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Pristimantis cedros. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

Authors:
  • The Biodiversity Group

Abstract

IUCN Red List assessment for Pristimantis cedros
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™
ISSN 2307-8235 (online)
IUCN 2020: T99394379A99394547
Scope(s): Global
Language: English
Pristimantis cedros, Los Cedros Rainfrog
Assessment by: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
View on www.iucnredlist.org
Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2020. Pristimantis cedros. The IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species 2020: e.T99394379A99394547. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-
3.RLTS.T99394379A99394547.en
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THE IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES™
Taxonomy
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Craugastoridae
Scientific Name:ÊÊPristimantis cedros Hutter & Guayasamín, 2015
Common Name(s):
• English: Los Cedros Rainfrog
• Spanish; Castilian: Cutín de Los Cedros
Taxonomic Notes:
This is a split from the broader concept of Pristimantis calcarulatus (Hutter and Guayasamin 2015). The
Río Guayllabamba south of the two reserves appears to serve as a geographical barrier separating P.
cedros from P. calcarulatus and its sister taxon, P. pahuma (Hutter and Guayasamin 2015). Despite being
nearly morphologically identical, these taxa have considerable genetic distance between them.
Assessment Information
Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2020
Date Assessed: July 18, 2016
Justification:
Listed as Endangered due to having a limited distribution almost entirely encompassed by mining
concessions. It has an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of 435 km2, an even more restricted area of
occupancy (AOO), and occurs in two threat-defined locations where there is ongoing decline in the
extent and quality of its habitat in the surrounding area due to human activities. The EOO includes both
known and projected sites of occurrence, the latter being determined by proximity and suitable
elevation and habitat. A relatively small portion of the EOO ranges within the Cotacachi-Cayapas
Ecological Reserve, which is the only area of the EOO that maintains legal protection from mining
activity; confirmed records within this reserve are still needed.
Geographic Range
Range Description:
This species is known from two adjacent protected areas, corresponding to two threat-defined
locations: Reserva Los Cedros and the Río Manduriacu Reserve, Imbabura Province, Ecuador (Lynch et
al. 2014, Hutter and Guayasamin 2015, Maynard et al. 2018). Prior to its formal description in 2015,
these records were initially reported as P. calcarulatus, however the Río Guayllabamba south of the two
reserves appears to serve as a geographical barrier separating P. cedros from P. calcarulatus and its sister
taxon, P. pahuma (Hutter and Guayasamin 2015). At the type locality of Reserva Los Cedros, it has been
observed at elevations from 1,583–1,880 m asl, but it is known from a slightly broader elevational range
at the Río Manduriacu Reserve: 1,563–2,084 m asl (R.J. Maynard pers. comm. August 2020). Its extent of
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Pristimantis cedros – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T99394379A99394547.en
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occurrence (EOO) is 435 km2 and its area of occupancy is even more restricted.
The species might also range just within the southwestern boundary of the Cotacachi-Cayapas Ecological
Reserve, which is situated immediately north of Reserva Los Cedros and the Río Manduriacu Reserve.
Nonetheless, it is likely a micro-endemic species to this relatively small area of the Andes in NW
Ecuador, as it has not been reported from similar elevations further north at the Dracula Reserve in
Carchi Province, where phylogenetic analyses instead show there are other cryptic species of
Pristimantis that have yet to be formally described (J.P. Reyes-Puig pers. comm. August 2020).
Country Occurrence:
Native, Extant (resident): Ecuador (Ecuador (mainland))
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Pristimantis cedros – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T99394379A99394547.en
2
Distribution Map
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Pristimantis cedros – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T99394379A99394547.en
3
Population
Although this species is known from two privately managed reserves, both are within the same drainage
and records from these reserves are separated by just 8 km. It is a locally common species in suitable
habitat and the call of males can be a conspicuous component of the nocturnal soundscape (R.J.
