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Nymphargus manduriacu. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

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Updated IUCN Red List Assessment for Nymphargus manduriacu
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™
ISSN 2307-8235 (online)
IUCN 2020: T149692574A149692615
Scope(s): Global
Language: English
Nymphargus manduriacu, Manduriacu Glassfrog
Assessment by: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
View on www.iucnredlist.org
Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2020. Nymphargus manduriacu. The IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species 2020: e.T149692574A149692615. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-
3.RLTS.T149692574A149692615.en
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THE IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES™
Taxonomy
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Centrolenidae
Scientific Name:ÊÊNymphargus manduriacu Guayasamin, Cisneros-Heredia, Vieira, Kohn, Gavilanes,
Lynch, Hamilton & Maynard, 2019
Common Name(s):
• English: Manduriacu Glassfrog
• Spanish; Castilian: Rana de Cristal de Manduriacu
Taxonomic Source(s):
Frost, D.R. 2019. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum
of Natural History, New York, USA Available at:
http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.
Assessment Information
Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2020
Date Assessed: August 5, 2020
Justification:
Listed as Critically Endangered due to having a highly restricted and localized known distribution, being
only moderately abundant at the few streams it is known from, and is projected to experience
substantial or complete decline in the only known subpopulation if mining interests at the reserve it is
known from are pursued. The area of occupancy (AOO) and extent of occurrence (EOO) of 4 km2
represents a single threat-defined location, where there is ongoing decline in the extent and quality of
its habitat in the surrounding area by human activities.
Geographic Range
Range Description:
This species was recently documented and described from the Río Manduriacu Reserve in NW Ecuador
(Guayasamin et al. 2019). The private property where this glassfrog occurs is situated on the western
versant of the Cordillera Occidental in Imbabura Province and was incorporated into the network of
reserves managed by Fundación EcoMinga in 2017 (S. Kohn pers. comm. August 2020). Observations
have been made along a few streams in the Río Manduriacu Reserve at elevations between 1,175–1,275
m asl. This species might also range within the Cotacachi-Cayapas Ecological Reserve immediately north
of the Río Manduriacu Reserve, where a number of remote river canyons at similar elevations can be
found (R.J. Maynard pers. comm. August 2020). The broad area south of the reserve is highly
fragmented and lower in elevation. The western boundary of Bosque Protector Los Cedros is just east of
the reserve, however amphibian surveys there have not yielded records of the Manduriacu Glassfrog,
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Nymphargus manduriacu – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T149692574A149692615.en
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including surveys conducted just 8 km east (straight-line distance) of the Río Manduriacu Reserve
(Hutter and Guayasamin 2015). The area of occupancy (AOO), when calculated according to the IUCN
definition, is 4 km2. Its estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) is 0.40 km2 measured by a minimum
convex polygon of its known range; however the EOO has been adjusted to 4 km2 as AOO values should
not exceed EOO (IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee 2019). The limited range represents a
single threat-defined location.
Country Occurrence:
Native, Extant (resident): Ecuador
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Nymphargus manduriacu – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T149692574A149692615.en
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Distribution Map
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Nymphargus manduriacu – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T149692574A149692615.en
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Population
This species is currently only known from the type locality at the Río Manduriacu Reserve. It does not
appear to be an abundant species, as less than 40 total observations have been made from 2016–2019
(R.J. Maynard pers. comm. August 2020). However, it is known to be a reproductive subpopulation, as
adults, metamorphs, and egg masses have been recorded (Guayasamin et al. 2019).
Individuals have been observed during the months of February (2018), March (2019), October (2016),
November (2019), and December (2019; R.J. Maynard pers. comm. August 2020; Guayasamin et al.
2019). With the exception of October, each of these months generally fall within the wet season. The
record in October was of a single transient individual, which remains the only observation away from a
stream. Limited sampling effort in February (2014), April (2017), May (2013), and November (2012)
along the same streams in which the species is now known to occur did not yield any records (RJ.
Maynard pers. comm. August 2020).
Current Population Trend:ÊÊUnknown
Habitat and Ecology (see Appendix for additional information)
The habitat where this species occurs is characterized by mature lower montane forest lush with
epiphytic vegetation and narrow, pristine streams (0.5–4 m wide) that cascade down the slope of a river
canyon (Guayasamin et al. 2019, Maynard et al. 2020). Temperatures at the elevations where
observations were made range between 18 – 20°C at night. The site is also characterized by high levels
of rainfall and humidity ≥ 90%. Outside of the reserve on the east side of the canyon—where a mosaic
of disturbance exists from cattle pastures—stream sampling within forest fragments at similar elevation
yielded no observations of this frog, indicating that the species is highly sensitive to habitat disturbance
and fragmentation (R.J. Maynard and S.J. Trageser pers. comm. August 2020).
