Article

Common genetic basis of the five factor model facets and intelligence: A twin study

Abstract

The main aim of this study was to explore the etiology of relations between general cognitive ability (g) and different hierarchical phenotypic levels of the Five Factor Model (FFM), including the General Factor of Personality (GFP), the Big Two, the five domains of the FFM, and their 30 facets. The second aim was to detect personality facets that contribute to the prediction of general intelligence. The sample consisted of 424 young adult twins (134 pairs of monozygotic twins) on whom the NEO-PI-R and Advanced Progressive Matrices were administered. The results did not support hierarchical solutions above the FFM. Thus, five-domain and facet level of personality were analyzed, showing that only Openness and Neuroticism had significant genetic or environmental correlations with intelligence. The several facets from all domains had significant associations, among which Ideas and Positive Emotions showed the highest positive correlations, while Order and Modesty showed the highest negative genetic correlations with intelligence. Furthermore, seven facets significantly predicted g factor (35%), with higher genetic (0.52) than environmental (0.13) correlations with intelligence. The results reveal the common genetic basis of narrow traits and intelligence, highlighting the importance of specific traits in the explanation of general cognitive abilities.
UNCORRECTED PROOF
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8University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychology, Novi Sad, Serbia, Hajduk Veljkova 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
9University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Psychology, Novi Sad, Serbia, Dr Zorana Đinđića 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
:Neurology Clinic, Clinical Center of Vojvodina, Novi Sad, Serbia, Hajduk Veljkova 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
;City University of New York, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York, NY, 524 W 59th St, New York, NY 10019, USA
<NYU School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, New York, NY, 240 E 38th St, New York, NY 10016, USA
=Institute of Forensic Medicine, Clinical Center of Vojvodina, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia
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Keywords
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1. Introduction