Maynard pers. comm. August 2020). In three survey nights at the type locality, 13 adults were reported
(Hutter and Guayasamin 2015); at the Río Manduriacu Reserve, one or more individuals were recorded
during nocturnal sampling in primary forest (at appropriate elevations) on more than 75% of surveys
(R.J. Maynard pers. comm. August 2020). Observations of this species have been made during the
months of February (2018, Manduriacu), March (2012, Los Cedros; 2019, Manduriacu), May (2013,
Manduriacu), October (2016, Manduriacu), and December (2019, Manduriacu; Lynch et al. 2014, Hutter
and Guayasamin 2015, R.J. Maynard pers comm. August 2020). A decreasing population trend is inferred
from the ongoing decline in the quality and extent of this species' habitat.
Current Population Trend:ÊÊDecreasing
Habitat and Ecology (see Appendix for additional information)
The habitat occupied by this frog at both the Los Cedros and Río Manduriacu reserves consists of
mature montane forest lush in epiphytic vegetation (Hutter and Guayasamin 2015, R.J. Maynard pers.
comm. August 2020). This species does not appear to tolerate disturbed habitat.
Males call while perched on felled logs, tree trunks or on the upper surface of leaves from 0.2–2.6 m
above the ground (Hutter and Guayasamin 2015, R.J. Maynard pers. comm. August 2020). The call has
yet to be analyzed, however it is described as a single-noted ‘tick’ not occurring in a series (Hutter and
Guayasamin 2015). This species is a member of the large Terrarana clade, which is characterized by
direct developing species that deposit their eggs in terrestrial habitats, thereby bypassing the tadpole
stage.
Systems:ÊÊTerrestrial
Use and Trade (see Appendix for additional information)
There are no records of this species being utilized.
Threats (see Appendix for additional information)
The most imminent threat facing this species is that of mining in NW Ecuador, which has seen a
substantial uptick in recent years (i.e. 2016–2020) and threatens the future of both privately managed
reserves in which this species is known to occur (Roy et al. 2018, Guayasamin et al. 2019, Maynard et al.
2020). Additional threats include deforestation for agricultural development, illegal logging, human
settlement, and pollution resulting from the spraying of crops (Lynch et al. 2014).
An ongoing legal case being heard by the Constitutional Court in Ecuador will determine whether or not
the rights-of-nature clause in the Ecuadorian constitution will be interpreted as legal grounds to exclude
mining practices in privately managed reserves (J. DeCoux and D. Thomas pers. comm. August 2020).
Only areas within the Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas (SNAP; National System of Protected Areas)
receive protection from extractive practices, such as mining, within Ecuador. The outcome of this case
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Pristimantis cedros – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T99394379A99394547.en
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will have a profound impact on the future of this species. If the Constitutional Court overturns the
previous ruling from a lower court and rules against Reserva Los Cedros—thereby permitting the mining
companies that own the rights to concessions within Reserva Los Cedros to continue pursuing their
interests in the reserve—a majority of the limited distribution of this frog will be jeopardized (R.J.
Maynard pers. comm. August 2020).
Conservation Actions (see Appendix for additional information)
Conservation Actions In-Place
This species occurs in Reserva Los Cedros and the Río Manduriacu Reserve, which are privately managed
by Fundación Los Cedros and Fundación EcoMinga, respectively. Although Los Cedros is not part of the
National System of Protected Areas, in 1994 the Ecuadoran Institute for Forestry, Natural Areas and
Wildlife declared it an area of protected forest and vegetation.
Conservation Needed
Maintaining the integrity of Reserva Los Cedros and the Río Manduriacu Reserve is critical to the
conservation of this species. This is especially important as the reserves are not part of the National
System of Protected Areas within Ecuador, and thereby do not receive protection by the government
from mining (R.J. Maynard pers. comm. August 2020, Roy et al. 2018).
Research Needed
There is a clear need to conduct further sampling for this species, particularly within the Cotacachi-
Cayapas Ecological Reserve.
Credits
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Chanson, J.S.
Contributor(s): Thomas, D., DeCoux, J., Reyes, J.P. & Maynard, R.
Facilitator(s) and
Compiler(s):
Neam, K. & Maynard, R.
