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Effect of Different Levels of Local Concentrated Protein Manufactured from Slaughterhouse Wastes on some Carcasses Traits of Broiler

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Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of local concentrated protein extracted from slaughterhouse wastes on some carcasses traits of broiler. A total of 225 female broiler Ross 308 chicks, one day, were used, randomized distributed into five treatments, with three replicates per treatment (15 chicks each replicate). The treatments were as follows: T1; basal diet contains 4% imported protein. T2; basal diet contains 2% imported protein+2% local manufactured protein. T3; basal diet contains 4% local manufactured protein. T4; basal diet contains 6% local manufactured protein. T5; basal diet contains 8% local manufactured protein. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the treatments on the carcass weight, dressing percentage, relative weights of the thigh and breast, as well as the relative weight of the abdominal fat. There were no significant differences among all treatments for the sensory traits of the thigh and breast. In conclusion, the locally manufactured animal protein extraction had no negative significant effect on the characteristics of carcasses and could be used as an efficient alternative to imported protein concentration used in broiler diets.
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Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of local
concentrated protein extracted from slaughterhouse wastes on some carcasses traits of
broiler. A total of 225 female broiler Ross 308 chicks, one day, were used, randomized
distributed into five treatments, with three replicates per treatment (15 chicks each
replicate). The treatments were as follows: T1; basal diet contains 4% imported protein. T2;
basal diet contains 2% imported protein+2% local manufactured protein. T3; basal diet
contains 4% local manufactured protein. T4; basal diet contains 6% local manufactured
protein. T5; basal diet contains 8% local manufactured protein. The results showed that
there were no significant differences between the treatments on the carcass weight, dressing
percentage, relative weights of the thigh and breast, as well as the relative weight of the
abdominal fat. There were no significant differences among all treatments for the sensory
traits of the thigh and breast. In conclusion, the locally manufactured animal protein
extraction had no negative significant effect on the characteristics of carcasses and could be
used as an efficient alternative to imported protein concentration used in broiler diets.
Keywords: Local protein, Slaughterhouse wastes, Carcasses traits, Broiler.
Introduction
Nutrition constitutes 70% or more of the total
cost of poultry production and has a direct
impact on the production process. Therefore,
special attention must be paid to nutrition
(Abdelmageed, 2012). The feed components
significantly affect the growth of meat and the
productivity of laying hens, so the diet should
contain all nutrients in a balanced way
according to the needs of the bird
(Puvadolpirod & Thaxton, 2000).The poultry
industry is dependent on imported protein
concentrates in Iraq, it is the main source of
animal protein, vitamins, minerals and some
feed additives in poultry diets, however, the
high prices increase the production cost (Al-
Athary, 2002). Thousands of tons of poultry
waste are dumped annually,
Available online at http://bjas.bajas.edu.iq
https://doi.org/10.37077/25200860.2021.34.1.06
College of Agriculture, University of Basrah
Basrah Journal
of Agricultural
Sciences
ISSN 1814 5868
Basrah J. Agric. Sci. 34(1):60-66, 2021
E-ISSN: 2520-0860
Effect of Different Levels of Local Concentrated Protein Manufactured
from Slaughterhouse Wastes on some Carcasses Traits of Broiler
Zaman K.F. Al-Mhsenawi1, Majid H.A. Alasadi2 & Qutiba J.G. Al khfaji2
1 Department of Biology, College of Education for Pure Science, University of Al-
Muthanna, Iraq.
2 Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq.
* Corresponding author e-mail: zmnkhdr@gmail.com
Received 16 June 2020; Accepted 16 October 2020; Available online 10 February 2021
Al-Mhsenawi et al. / Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 34(1): 60-66, 2021
60
like heads, legs, feathers and intestines,
disposed of as waste or used as animal
fertilizers, due to the availability of the waste in
large quantities, it has become an
environmental problem (Al-Tai, 2005).