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This is uncorrected proof, please cite this paper as: Nikolašević, Ž., Dinić, B. M., Smederevac, S., Sadiković, S., Milovanović, I.,…
Zgonjanin Bosić, D. (2021). Common genetic basis of the five factor model facets and intelligence: A twin study. Personality and
Individual Differences, 175, 110682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.110682
UNCORRECTED PROOF
Ž. Nikolašević et al. Personality and Individual DiBerences xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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&I<KQJ:?D8I <K 8C 
$E J<8I:? F= <DG@I@:8C <OGC8E8K@FEJ =FI ?<K<IF><E<FLJ :FII<C8K@FEJ
9<KN<<E G<IJFE8C@KP KI8@KJ 8E; @EK<CC@><E:< JFD< 8LK?FIJ ?8M< GIF
M@;<; 8I>LD<EKJ =FI K?< <O@JK<E:< F= EFEC@E<8I I<C8K@FEJ?@GJ 9<KN<<E
K?<J< :FEJKIL:KJ (8AFI <K 8C  $E JL:? JKL;@<J K?<J< EFEC@E
<8I 8JJF:@8K@FEJ 8::FLEK<; =FI LG KF  F= K?< M8I@8E:< @E;@:8K@E>
K?8K ?@>?gG8IK@:@G8EKJ ;@JGC8P<; ?@>?<I *G<EE<JJ LCKLI< '<8;<I
J?@G CFN<I 8JG<:KJ F= OKI8M<IJ@FE .F:@89@C@KP 8E; CFN<I FEJ:@<E
K@FLJE<JJ /@;@E<JJ
<?8M@FI8C ><E<K@: JKL;@<J ?8M< GIFM@;<; DFI< ;<K8@C<; @EJ@>?KJ @EKF
K?< @EK<IGC8P F= @EK<CC@><E:< 8E; G<IJFE8C@KP KI8@KJ $E GI<M@FLJ I<J<8I:?
><E<K@: =8:KFIJ <OGC8@E<; DFI< K?8E  F= K?< gM8I@8E:< <>
FL:?8I;  (:"L< +CFD@E <K 8C  N?@C< ?<I@K89@C@KP
F= !!( KI8@KJ I8E><; =IFD  FEJ:@<EK@FLJE<JJ KF  *G<EE<JJ
J<< 1LB8JFM@V  I8KBF  .KL;@<J =F:LJ@E> FE K?< <OGCFI8K@FE
F= :FDDFE ><E<K@: 8E; <EM@IFED<EK8C @E[L<E:<J F= @EK<CC@><E:< 8E;
G<IJFE8C@KP KI8@KJ ?8M< ;<DFEJKI8K<; J@>E@=@:8EK GFJ@K@M< ><E<K@: :FII<C8
K@FEJ 9<KN<<E M8I@FLJ D<8JLI<J F= @EK<CC@><E:< 8E; *G<EE<JJ 8E; >I<<
89C<E<JJ 8J N<CC 8J 8 E<>8K@M< :FII<C8K@FE N@K? )<LIFK@:@JD 8IK<CJ
<K 8C  'L:@8EF <K 8C  =FLE; K?8K ><E<K@: =8:KFIJ JFC<CP
D<;@8K<; K?< 8JJF:@8K@FE 9<KN<<E G<I=FID8E:<98J<; $, K<JKJ 8E; KNF
=8:<KJ F= FEJ:@<EK@FLJE<JJ  FDG<K<E:< 8E; LK@=LCE<JJ !LIK?<IDFI<
8DFE> OKI8M<IJ@FE =8:<KJ O:@K<D<EK .<<B@E> 8E; "I<>8I@FLJE<JJ ?8M<
J?FNE CFN E<>8K@M< I<C8K@FEJ N@K? 9FK? M<I98C 8E; G<I=FID8E:< @EK<CC@
><E:< <OGC8@E<; JFC<CP 9P 8;;@K@M< ><E<K@: @E[L<E:< +@E:FD9< <K 8C
 )<M<IK?<C<JJ @K @J @DGFIK8EK KF ?@>?C@>?K K?<@I G8IK@:LC8ICP JD8CC
J?8I<; M8I@8E:<  $E JKL;@<J LJ@E> KI8@KJ FLKJ@;< K?< !!( K?< I<
JLCKJ ?8M< @E;@:8K<; 8 GIFEFLE:<; ><E<K@: :FEKI@9LK@FE KF K?< I<C8K@FE
J?@G 9<KN<<E @EK<CC@><E:< 8E; G<IJFE8C@KP !8:<KJ K?8K :FLC; 9< I<C8K<;
KF *G<EE<JJ OKI8M<IJ@FE 8E; )<LIFK@:@JD ?8M< ?8; GFJ@K@M< ><E<K@:
8E; <EM@IFED<EK8C :FII<C8K@FEJ N?@C< 8JG<:KJ F= FEJ:@<EK@FLJE<JJ 8E;
8>>I<JJ@FE CFN >I<<89C<E<JJ ?8M< 9<<E E<>8K@M<CP I<C8K<; KF @EK<CC@
><E:< #8II@J <K 8C 
/?< D8@E GLIGFJ< F= K?@J KN@E JKL;P N8J KF =LIK?<I @DGIFM< K?<
