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FINGERPRINTING PROFILING OF AYURVEDIC PREPARATION: AN OVERVIEW

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Vasavaleha is a traditional Ayurvedic oral Herbal formulation consisting of five herbs, Vasaka (Adhatoda vasica Nees.), Pippali (Piper longum Linn.), Sugar, Ghee and Honey. It is available as a popular proprietary, from most manufacturers of ayurvedic drugs. A selective, precise and accurate High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of Vasicine and Piperine in Vasavaleha as well as its bulk drug. The method employed TLC aluminum plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 as a stationary phase. The solvent system consists of Dioxane: Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Methanol: Ammonia (1.5:2:1:1:0.3% v/v). This system was found to give compact spot for Vasicine and Piperine. Densiometric analysis was carried out in the absorbance mode at 285 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relation with r2 = 0.992 and 0.993 with respect to peak area for Vasicine and Piperine respectively, in concentration range 2-10 μg/spot. The method was validated for precision, recovery, Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantification. The proposed HPTLC method was found to be simple, precised and accurate and can be used for the quality control of the raw materials as well as formulations.
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Triphala is an age old commonly used Ayurvedic powdered preparation in Indian systems of medicine. This well known formulation is made by combining Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Embellica officinalis, in equal proportions. The formulation is prescribed in the first line treatment of many aliments and is used as laxative, detoxifying agent and rejuvenator. Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica consist of gallic acid and Embellica officinalis consist of ascorbic acid as marker constituent. A HPTLC- densitometric method of analysis for these markers i.e. gallic acid and ascorbic acid was developed. Water was selected as a solvent for preparing standard solutions. Quantitative estimation of gallic acid and ascorbic acid was performed separately on aluminum backed silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates (10 cm x 10 cm plate size, layer thickness 0.2 mm, E-Merck, Darmstadt, Germany). Ascorbic acid shows Rf value of 0.74 ± 0.1 using ethanol: glacial acetic acid: toluene (5.5:1:1.5) and gallic acid showed Rf value of 0.54 ±0.1, using ethyl acetate: toluene: acetone (4.5:4:1) as mobile phase. The polynomial regression data of ascorbic acid and gallic acid were interpreted separately for its linearity at 500-3500 μg/ml with R2 = 0.9986 and 0.9931 respectively. The literature survey reveals that, there is no such chromatographic method available for quantitative estimation of gallic acid and ascorbic acid.
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Epidemological data reveals that, in the present era of industrialization, the incidence and prevalence of Tamaka Shwasa (bronchial asthma) is largely growing, imposing and increasingly large burden to health services. An Ayurvedic formulation, Vyaghrihareetaki avaleha (VHA) is a potent drug indicated for shwasa (Asthma), kasa (cough) etc and used in the management of Tamaka Shwasa (Bronchial Asthma). Standardization of the compound formulation is the need of the present era to set standards for maintaining the quality of the products. Here an attempt has been made to study Vyaghrihareetaki avaleha pharmacognostically, analytically and to develop fingerprints by High-Performance Thin Layer chromatography study (HPTLC). HPTLC study shows eight spots in short wave uv 254 nm and five spots in long wave uv 366 nm.