Therefore, some studies have tended to be used
in the production of protein concentrates,
involves the composition of animal diets,
especially poultry and fish, modern
technologies were used to convert these animal
wastes into beneficial materials for animal
feeding, and preserving the environment from
the accumulation of these substances, and
impact on public health (Ibrahim, 2000).
The researchers resorted to the use of
chemical methods using acid, alkaline and salt,
these methods were characterized by the short
time of decomposition, cheapness and easy, in
addition to enzymatic methods. There are a lot
of studies that try to make a protein that
competes with the imported protein, good
progress has been made in this field, but there
was no perpetuation of these actions (Ahmed et
al., 2018; Frempong et al., 2019).
The aim of this study to manufacture a
protein concentrate from the carcass waste
(heads and legs), and add it into diets as an
alternative to the imported protein concentrate,
study the effect on some carcasses traits of
broiler.
Materials & Methods
The study was conducted at poultry farm,
Agriculture College, University of Basrah, from
11\11\2019 to 16\12\2019. A total of 225
female broiler Ross 308 chicks, one day old, 40
g weight were randomly distributed into five
treatments, with three replicates per treatment
(15 chicks each replicate). Chickens are bred in
three-story cages with an area of 1 m2 per cage.
Provides appropriate conditions for rearing
such as heat and ventilation, within the
necessary limits, the chicks were fed on two
types of diets, the first Starter diet (1-21 days)
and the second the grower diet (22-35 days), as
shown in table (1).
Protein concentrate preparing
Broiler heads and legs were collected from the
poultry field slaughter house, Agriculture
College, University of Basrah, and washed with
water, chopped with an electric mincer, then
was exposed to steam at 140ºc for 50 minutes
(Wiradimadja et al., 2014), the product was
dried at 45c and the resulting material was
ground. After analyzing a sample of a protein
content, to ensure chemical composition and
amino acid content by using a device Amino
acid Analyzer, according to the results of the
laboratory examination reached, the protein
composition was modified by mixing with the
amino acid, vitamins and minerals (Wafi),
according to the ratio 3 protein products + 1
Wafi mixture.
Study traits
Six birds per treatment were slaughtered
randomly at 35 days of age to calculate the
carcass weight and dressing percentage, and
relative weight of carcass cuts were calculated
according to the method mentioned by Zangana
& Al-Mashhadani (2018). The relative weight
of abdominal fat to body weight was estimate
according to Al-Hummod (2016). Sensory tests
for thigh and breast cuts were conducted
according to the method described by Yang et
al. (2007). The degree of the sensory evaluation
were determined according to table (2).
Al-Mhsenawi et al. / Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 34(1): 60-66, 2021
61
Table (1): The composition of the diets used and chemical analysis during the starter and grower periods.
Starter diet (1-21 days)
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
42.5
42.7
42.7
42.7
42.2
18
18
18
18
18
32
32
32
30
28.5
4
2
0
0
0
0
2
4
6
8
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
100
100
100
100
100
Chemical Analysis
23.1
23.1
23.1
22.9
22.9
2954
2950
2957
2959
2955
grower diet (22-35 days)
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
46.5
46.5
46.5
46.5

18
18
18
18
18
27.5
27.5
27.5
25.5
24
4
2
0
0
0
0
2
4
6
8
1
1
1
1
1
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
100
100
100
100
100
Chemical Analysis
21.3
21.3
21.4
21.1
21.1
3072
3070
3072
3066
3047
* The protein concentrate for broiler feeding (Brocorn-5 special W) produced by the company (Wafi B.V. Alblasserdam-
Holland), chemical composition: 40% crude protein, 5% crude fat, 2.20% crude fiber, 7.10% Moisture, 28.30% crude ash,
4.20% Calcium, 4.65% Phosphorus, 2107 Met. energy (kcal/g).
** Local protein conc. manufactured, chemical composition: 42.79% crude protein, 8.69% crude fat, 2.7% crude fiber,
7.32% Moisture, 21.72% crude ash, 4.2% Calcium and 3% Phosphorus.