LE;<IJK8E;@E> F= K?< <K@FCF>P F= I<C8K@FEJ?@GJ 9<KN<<E ><E<I8C :F>E@
K@M< 89@C@KP > 8E; ;@==<I<EK ?@<I8I:?@:8C G?<EFKPG@: C<M<CJ F= K?< !!(
DF;<C @E:CL;@E> K?< "!+ K?< @> /NF K?< ZM< 98J@: KI8@KJ 8E; K?<@I
 =8:<KJ ::FI;@E> KF ILEJN@B JPDD<KIP GI@E:@GC< @= 8 D<8JLI< F=
@EK<CC@><E:< 8K K?< ?@>?<JK C<M<C F= K?< ?@<I8I:?P > =8:KFI @J @E:CL;<;
@K @J E<:<JJ8IP KF <O8D@E< @KJ I<C8K@FEJ N@K? ;@==<I<EK ?@<I8I:?@:8C C<M<CJ
F= G<IJFE8C@KP &I<KQJ:?D8I <K 8C  .G<:@=@:8CCP ;@==<I<EK ?@<I
8I:?@:8C G<IJFE8C@KP C<M<CJ 8I< <OG<:K<; KF ?8M< ;@==<I<EK ><E<K@:8CCP @E
=FID8K@M< I<C8K@FEJ?@GJ N@K? K?< > =8:KFI <JG@K< K?< ;@==<I<E:<J @E ?@
<I8I:?@:8C C<M<CJ K?< :FDGC<O@KP F= K?< 8JJF:@8K@FEJ 9<KN<<E G<IJFE8C@KP
8E; @EK<CC@><E:< 8E; :FEKIFM<IJ@8C GI<M@FLJ I<JLCKJ <> &I<KQJ:?D8I
<K 8C 'F<?C@E <K 8C  GIFM@;< 8 98J@J =FI 8JJLD@E> K?8K
K?< =8:<K C<M<C KF 9< DFJK @E=FID8K@M< @E K?< <OGC8E8K@FE F= K?< :FDDFE
><E<K@: 8E; <EM@IFED<EK8C @E[L<E:<J LE;<ICP@E> K?<J< I<C8K@FEJ /?<I<
=FI< K?< J<:FE; >F8C F= K?@J JKL;P N8J KF ;@J:FM<I I<C<M8EK =8:<KJ =IFD
;@==<I<EK G<IJFE8C@KP ;FD8@EJ K?8K :FLC; :FEKI@9LK< KF K?< GI<;@:K@FE F=
@EK<CC@><E:<
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Participants and procedures
+8IK@:@G8EKJ N<I<  KN@EJ =IFD K?< .<I9@8E /N@E -<>@JKIP J<<
/89C<  8E; =FI ;<K8@C<; I<:IL@KD<EK GIF:<;LI<J J<< LK?FIJ 
+8IK@:@G8K@FE N8J MFCLEK8IP 8E; <8:? G8IK@:@G8EK J@>E<; 8E @E=FID<;
Table 1
/N@E J8DGC< :?8I8:K<I@JK@:J
/N@EJ .<O ><
/FK8C (8C< !<D8C< @]<I<EKJ<O -8E>< M SD
(FEFQP>FK@:(4      
@QP>FK@:4       
UNCORRECTED PROOF
Ž. Nikolašević et al. Personality and Individual DiBerences xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
:FEJ<EK =FID /?< JKL;P N8J 8GGIFM<; 9P K?< $EJK@KLK@FE8C -<M@<N
F8I; 4P>FJ@KP N8J ;<K<ID@E<; K?IFL>? K?< 8E8CPJ@J F= 9L::8C JN89
) J8DGC<J 8K K?< 5C@E;<;6
2.2. Measures
/?< ) * +<IJFE8C@KP $EM<EKFIP-<M@J<; ) *+$- FJK8  (:
I8<  =FI .<I9@8E 8;8GK8K@FE J<< &E<_<M@V <K 8C  @J 8
@K<D @EM<EKFIP D<8JLI@E> !!( KI8@KJ N@K? <8:? KI8@K :FEK8@E@E> 
=8:<KJ  @K<DJ G<I =8:<K <J:I@GK@M<J 8E; 8CG?8 I<C@89@C@K@<J 8I< >@M<E @E
/89C<  @E .LGGC<D<EK CC K?< M8I@89C<J N<I< EFID8CCP ;@JKI@9LK<; I<
>8I;@E> JB<NE<JJ 8E; BLIKFJ@J N@K?@E K?< I8E>< F= U J<< /898:?
E@:B  !@;<CC 
/?< ;M8E:<; +IF>I<JJ@M< (8KI@:<J  .<K $$ +(  .<K $$ -8M<E <K
8C  D<8JLI<J EFEM<I98C [L@; @EK<CC@><E:< FI DFI< GI<:@J<CP K?<
I<8JFE@E> 89@C@KP N?@:? @J 8 :FDGFE<EK F= .G<8ID8EJ g=8:KFI F= ><E
<I8C @EK<CC@><E:< /?< +(  .<K $$ :FEJ@JKJ F=  K8JBJ N@K? K?< DLCK@
GC<:?F@:< =FID8K @E N?@:? G8IK@:@G8EKJ 8I< 8JB<; KF :?FFJ< 8DFE> 
GFJJ@9C< G8KK<IEJ 8E; @;<EK@=P K?< D@JJ@E> <C<D<EK K?8K :FDGC<K<J K?<