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An HPTLC method was developed for Qualitative and Quantitative Estimation of Gallic Acid and Ascorbic Acid in Polyherbal Tablets (Amalant and Sookshma Triphala Tablet) containing Embelica Officinalis, using precoated HPTLC silica gel 60 F 254 as Stationary Phase and Mobile Phase for Gallic Acid is Toluene: Ethyl Acetate: Formic Acid (6:3:1v/v/v) and for Ascorbic Acid is Ethyl Acetate: Acetic Acid Glacial: Formic Acid: Water (6:1:1:2v/v/v/v). Detection and Quantification were performed densitometrically at λ max 254nm for Gallic Acid and Ascorbic Acid. The Standard R f values of Gallic Acid and Ascorbic Acid are 0.34±0.01 and 0.60±0.01 respectively. The total peak areas of the Standards [Gallic Acid and Ascorbic Acid] and the corresponding peak areas of extracts were compared and the Gallic Acid content were estimated to be 3.01, 4.89% and 5.01% from Amla Powder, Amalant Tablet and Sookshma Triphala Tablet and the Ascorbic Acid were estimated to be 11.56%, 28.94%, 31.79% from Amla Powder, Amalant Tablet and Sookshma Triphala Tablet. INTRODUCTION: The fruits of Phyllanthus embelica Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), commonly known in India as amla (Sanskrit name amalaki), are consumed as fruit or in the form of food products. This fruit also forms an important constituent of many Ayurvedic preparations such as chyavanprash and triphala and is regarded as one of the best rejuvenating herbs. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree found throughout India 1 . The fruits are globular, fleshy, smooth, and striated, of yellowish-green color. They contain an obovate-obtusely triangular six-celled nut. Traditionally, the fruit is useful as an astringent, cardiac tonic, diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hair tonic, and digestive medicine 1, 2 . It is used for a variety of ailments such as, anemia, hyperacidity, diarrhea, and eye inflammation, and anomalies of urine, leucorrhea, jaundice, nervine debility, liver complaints, and cough 3, 4 . It is reported to have hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antimutagenic, cytoprotective, antitumor, antifungal, antimicrobial, hypolipidemic, and antiatherosclerotic effects 4, 5, 6 . The fruit contains two hydrolysable tannins Emblicanin A and B, which have antioxidant properties; one on hydrolysis gives Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid, and Glucose, whereas the other gives Ellagic acid and Glucose 7, 8 . These fruits are also considered as a rich source of ascorbic acid which have antioxidant property. The High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic (HPTLC) method for qualitative and quantitative estimation of gallic acid and ascorbic acid in polyherbal tablets containing Embelica officinalis still has not been reported. The goal of the present work is to determine and quantitate the content of gallic acid and ascorbic acid in polyherbal tablets containing Embelica officinalis by using the HPTLC method.
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In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop an analytical method for the simultaneous estimation of curcuminoids and gallic acid in commercially marketed ayurvedic polyherbal formulation Nisha Amalaki vatti by spectrophotometric method. Simultaneous equations (Vierodt's method) were performed by UV/Visible spectrophotometric. Curcuminoids has absorbance maxima at about 427nm and Gallic acid maxima at about 227nm in methanol. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 10-50 mcg/mL for both curcuminoids and gallic acid. The results were of the analysis were validated statistically and the recovery studies were carried out as per ICH guidelines.
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Trikatu Churna (TC) is an ancient traditional Ayurvedic preparation prescribed for a wide range of disorders. Though TC is an age old formulation, there are very few references on its quality control and standardization. In this work, an attempt has been made to standardize TC by qualitatively evaluating the preliminary phytochemicals. Piperine content of TC was determined using HPTLC. Evaluation of safety potential of TC samples and stability evaluation by comparative study of the in house TC formulation with marketed TC formulations with respect to their piperine content is a value addition to the current work.
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Quality assurance is an integral part of all systems of medicine to ensure quality medicament. Thus, there is an urgent need to evaluate such parameters which can be adopted by the pharmaceutical industries. In the communication, attempts have been made to evaluate Palas'abijadi Ciirna, an Ayurvedic compound formulation. Four samples procured from different manufacturers were subjected to physicochernical analysis, HPTLC fingerprinting, and botanical characterization, and compared using authentic ingredients as reference. It was observed that the microscopic and chromatographic analyses compliment each other in their findings, and can be used effectively for the identification of raw materials in the compound formulation (s).
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Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. (Kuberaksha) is an Ayurvedic herb used in the management of malaria, liver disorders, worms, edematous conditions, etc. Based on classical Ayurvedic textual indications and recent pharmacological studies, its leaf powder was selected for studying its effect clinically on filaria. Before conducting the clinical trails, this leaf powder was subjected to certain chemical studies to find the pH, ash value, extractive values, High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC), etc. for standardization of the drug.