*** Premixes, chemical composition: 10% crude protein, 2.1% crude fat, 0.34% crude fiber, 2.66% Moisture, 51.02%
crude ash, 20.08% Calcium, 10.83% Phosphorus, 753.82 kcal kg Met. energy (kcal.g-1).
Statistical analysis
A Complete Randomized Design (CRD) were
used, the significant differences between the
means were compared with Least Significant
Difference (LSD) test with a significant level (P
<0.05), the SPSS program (SPSS, 2017) was
used in statistical analysis and use the following
mathematical model (yij = μ + ti + eij).
Al-Mhsenawi et al. / Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 34(1): 60-66, 2021
62
Table (2): Sensory evaluation of cooked breast and thigh meat traits (Hajem, 2018).
Sensory evaluation menu
Degree
Evaluation
Degree
Evaluation
9
Excellent
5-6
Moderate
8
Very good
3-4
Acceptable
7
Good
2-1
Unacceptable
N. Sample
Colour
Flavor
Tenderness
Juiciness
General
acceptance
1
2
3
4
5
Results & Discussions
Table (3) shows that no significant differences
of the use of local manufactured protein
concentrate on the carcasses traits (carcass
weight, dressing percentage, relative weight of
main cuts and abdominal fat).
The results agreed with Sahraei et al. (2012),
indicated that there were no significant
differences on the carcasses weights and the
relative weight of the main cuts (breast and
thigh) when used the poultry slaughterhouse
waste powder as a source of protein into broiler
diets in ratios (30, 60 and 90 g.kg. feed-1).
While the results were not agreed with those of
Ahmed et al. (2018), indicated improve in the
carcass weight, dressing percentage and main
cuts weight, when they use slaughterhouse
wastes as a protein concentrate in broiler diets,
T4 (15% slaughterhouse wastes) was a
significant increase (P<0.05) in carcass weight,
while the dressing percentage and weights for
breast and thigh were better at T3 (10%
slaughterhouse wastes).
The result agreed with that of Abiola et al.
(2012), they concluded that there were no
significant differences in the relative weight of
abdominal fat, when they replaced fish meal
with poultry hatching powder in broiler diets.
However, Sahraei et al. (2012), observed a
significant differences (P<0.05) in the relative
weight of abdominal fat between a control and
Al-Mhsenawi et al. / Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 34(1): 60-66, 2021
63
Table (3): The effect of different level of the local protein concentrate manufactured on some
carcasses traits of broiler (Mean± SE).
Traits
Treatments
Body weight (g)
Carcass weight (g)
Dressing
percentage
(%)
Relative
weight of
thigh (%)
Relative
weight of
breast (%)
Relative weight
of abdominal
fat (%)
T1
1782.301.85
a
1261.002.1
a
70.740.04
a
20.900.87
a
37.741.30
a
0.510.0
a
T2
17801.73
a
1255.001.51
a
70.500.20
a
20.571.42
a
37.681.41
a
0.500.0
a
T3
17782.08
a
1264.002.08
a
71.080.19
a
21.221.10
a
39.320.76
a
0.490.0
a
T4
17792.06
a
1256.703.33
a
70.690.19
a
21.341.29
a
39.910.48
a
0.500.03
a
T5
17900.57
a
1261.005.68
a
70.880.30
a
22.410.92
a
38.910.85
a
0.510.02
a
T1; basal diet contains 4% imported protein. T2; basal diet contains 2% imported protein+2% local manufactured protein.