D8KI@O /?< +( N8J LJ<; N@K? 8 K@D< C@D@K F=  D@E CG?8 @E K?@J
JKL;P N8J 
2.3. Data analysis
!@IJK KF 8JJ<JJ K?< 8;<HL8:P F= ?@<I8I:?@:8C G?<EFKPG@: JFCLK@FEJ
F= K?< !!( KI8@KJ N< :FE;L:K<; 8 :FEZID8KFIP =8:KFI 8E8CPJ@J !
FE =8:<KJ N@K? K?< D8O@DLD C@B<C@?FF; <JK@D8KFI /NF DF;<CJ N<I<
K<JK<;  K?< @> /NF DF;<C N@K? KNF J<:FE;FI;<I =8:KFIJ  .K89@C
@KP )  8E;  8E; +C8JK@:@KP  8E; * J<< <3FLE>  
K?< "!+ N@K? FE< J<:FE;FI;<I =8:KFI (LJ<B  .<:FE; ;<J:I@G
K@M< 8E8CPJ@J 8E; G?<EFKPG@: :FII<C8K@FEJ N<I< :FDGLK<; J<< /89C< 
8E; ;<J:I@GK@FE F= K?< GIF:<;LI< @E .LGGC<D<EK /?@I; LE@M8I@8K< J<<
/89C<  @E .LGGC<D<EK 8E; DLCK@M8I@8K< 9@FD<KI@: 8E8CPJ@J N<I< :FE
;L:K<; 9P LJ@E> :LJKFD@Q<; - J:I@GKJ XFCFM@V  @E FI;<I KF <O
GCFI< G?<EFKPG@: 8JJF:@8K@FEJ 9<KN<<E !!( KI8@KJ 8E; =8:<KJ 8E; K?<
+( J:FI< .@E:< 8>< 8E; J<O <==<:KJ :8E 9@8J K?< KN@E :FII<C8K@FE
K?<@I <==<:KJ N<I< G8IK@8C@Q<; =IFD K?< J:FI<J (:"L<  FL:?8I;
 /?< G8KK<IEJ F= ><E<K@: 8E; <EM@IFED<EK8C :FII<C8K@FEJ N<I<
:FDG8I<; LJ@E> K?< ?FC<JBP ;<:FDGFJ@K@FE 'F<?C@E  !FLIK?
=FI K?< GI<;@:K@FE F= +( J:FI< 98J<; FE !!( =8:<KJ JK<GN@J< DLC
K@GC< I<>I<JJ@FE N8J G<I=FID<; 2< LJ<; :IFJJM8C@;8K@FE GI@E:@GC<J KF
8MF@; FM<IZKK@E> 9P ;@M@;@E> K?< J8DGC< @EKF ZM< G8IKJ N@K? KN@EJ
=IFD K?< J8D< =8D@CP @E J8D< JL9J8DGC< =FI ;<J:I@GK@FE F= K?< GIF:<
;LI< J<< .LGGC<D<EK 8K8 @J 8M8@C89C< 8K ?KKGJFJ=@FMKM@<N7
FECP8::8<=989:<;;:=:
3. Results
#@<I8I:?@:8C G?<EFKPG@: JFCLK@FEJ =FI K?< "!+ 8E; K?< @> /NF DF;
<CJ J?FN<; GFFI DF;<C ZK @E K?< ! J<< /89C<  @E .LGGC<D<EK K?LJ
FECP K?< 98J@: !!( KI8@KJ 8E; =8:<KJ N<I< 8E8CPQ<; FII<C8K@FEJ 9<
KN<<E !!( KI8@KJ =8:<KJ 8E; G<I=FID8E:< FE K?< +( 8DFE> (4 8E;
4 KN@EJ 8J N<CC 8J I<JLCKJ F= 0E@M8I@8K< ><E<K@: 8E8CPJ<J 8I< GI<J<EK<;
@E .LGGC<D<EK J<< /89C<  8E; 
?FC<JBP 9<?8M@FI ><E<K@: 8E8CPJ<J N<I< G<I=FID<; @E FI;<I KF <O
GCFI< 8;;@K@M< ><E<K@: 8E; EFE J?8I<; <EM@IFED<EK8C :FII<C8K@FEJ F=
!!( KI8@KJ 8E; =8:<KJ 8E; K?< +( J:FI< *E K?< KI8@K C<M<C )<LIFK@
:@JD 8E; >I<<89C<E<JJ J?FN<; J@>E@=@:8EK 9LK E<>C@>@9C< J@Q< G?<EF
KPG@: :FII<C8K@FEJ N@K? K?< +( J:FI< /89C<  *G<EE<JJ J?FN<; 8
GFJ@K@M< ><E<K@: :FII<C8K@FE N@K? K?< +( J:FI< $;<8J =8:<K =IFD K?<
*G<EE<JJ ;FD8@E J?FN<; J@>E@=@:8EK GFJ@K@M< G?<EFKPG@: 8E; ><E<K@:
:FII<C8K@FEJ N@K? K?< +( J:FI< N?@C< !8EK8JP 8E; 18CL<J =8:<K J?FN<;
J@>E@=@:8EK ><E<K@: :FII<C8K@FEJ >I<<89C<E<JJ ;@; EFK 8:?@<M< J@>E@=@
:8EK ><E<K@: FI <EM@IFED<EK8C :FII<C8K@FEJ N@K? K?< +( J:FI< #FN
Table 2
+?<EFKPG@: ><E<K@: 8E; <EM@IFED<EK8C :FII<C8K@FEJ 9<KN<<E !!( KI8@KJ 8E; +( J:FI<
+?<EFKPG@:
:FII<C8K@FE - rPH
"<E<K@:
:FII<C8K@FE rG
EM@IFED<EK8C
:FII<C8K@FE rE
)<LIFK@:@JD 0.04*
(0.07; 0.01)