Authority/Authorities: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Pristimantis cedros – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T99394379A99394547.en
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Bibliography
Guayasamin, J.M., Cisneros-Heredia, D.F., Vieira, J., Kohn, S., Gavilanes, G., Lynch, R.L., Hamilton, P.S. and
Maynard, R.J. 2019. A new glassfrog (Centrolenidae) from the Chocó-Andean Río Manduriacu Reserve,
Ecuador, endangered by mining. PeerJ 7: p.e6400.
Hutter, C.R. and Guayasamin, J.M. 2015. Cryptic diversity concealed in the Andean cloud forests: two
new species of rainfrogs (Pristimantis) uncovered by molecular and bioacoustic data. Neotropical
Biodiversity 1: 35–59.
IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org.
(Accessed: 10 December 2020).
Lynch, R., Kohn, S., Ayala-Varela F., Hamilton, P., Ron, S.R. 2014. Rediscovery of Andinophryne olallai
Hoogmoed, 1985 (Anura, Bufonidae), an enigmatic and endangered Andean toad. Amphibian and
Reptile Conservation 8(1): 1-7.
Maynard, R., Hamilton, P., Trageser, S., Kohn, S., Guyasamin, J.M. 2018. Discovery and conservation of a
Herpetofaunal Sanctuary. Poster Presented at Joint Meeting of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.
Rochester, New York.
Maynard, R.J., Trageser, S.J., Kohn, S., Hamilton, P.H., Culebras, J. and Guayasamin, J.M. 2020. Discovery
of a reproducing population of the Mindo Glassfrog, Nymphargus balionotus (Duellman, 1981), at the
Río Manduriacu Reserve, Ecuador, with a literature review and comments on its natural history,
distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 14(2): 172–184 (e245).
Roy, B.A., Zorrilla, M., Endara, L., Thomas, D.C., Vandegrift, R., Rubenstein, J.M., Policha, T., Rios-Touma,
B. and Read, M., 2018. New mining concessions could severely decrease biodiversity and ecosystem
services in Ecuador. Tropical Conservation Science 11: 1–20.
Citation
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2020. Pristimantis cedros. The IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species 2020: e.T99394379A99394547. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-
3.RLTS.T99394379A99394547.en
Disclaimer
To make use of this information, please check the Terms of Use.
External Resources
For Supplementary Material, and for Images and External Links to Additional Information, please see the
Red List website.
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Pristimantis cedros – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T99394379A99394547.en
6
Appendix
Habitats
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Habitat Season Suitability Major
Importance?
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Resident Suitable Yes
Threats
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Threat Timing Scope Severity Impact Score
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1.
Housing & urban areas
Ongoing - - Low impact: 3
Stresses: 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual &
perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder
farming
Ongoing - - Low impact: 3
Stresses: 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming
& ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or
farming
Ongoing - - Low impact: 3
Stresses: 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining &
quarrying
Ongoing - - Low impact: 3
Stresses: 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood
harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects:
(subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
Ongoing - - Low impact: 3
Stresses: 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents ->
9.3.3. Herbicides and pesticides
Ongoing - - Low impact: 3
Stresses: 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
Conservation Actions in Place
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Conservation Action in Place
In-place land/water protection
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Pristimantis cedros – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T99394379A99394547.en
7
Conservation Action in Place
Occurs in at least one protected area: Yes
Conservation Actions Needed
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Conservation Action Needed
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
Research Needed
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Research Needed
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
Additional Data Fields
Distribution
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) (km²): 20-300
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) (km²): 435
Number of Locations: 2
Lower elevation limit (m): 1,563
Upper elevation limit (m): 2,084
Habitats and Ecology
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Pristimantis cedros – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T99394379A99394547.en
8
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™
ISSN 2307-8235 (online)
IUCN 2020: T99394379A99394547
Scope(s): Global
Language: English
The IUCN Red List Partnership
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ is produced and managed by the IUCN Global Species
Programme, the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) and The IUCN Red List Partnership.
The IUCN Red List Partners are: Arizona State University; BirdLife International; Botanic Gardens
Conservation International; Conservation International; NatureServe; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew;
Sapienza University of Rome; Texas A&M University; and Zoological Society of London.
THE IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES™
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Pristimantis cedros – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T99394379A99394547.en
9

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