Males of this species call from the top-side of leaves between 0.5–4 m above the ground, generally in
areas where vegetation is denser (Guayasamin et al. 2019). The call is a pulsed, high-pitched “chirp.” Egg
masses are deposited on the upper surfaces of leaves and contain between 26–32 embryos. Other
glassfrogs observed along the same streams include Centrolene peristicta, Espadarana prosoblepon, N.
balionotus, and Sachatamia orejuela. At higher elevations in the reserve, this species appears to be
replaced by N. grandisonae, which has a similar call, but is distinguished by a lower dominant frequency
(Guayasamin et al. 2019, R.J. Maynard and S.J. Trageser pers. comm. August 2020).
Systems:ÊÊTerrestrial, Freshwater (=Inland waters)
Use and Trade (see Appendix for additional information)
There are no records of this species being utilized.
Threats (see Appendix for additional information)
The biggest threat is habitat loss as a result of mining activities within the canyon the Río Manduriacu
Reserve lies within (Roy et al. 2018, Guayasamin et al. 2019 Maynard et al. 2020). Additional threats
include deforestation for agricultural development, illegal logging, human settlement, and pollution
resulting from the spraying of crops (Lynch et al. 2014).
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Nymphargus manduriacu – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T149692574A149692615.en
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Most of the habitat at the Río Manduriacu Reserve is pristine, with a few minor disturbances at its lower
reaches from selective timber extraction, as well as a couple of illegal, small-scale clearings from mining
prospecting for gold and copper (Maynard et al. 2020). Illegal and uncontrolled logging has caused a
dramatic reduction in forest cover in the area surrounding the Río Manduriacu Reserve in the last two
decades (Guayasamin et al. 2019). An ongoing legal case centering on the legality of mining within
Bosque Protector Los Cedros in light of the rights-of-nature clause in the Ecuadorian constitution will
likely have a large impact on whether or not mining interests in-and-around the Río Manduriacu Reserve
are further pursued (S.J. Trageser pers. comm. August 2020).
Conservation Actions (see Appendix for additional information)
Conservation Actions In-Place
Only one known breeding subpopulation has been documented from the Río Manduriacu Reserve,
Imbabura, Ecuador, however mining activities in the region threaten the longevity of this reserve (Lynch
et al. 2014, Guayasamin et al. 2019, Maynard et al. 2020). A community project initiated by Fundación
EcoMinga and Fundación Condor Andino in Santa Rosa de Manduriacu is working to ensure proper
enforcement of the reserve's boundary and prevent access of illegal mining activities at the reserve
(Maynard et al. 2020). A monitoring program for this species, and others at the reserve, is currently
being devised in a collaborative effort by The Biodiversity Group and Fundación EcoMinga.
Conservation Needed
There is a clear need to maintain protection of the Río Manduriacu Reserve. This is especially important
as the reserve is not part of the National System of Protected Areas within Ecuador, and thereby does
not receive protection by the government from mining (R.J. Maynard and S.J. Trageser pers. comm.
August 2020, Roy et al. 2018).
Research Needed
In light of the substantial rise in mining activity around its range (Roy et al. 2018), more survey work is
needed to identify additional subpopulations of the species, particularly within the Cotacachi-Cayapas
Ecological Reserve (R.J. Maynard pers. comm. August 2020). Furthermore, a monitoring programme is
necessary to ensure the health of the subpopulation at the Río Manduriacu Reserve is maintained.
Credits
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Chanson, J.S.
Contributor(s): Maynard, R., Trageser, S. & Kohn, S.
Facilitator(s) and
Compiler(s):
Neam, K.
Authority/Authorities: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Nymphargus manduriacu – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T149692574A149692615.en
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Bibliography
Guayasamin, J.M., Cisneros-Heredia, D.F., Vieira, J., Kohn, S., Gavilanes, G., Lynch, R.L., Hamilton, P.S. and
Maynard, R.J. 2019. A new glassfrog (Centrolenidae) from the Chocó-Andean Río Manduriacu Reserve,
Ecuador, endangered by mining. PeerJ 7: p.e6400.
Hutter, C.R. and Guayasamin, J.M. 2015. Cryptic diversity concealed in the Andean cloud forests: two
new species of rainfrogs (Pristimantis) uncovered by molecular and bioacoustic data. Neotropical
Biodiversity 1: 35–59.
IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org.
(Accessed: 10 December 2020).
IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. 2019. Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories
and Criteria. Version 14. August 2019. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. Available
at: https://nc.iucnredlist.org/redlist/content/attachment_files/RedListGuidelines.pdf.