 

 
EO@<KP 
 

 

 
#FJK@C@KP 
  0.22**
(0.34;
0.08)

 
<GI<JJ@FE 
 

 

 
.<C=:FEJ:@FLJE<JJ 
 




 
$DGLCJ@M<E<JJ 
 

  
 
1LCE<I89@C@KP 0.18***
(0.29; 0.07)

 

 
OKI8M<IJ@FE 
 

  
 
28IDK? 
 

  
 
"I<>8I@FLJE<JJ 
 



 
JJ<IK@M<E<JJ 
 

  
 
:K@M@KP 
  


 
O:@K<D<EKJ<<B@E> 
 
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  
 
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 
0.25**
(0.12; 0.37) 
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
 
0.19**
(0.05; 0.31) 
 
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 
0.23**
(0.09; 0.35) 
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 
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 
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 

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$;<8J 0.26***
(0.16; 0.36)
0.38**
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
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>I<<89C<E<JJ 
 

 
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 
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(0.33; . 07)
.KI8@>?K=FIN8I;E<JJ 
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 
CKIL@JD 
  
 

 
FDGC@8E:< 
 

 

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(F;<JKP 
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(0.38;
0.13)
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/<E;<ID@E;<;E<JJ 
  0.21**
(0.34;
0.08)

 
UNCORRECTED PROOF
Ž. Nikolašević et al. Personality and Individual DiBerences xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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UNCORRECTED PROOF
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Uncited references
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CRediT authorship contribution statement
UNCORRECTED PROOF
Ž. Nikolašević et al. Personality and Individual DiBerences xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
Željka Nikolašević: FE:<GKL8C@Q8K@FE (<K?F;FCF>P $EM<JK@>8
K@FE 2I@K@E> FI@>@E8C ;I8=K Bojana M. Dinić: $EM<JK@>8K@FE (<K?F;
FCF>P 2I@K@E> FI@>@E8C ;I8=K Snežana Smederevac: .LG<IM@
J@FE 2I@K@E> I<M@<N  <;@K@E> !LE;@E> 8:HL@J@K@FE Selka Sadiković:
$EM<JK@>8K@FE 2I@K@E> FI@>@E8C ;I8=K !FID8C 8E8CPJ@J 8K8 :LI8
K@FE Ilija Milovanović: $EM<JK@>8K@FE !FID8C 8E8CPJ@J 2I@K@E> I<
