbial pathogens [35,36] including
Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae
[37,38]. In 2014, additionally watched a critical bactericidal impact
of alum against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis,
Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae . In any case, the
system of bactericidal impact of alum isn’t notable . A few
suppositions characteristic the antibacterial impact of alum to
decrease in sharpness or malicious consequences for bacterial cell
of alum salt for mammalian utilization . It can’t be legitimately
consumed because of its contrarily charged particle, which can’t
substance . Anyway, higher concentration of alum may cause
nephrotoxicity and intestinal draining . Alum salt is utilized
in beauty care products as antiperspirant to diminish axillary
smell by blocking sweat conduits and forestalling sweat discharge.
Alum gems are profoundly solvent in water and when utilized
under arm, they are broken up by the body’s perspiration leaving
a dry meager layer on the skin’s surface which forestalls sweat
to interact with scent causing microscopic organisms. One of the
herbal plants regularly utilized as medication is the lemon organic
product. Lemon organic product is an herbal plant that has the
fundamental substance of alkaloid mixes which have the capacity
as anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antidiabetic.
(Citrus limon) juice contains numerous bioactive mixes, for
The bioactive mixes contained in lemon (Citrus limon) each have an
antibacterial. Regarding to the above results, the results obtained
the axillary associated odor bacteria with different inhibitory zone
measures. The most effective antibacterial against Corynebacterium
from the commercial deodorant was the hot aqueous extract of D5
followed by D2 hot aqueous extract while D3 has no effect on it.
Also, the most antibacterial effect against Corynebacterium from
the examined natural substances was by cold aqueous extract of
sodium bicarbonate followed by cold aqueous extract of alum and
then lemon. the most effective antibacterial against Staphylococcus
epidermidis from the commercial deodorant was hot aqueous
extract of D5 followed by D2 hot aqueous extract while D4 and D6
has no effect on it. In addition to that the most antibacterial effect
against Staphylococcus epidermidis from the examined natural
substances was by cold aqueous extract of alum followed by cold
aqueous extract of sodium bicarbonate and then lemon.
Cohesive J Microbiol Infect Dis
Copyright © Rehab Mohamed Atta ElDesoukey
Table 1: Collective table of antimicrobial effect of some natural substances and commercial deodorants against the ax-
illary odor bacteria. (H=HOT/C=COLD/control+ve= Ciprooxacin/control-ve=DW/ D=Deodrant)
carbonate Lemon Alum D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
Control+ve Control -ve
H C H C H C H C H C H C H C H C H C
Corynebacterium 37 39 24 24 29 38 13 0 41 0 0 0 0 13 46 32 32 0 21 0
epidermidis 32 35 25 20 30 37 12 0 17 0 15 0 0 0 35 30 0 0 25 0
Table 2: The antimicrobial activity of hot and cold aqueous Sodium bicarbonate extracts against axillary odor bacteria.
Isolates Aqueous extracts Sodium bicarbonate Antibacterial control positive Antimicrobial control negative
Corynebacterium hot 37
cold 39 21 0
Staphylococcus epidermidis hot 32 25 0
Table 3: The antimicrobial activity of hot and cold aqueous alum extracts against axillary odor bacteria.
Isolates Aqueous extracts Alum Antibacterial control positive Antimicrobial control negative
cold 38 21 0
Staphylococcus epidermidis hot 30 25 0
Table 4: The antimicrobial activity of hot and cold aqueous lemon extracts against axillary odor bacteria.
Isolates Aqueous extracts Lemon Antibacterial control positive Antimicrobial control negative
Corynebacterium hot 24
cold 24 21 0
From this study it can be concluded that all examined
antibacterial effect against the axillary associated odor bacteria
with different inhibitory zone measures but hot aqueous extract
of D5, cold aqueous extract of sodium bicarbonate and alum has
excellent antibacterial inhibitory effects on malodor producing
skin bacteria. So cold aqueous extract of sodium bicarbonate and
alum can therefore be used as either natural deodorants or as an
alternative to other existing chemicals, currently used as active
ingredients in deodorants. Also due to the excellent antibacterial
inhibitory effects on malodor producing skin bacteria of hot
aqueous extract of D5 and most of examined deodorants so it is
recommended to the manufacturers that to heat the ingredients
of deodorants because it could increase their antibacterial effect.
However, the preparation of deodorant from natural examined
substances is much better for its highly antibacterial effect except
the lemon. Further examinations are required to explore the
security, sensitivity, and viability of alum on human skin when
utilized as antiperspirant.
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