Lynch, R., Kohn, S., Ayala-Varela F., Hamilton, P., Ron, S.R. 2014. Rediscovery of Andinophryne olallai
Hoogmoed, 1985 (Anura, Bufonidae), an enigmatic and endangered Andean toad. Amphibian and
Reptile Conservation 8(1): 1-7.
Maynard, R.J., Trageser, S.J., Kohn, S., Hamilton, P.H., Culebras, J. and Guayasamin, J.M. 2020. Discovery
of a reproducing population of the Mindo Glassfrog, Nymphargus balionotus (Duellman, 1981), at the
Río Manduriacu Reserve, Ecuador, with a literature review and comments on its natural history,
distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 14(2): 172–184 (e245).
Roy, B.A., Zorrilla, M., Endara, L., Thomas, D.C., Vandegrift, R., Rubenstein, J.M., Policha, T., Rios-Touma,
B. and Read, M., 2018. New mining concessions could severely decrease biodiversity and ecosystem
services in Ecuador. Tropical Conservation Science 11: 1–20.
Citation
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2020. Nymphargus manduriacu. The IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species 2020: e.T149692574A149692615. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-
3.RLTS.T149692574A149692615.en
Disclaimer
To make use of this information, please check the Terms of Use.
External Resources
For Supplementary Material, and for Images and External Links to Additional Information, please see the
Red List website.
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Nymphargus manduriacu – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T149692574A149692615.en
6
Appendix
Habitats
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Habitat Season Suitability Major
Importance?
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Resident Suitable Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent
Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
Resident Suitable Yes
Threats
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Threat Timing Scope Severity Impact Score
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1.
Housing & urban areas
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses: 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual &
perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder
farming
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses: 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining &
quarrying
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses: 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood
harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects:
(subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses: 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents ->
9.3.3. Herbicides and pesticides
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses: 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
Conservation Actions in Place
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Conservation Action in Place
In-place research and monitoring
Systematic monitoring scheme: Yes
In-place land/water protection
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Nymphargus manduriacu – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T149692574A149692615.en
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Conservation Action in Place
Percentage of population protected by PAs: 91-100
Occurs in at least one protected area: Yes
In-place education
Subject to recent education and awareness programmes: Yes
Conservation Actions Needed
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Conservation Action Needed
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
Research Needed
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Research Needed
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends
Additional Data Fields
Distribution
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) (km²): 4
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) (km²): 4
Number of Locations: 1
Lower elevation limit (m): 1,175
Upper elevation limit (m): 1,275
Habitats and Ecology
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Nymphargus manduriacu – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T149692574A149692615.en
8
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™
ISSN 2307-8235 (online)
IUCN 2020: T149692574A149692615
Scope(s): Global
Language: English
The IUCN Red List Partnership
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ is produced and managed by the IUCN Global Species
Programme, the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) and The IUCN Red List Partnership.
The IUCN Red List Partners are: Arizona State University; BirdLife International; Botanic Gardens
Conservation International; Conservation International; NatureServe; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew;
Sapienza University of Rome; Texas A&M University; and Zoological Society of London.
THE IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES™
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Nymphargus manduriacu – published in 2020.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T149692574A149692615.en
9

File (1)

Article
Among the amphibians, the most sensitive group to climate change are salamanders (e.g., Salamandra infraimmaculata and Neurergus derjugini). In Iraq, these species are considered threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) RED List (2020). Apart from their important role in forest ecosystems stability and integrity, they are useful indicators for ecosystems functions. These species occur only in the mountain forests of the northeast, the Kurdistan region of Iraq (KRI), and information on their distributions is limited and poorly understood. Using the maximum entropy modeling and geospatial techniques, we aimed to: (i) map current distributions of the two species, and predict potential habitat distributions; (ii) model impact of the future climate change on their distributions; (iii) map overlapping habitat range for the species; and (iv) determine the main environmental variables shaping their distributions. Under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.62070 and RCP8.5 2070 climate change scenarios, the overall expansion magnitude of the habitat for the species would be smaller than the contraction magnitude. For S. infraimmaculata and N. derjugini, the habitat would contract by 1751.58 km2 (3.42%) and 2127.22 km2 (4.16%), whereas expand only 226.77 km2 (0.44%) and 1877.49 km2 (3.67%), respectively. Climate change would significantly reduce the habitat ranges of the two species in Iraq. Habitat reduction for S. infraimmaculata would be more than N. derjugini. The potential distribution of the species would be toward the mountain forests of the east mainly and southeast of the KRI. Conservation actions should concentrate on the mountain forests (mixed oak) by establishing national parks, protected areas, and developing forest management policy. Current emphasis for conservation priority should focus specifically on areas where the species overlap by 1583.71 km2 (3.09%). Our study provides baseline information for further investigation of the mountain forest ecosystems, and biodiversity conservation actions in Iraq.
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