M@<N <;@K@E> Vojislava Bugarski Ignjatović: .LG<IM@J@FE 2I@K@E>
I<M@<N <;@K@E> Mechthild Prinz: -<JFLI:<J $EM<JK@>8K@FE .LG<I
M@J@FE 2I@K@E> I<M@<N <;@K@E> Zoran Budimlija: -<JFLI:<J .L
G<IM@J@FE 2I@K@E> I<M@<N <;@K@E>Dragana Zgonjanin Bosić: -<
JFLI:<J .LG<IM@J@FE 2I@K@E> I<M@<N  <;@K@E>
Acknowledgements
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Appendix A. Supplementary data
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F= +<IJFE8C@KP   ;F@AO
<3FLE> " +<K<IJFE % .R>L@E %-  /I<D9C8P -   OK<IE8C@Q@E>
9<?8M@FI 8E; K?< ?@>?<I FI;<I =8:KFIJ F= K?< 9@> ZM< %FLIE8C F= 9EFID8C +JP:?FCF>P
  ;F@8
<3FLE> " .?8DFJ? ) "I<<E   I8M<I /. "I8P %-  $EK<CC<:K 8J
;@JK@E:K =IFD FG<EE<JJ @]<I<E:<J I<M<8C<; 9P =(-$ F= NFIB@E> D<DFIP %FLIE8C F=
+<IJFE8C@KP 8E; .F:@8C +JP:?FCF>P   ;F@8
@>D8E %(  #@>?<IFI;<I =8:KFIJ F= K?< 9@> ZM< %FLIE8C F= +<IJFE8C@KP 8E; .F:@8C
+JP:?FCF>P   ;F@
L>8J (% !I<<JKFE (#  '8;FL:<LI -  F>E@K@M< /?<I8GP 8E; -<J<8I:?
  ;F@8
!FLEKFLC8B@J &) .@8DFLC@ ( (FPJ@;FL . +8EKFLC8  (FLKFL & +8E8>@FK@;@J
+ (:I8< -  .K8E;8I;@Q8K@FE F= K?< ) *+$ @E K?< "I<<B ><E<I8C
GFGLC8K@FE EE8CJ F= "<E<I8C +JP:?@8KIP   ;F@J
!LIE?8D   /?FD8J   +8I<EKJ><E;<I 8E; G<IJFE8C@KP 8E; <JK@D8K<J F= K?<@I
FNE 8E; K?<@I :?@C;I<EJ @EK<CC@><E:< +<IJFE8C@KP 8E; $E;@M@;L8C @]<I<E:<J 
 ;F@AG8@;
!LIE?8D  4?8E> %  ?8DFIIF+I<DLQ@: /  /?< I<C8K@FEJ?@G 9<KN<<E
GJP:?FD<KI@: 8E; J<C=<JK@D8K<; @EK<CC@><E:< :I<8K@M@KP G<IJFE8C@KP 8E; 8:8;<D@:
8:?@<M<D<EK $D8>@E8K@FE F>E@K@FE 8E; +<IJFE8C@KP   ;F@
1(00,!("
"SKQ ! ( "FJC@E> .   -<EK=IFN %  %8EL8IP  .D8CC <==<:KJ /?< @E;@JG<EJ
89C< =FLE;8K@FE =FI 8 :LDLC8K@M< GJP:?FCF>@:8C J:@<E:< ;F@FJ=@F?QIO=
#8II@J % 1<IEFE +  %8E> &'   DLCK@M8I@8K< ><E<K@: 8E8CPJ@J F=
:FII<C8K@FEJ 9<KN<<E @EK<CC@><E:< 8E; G<IJFE8C@KP <M<CFGD<EK8C )<LIFGJP:?FCF>P
  ;F@
%<EJ<E -  /?< > =8:KFI 'FE;FE +I8<><I
&E<_<M@V " _8DFEA8$>EA8KFM@V /  YLI@V%FW@V   Petofaktorski model ličnosti
5ZM< =8:KFI DF;<C F= G<IJFE8C@KP6 <F>I8; <EK8I Q8 GI@D<EA<EL GJ@?FCF>@AL
&I<KQJ:?D8I  .G<E>C<I ( .:?L9<IK ' .K<@ED8PI -  4@<>C<I (  /?<
I<C8K@FE F= G<IJFE8C@KP 8E; @EK<CC@><E:<2?8K :8E K?< ILEJN@B JPDD<KIP GI@E:@GC<
K<CC LJ %FLIE8C F= $EK<CC@><E:<   ;F@A@EK<CC@><E:<
&I@<><JBFIK< ) .@DDFEJ 2& <CC>FN8E +.  8B<I $  @I:LC8I 8E8CPJ@J
@E JPJK<DJ E<LIFJ:@<E:< /?< ;8E><IJ F= ;FL9C< ;@GG@E> )8KLI< )<LIFJ:@<E:< 