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Ajmodadi churna (AJC) is an Ayurvedic formulation containing Piper species (Piper longum in both form root and fruit and Piper nigrum) as main ingredients. It is a traditional Ayurvedic oral Herbal formulation, available as a popular proprietary, from most manufacturers of ayurvedic drugs. A selective, precise and accurate High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of Piperine in Ajmodadi churna as well as its bulk drug. The method employed TLC aluminum plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 as a stationary phase. The solvent system consists of Toluene: Ethyl acetate( 7 : 3 % v/v). This system was found to give compact spot for Piperine. Densiometric analysis was carried out in the absorbance mode at 254 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relation with r2 = 0.992 and with respect to peak area for Piperine, in concentration range 0.5-20 μg/spot. The method was validated for precision (0.173), recovery (99.43%), Limit of Detection (0.063mg/ml) and Limit of Quantification (0.071mg/ml). The proposed HPTLC method can be used for the quality control of the raw materials as well as formulations. Piperine in Piper longum and Piper nigrum are reported to be the active components in the formulation AJC and can be considered as marker compounds. Therefore, HPTLC method has been developed for the estimation of these marker compounds 11, and also to develop finger print profile for the standard formulation of Ajmodadi churna so that these parameters can be compared with any marketed formulation for evaluating its purity and quality. The proposed method has been validated as per ICH guidelines.12-13
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Standardization of herbal formulations is essential in order to asses the quality of drugs for therapeutic value. The World Health Organization (WHO) in 1999, has given a detail protocol for the standardization of herbal drugs comprising of a single content, but very little literature is available for the standardization of poly-herbal drugs. We have developed a simple scheme for the standardization and authentification of Panchasakar Churna comprising of four botanical ingredients. Three samples from different manufactures were procured and subjected to various physicochemical analyses and HPTLC fingerprinting along with in-house formulation. The set parameters were found to be sufficient to standardize the Panchasakar Churna and can be used as reference standards for the quality control/quality assurance study. The laxative activity of the aqueous extract of Panchasakar Churna was also evaluated to justify the traditional claim.
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India is a land mark for traditional system of medicine from the past few centuries. Most of the traditional systems of medicine are effective but only one major drawback is lack of standardization. So, there is a need to develop a standardization technique to mingle this system of medicine in the main stream of health sciences. Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS) has given preliminary guidelines for standardizing these conventional formulations. The present paper reports on standardization of Talishadi churna, an Ayurvedic formulation. Three marketed samples and in-house preparation were subjected to organoleptic study, physical characteristics, physiochemical screening and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) chromatogram. It was observed that all commercial samples and standard are similar in their organoleptic and qualitative chemical analysis but physical characteristic, fluorescence analysis and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) chromatogram of various formulations are not matching with each other, and it may be due to the raw material collection time, geographical variation, etc. Which can be further investigated for its pharmacological activity. This study provides ready reference for the selection of an appropriate formulation in the clinical practice and hence effective rational therapy, the overall theme of health sciences.
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Quantification of active principles through modern analytical tools is essential for establishing the authenticity, creditability, prescription and usage of Ayurvedic medicines/herbal formulations. Triphala churna is one of the popular Ayurvedic preparations, official in Ayurvedic formulary of India. The present study is an attempt to develop a fingerprint method for Triphala churna with TLC Densitometric Methods (HPTLC) using gallic acid as a standard. The gallic acid is a major content in all the three ingredients of the formulation. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantification, inter-day and intra-day assay precision, repeatability of measurement, and repeatability of sample application. The concentration of gallic acid present in raw material was found to be 3.10±0.41% w/w in Emblica officinalis, 8.47±0.82% w/w in Terminalia belerica, and 4.63±0.49% w/w in Terminalia chebula. Gallic acid content in three identical laboratory batch of Triphala churna TP-I, TP-II and TP-III, was found to be 5.39±0.48%, 5.42±0.46% and 5.41±0.52% w/w respectively with mean value 5.41±0.49%. The gallic acid content in all the three different batches is found to be in close proximities with each other. The results were comparable to marketed formulations.