T3; basal diet contains 4% local manufactured protein. T4; basal diet contains 6% local manufactured protein. T5; basal
diet contains 8% local manufactured protein.
treatment of the slaughterhouse wastes broiler
diets. Tables (4 and 5) were showed that the
effect of using different level of the local
protein concentrated manufactured on the sensory
traits of the breast and thigh cuts of broilers. There
is no significant differences between the local
protein concentrated manufactured and imported
protein concentrate on colour, flavor, tenderness,
juiciness and general acceptance of the cuts of
breast and thigh. We can conclude it has no
significant differences of the use of local
protein. The present results are similar to those
of Eyng et al. (2013), when they used tilapia
powder (fish meal) as a source of protein of
different levels in broiler diets as their results
showed that adding tilapia powder to diets in
ratios 2, 4, 6 and 8% had no effect on the
sensory characteristics (aroma, flavor, colour,
texture and whole quality) of the thigh and
breast meat, while the results were not agreed
with results of Al-Hummod & Mohsen (2019),
Table (4): The effect of different level of the local protein concentrate manufactured on sensory
traits of breast cut (Mean± SE).
Traits
Treatments
Colour
Flavor
Tenderness
Juiciness
General acceptance
T1
7.330.33a
7.500.29a
6.860.67a
7.130.13a
6.900.29a
T2
7.330.37a
7.500.29a
6.830.33a
6.950.58a
7.000.58a
T3
7.670.33a
7.330.88a
6.770.33a
7.670.67a
7.170.17a
T4
7.660.67a
8.000.29a
6.730.67a
6.980.52a
6.920.00a
T5
8.000.57a
7.670.67a
7.000.25a
7.330.33a
7.070.23a
Al-Mhsenawi et al. / Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 34(1): 60-66, 2021
64
T1; basal diet contains 4% imported protein. T2; basal diet contains 2% imported protein+2% local manufactured
protein. T3; basal diet contains 4% local manufactured protein. T4; basal diet contains 6% local manufactured
protein. T5; basal diet contains 8% local manufactured protein.
Table (5): The effect of different level of the local protein concentrate manufactured on sensory
traits of thigh cut (Mean± SE).
Traits
Treatments
Colour
Flavor
Tenderness
Juiciness
General
acceptance
T1
7.330.33a
8.000.00a
7.670.33a
7.670.33a
8.000.30a
T2
8.000.58a
8.330.33a
6.940.29a
8.000.58a
8.000.38a
T3
8.160.60a
7.830.44a
6.960.33a
7.670.16a
8.170.44a
T4
7.330.33a
7.670.33a
7.500.29a
7.670.33a
7.670.17a
T5
7.330.33a
8.330.14a
7.670.33a
7.500.28a
7.500.28a
T1; basal diet contains 4% imported protein. T2; basal diet contains 2% imported protein+2% local manufactured
protein. T3; basal diet contains 4% local manufactured protein. T4; basal diet contains 6% local manufactured
protein. T5; basal diet contains 8% local manufactured protein.
which showed a significant differences
(P≤0.05) in the flavor of quail meat fed on a
diet containing protein concentrate made from
feathers compared to quail meat fed on a diet
containing commercial protein concentration.
The local manufactured protein were similar
to the results of the imported protein. Also, the
absence of significant differences between
control and other experimental treatments for
the mentioned characteristics, indicates that the
processed protein is not less efficient than the
imported, to complete the birds' requirements
from essential amino acids, in proportion to the
different supplies of the body, whether in
growth, production, or formation of hormones
and enzymes that have important vital functions
in the body.
Conclusions
In conclusion, the locally manufactured animal
protein extraction had no negative significant
effect on the characteristics of carcasses and
could be used as an efficient alternative to
imported protein concentration used in broiler
diets.
Acknowledgments
We thank the team of laboratory of Poultry
Technology, College of Agriculture, University of
Basrah and all who helped us in this work.
Z. Al-Mhsenawi:: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-
4706-0951
M. Alasadi: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5875-
7485
Q. Al-khfaji: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-
8347-230X )
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.
Ross-308
(T1

 (T2)
(T3

(T4

T5
  







 .
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Al-Hummod, S. K. M. (2016). The effect of lighting systems and temporal feed restriction on some productive, physiological and reproductive traits of Japanese quail. Ph. D. Thesis, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, 225pp. (In Arabic).
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