 ;F@EE
'F<?C@E %  /?< ?FC<JBP 8GGIF8:?  :8LK@FE8IP EFK< <?8M@FI "<E<K@:J 
 ;F@9=
'F<?C@E % 8IK<CJ ( FFDJD8 $ I8KBF  (8IK@E )" )@:?FCJ -  2I@>?K
(%  $J K?<I< 8 ><E<K@: :FII<C8K@FE 9<KN<<E ><E<I8C =8:KFIJ F= @EK<CC@><E:<
8E; G<IJFE8C@KP /N@E -<J<8I:? 8E; #LD8E "<E<K@:J   ;F@
K?>
'FLEJ9LIP %2 2<CJ? + "@9JFE '2 .LE;JKIFD   IF8; 8E; E8IIFN
G<IJFE8C@KP KI8@KJ @E I<C8K@FE KF :F>E@K@M< 89@C@KP @E 8;FC<J:<EKJ +<IJFE8C@KP 8E;
$E;@M@;L8C @]<I<E:<J   ;F@AG8@;
'L:@8EF ( 28@ENI@>?K ( 2I@>?K (%  (8IK@E )"  /?< ?<I@K89@C@KP
F= :FEJ:@<EK@FLJE<JJ =8:<KJ 8E; K?<@I I<C8K@FEJ?@G KF $, 8E; 8:8;<D@: 8:?@<M<D<EK
+<IJFE8C@KP 8E; $E;@M@;L8C @]<I<E:<J   ;F@
AG8@;
(8AFI %/ %F?EJFE 2  <8IP $%  '@E<8I 8E; EFEC@E<8I 8JJF:@8K@FEJ 9<KN<<E
><E<I8C @EK<CC@><E:< 8E; G<IJFE8C@KP @E +IFA<:K /' )/ %FLIE8C F= +<IJFE8C@KP 8E;
.F:@8C +JP:?FCF>P   ;F@8
(8KK?<NJ "  ?8GK<I  OKI8M<IJ@FE <DFK@FE 8E; G<I=FID8E:<
:F>E@K@M<8;8GK@M< DF;<C $E (8KK?<NJ "  ; F>E@K@M< J:@<E:< G<IJG<:K@M<J FE
G<IJFE8C@KP 8E; <DFK@FE GG  )<N 3FIB CJ<M@<I
(:"L< (  FL:?8I; /%  ;ALJKD<EK F= KN@E ;8K8 =FI K?< <]<:KJ F= 8>< 8E;
J<O <?8M@FI "<E<K@:J   ;F@!
(<JLC8D ((  /?< ?LD8E =IFEK8C CF9<J /I8EJ:<E;@E> K?< ;<=8LCK DF;< K?IFL>?
:FEK@E><EK <E:F;@E> $E .KLJJ /  &E@>?K -/  ;J +I@E:@GC<J F= =IFEK8C CF9<
=LE:K@FE GG  )<N 3FIB *O=FI; 0E@M<IJ@KP +I<JJ
(FLK8Z % !LIE?8D   ILDG %  <DF>I8G?@: 8E; G<IJFE8C@KP GI<;@:KFIJ F=
@EK<CC@><E:< JKL;P LJ@E> K?< ) * +<IJFE8C@KP $EM<EKFIP 8E; K?< (P<IJI@>>J KPG<
@E;@:8KFI LIFG<8E %FLIE8C F= +<IJFE8C@KP   ;F@G<I
(FLK8Z % !LIE?8D   ILDG %  2?8K =8:<KJ F= FG<EE<JJ 8E;
:FEJ:@<EK@FLJE<JJ GI<;@:K [L@; @EK<CC@><E:< J:FI< '<8IE@E> 8E; $E;@M@;L8C
@]<I<E:<J   ;F@AC@E;@=
(LJ<B %  /?< ><E<I8C =8:KFI F= G<IJFE8C@KP *O=FI; :8;<D@: +I<JJ
+@E:FD9< %' 'L:@8EF ( (8IK@E )"  2I@>?K (%  #<I@K89@C@KP F= ) *
+$- <OKI8M<IJ@FE =8:<KJ 8E; K?<@I I<C8K@FEJ?@G N@K? $, /N@E -<J<8I:? 8E; #LD8E
"<E<K@:J   ;F@KN@E
+CFD@E - <!I@<J % (:C<8IE "   <?8M@FI8C ><E<K@:J 'FE;FE
(8:D@CC8E
-8M<E % -8M<E %  FLIK %#  Priručnik - 4. dio: Progresivne matrice za
napredne 5-8M<E D8EL8C $1 +IF>I<JJ@M< D8KI@:<J =FI 8;M8E:<;6 %8JKI<98IJBF
)8BC8;8 .C8G
-<M<CC< 2  2@CK %  /?< ><E<I8C =8:KFI F= G<IJFE8C@KP  ><E<I8C :I@K@HL< %FLIE8C
F= -<J<8I:? @E +<IJFE8C@KP   ;F@AAIG
-@<D8EE -  &8E;C<I   FEJKIL:K M8C@;8K@FE LJ@E> DLCK@KI8@KDLCK@D<K?F;KN@E
;8K8 /?< :8J< F= 8 ><E<I8C =8:KFI F= G<IJFE8C@KP LIFG<8E %FLIE8C F= +<IJFE8C@KP 
 ;F@G<I
.D<;<I<M8: . (@KIFM@V  .8;@BFM@V . -@<D8EE - I8KBF  +I@EQ (  L;@DC@A8
4  #<I<;@K8IP 8E; <EM@IFED<EK8C =8:KFIJ F= K?< ZM<=8:KFI DF;<C
UNCORRECTED PROOF
Ž. Nikolašević et al. Personality and Individual DiBerences xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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... Furthermore, studies have revealed gender-related differences in trait ASC, with boys and young men typically reporting higher general-school ASC than girls and young women regardless of their actual academic achievement (e.g., Parker et al., 2018). With respect to the Big Five, it has been found that conscientiousness and open-mindedness in particular are related to secondary school students' grades (Poropat, 2009), and twin studies have revealed significant genetic or environmental associations between reasoning ability and negative emotionality, open-mindedness, as well as a range of subfacets from all Big Five domains (Bartels et al., 2012;Nikolaševi c et al., 2021). PERSONALITY AND STATE ACADEMIC SELF-CONCEPT 5 This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. ...
... Gender differences were found only for aggregated state general-school ASC, with young men indicating higher general-school ASC than young women. In a similar vein, the correlations between the Big Five and the covariates were mostly consistent with previous research (Bartels et al., 2012;Nikolaševi c et al., 2021;Poropat, 2009;Soto & John, 2017; see Table S1 in the online supplemental materials). Regarding the Big Five, high open-mindedness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness but low negative emotionality significantly related to higher GPA. ...
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... For the majority of individuals, gender identity develops in early childhood . Need for cognition has been found to be related to fluid intelligence (Hill et al., 2013) for which genetics accounts for approximately 52% of individual variation (Nikolašević et al., 2021). Research has suggested that the approximately 50% of variation in Big Five personality traits are determined by genetics (Bouchard & Loehlin, 2001). ...
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