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In the present study herbal products marketed in Yavatmal District of India were determined for the presences of Endosulfan contents in herbal products were examined. The total of ten herbal products of various brands were selected randomly and tested for pesticide content. Of which 2 samples (H3 & H4) showing the presence of Endosulfan but within the limit given by W.H.O. The formulations are used daily by the patients suffering from constipation. The method reported was used for analysis of pesticide content in the present work for determination of Endosulfan content in Triphala Churna formulations in which chromatographic conditions were mobile Phase 0.1% acetic acid in Acetonitrile Flow rate 1 ml/min, using Column C18,indicating the Endosulfan content in formulation no H3.(0.025ppm), and H4, (0.04 ppm), but the pesticide contamination indicated in such herbal formulation was in permissible limit as per WHO specification (0.05 ppm).The data indicated suggest that there is requirement of in process improvement to provide better quality for consumer health in order to be competitive in international markets.
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A high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detection was developed to simultaneously determine seven different marker compounds in Haritaki churna, an ayurvedic formulation. These markers are gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), ethyl gallate (3), ellagic acid (4), chebulagic acid (5), chebulinic acid (6) penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (7). HPLC analysis was carried out at wavelength 272nm. The developed method was able to determine the marker compounds with excellent resolution, precision and recovery. The chromatographic separation was performed on Thermo Scientific BDS HYPERSIL Phenyl reversed-phase column (100mm×4.6mm, 3μm). The mobile phase was consisted of 0.02% triethyl amine aqueous pH 3.0 with ortho-phosphoric acid (A) and acetonitrile (B) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min gradient mode. Regression equations showed good linear relationships (R 2 > 0.998) between the peak area of each marker and concentration. The assay was reproducible with overall intra- and inter-day variation of less than 3.4%. The recoveries, measured at three concentration levels, varied from 97.8% to 101.1%. The method was applied to determine the amounts of the marker compounds in three different commercial market samples, and significant variations in phytoconstituents were observed.
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Bhaskar Lavan churna (BLC) is an Ayurvedic formulation containing Piper species (Piper longum, Piper nigrum) as main ingredients. This study was aimed to develop finger printing methods for well-known Ayurvedic formulation. Three batches of BLC were prepared in the laboratory and three different formulations were procured from Ayurvedic medicine shop. A HPLC method was developed for the estimation of Piperine in laboratory and marketed formulations. The concentration of Piperine in raw material was found to be 3.6%± 0.31w/w in Piper nigrum fruits, 1.4% ± 0.27w/w in Piper longum fruits and 1.02±0.21 w/w in Piper longum roots. The content of Piperine in laboratory formulations were found to be (0.19±0.61%) and in different marketed formulations of BLC were, for BLC-A (0.10 ±0.21 %), BLC-B (0.092±0.34 %), BLC-C (0.071±0.52 %) w/w respectively. In order to obtain precision and accuracy the recovery study was performed and result obtained with mean value 99.36%±0.25, which prove reproducibility of the result. This show significant precision of methods at 95% confidence level. The mean of % RSD value was found to be 0.35 with the mean standard error 0.242. Results of statistical analysis show present HPLC method for determination of Piperine is simple, precise, accurate and suitable for routine analysis of Piperine in BLC. The developed fingerprints can be used as a standard and Piperine can be used as a possible marker compound for fingerprinting of BLC.
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Ayurvedic medicine Panchsakar Churna is a combination of simple and routine use herbs even then their combined effect is great in managing constipation, haemorrhoids and pain in abdomen, flatulence, assimilatory disorder and rheumatic conditions. Through the Ayurvedic powder formulation enjoys great reputation, its standardization and quality control parameters are not well defined. The efforts have been initiated to develop certain methods and parameters for standardization and quality control. In house preparations (thee batches) of churna were prepared as per Siddhayog sangrah and the preparations are standardized according to guidelines of World Health Organization. viz extractive value, ash value, phytoconstituents, micromeritic parameter, volatile oil content etc. The results were found in close proximity of three batches. This study on Panchsakar churna was reproducible, precise and may be considered as a method for its quality control.
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Pharmacognostic standardization of the Varuna Kwatha Churna an ayurvedic formulation formulated from various medicinal plants as bark of varuna, pashanbheda rhizome, fruit of gokshura and rhizome of sunthi which is used to treat urolithiasis. The varuna kwatha churna manufactured by the formula in the ratio as specified in the ayurvedic formulary of India given in specified quantities as cited in the Cakradatta, it has been coarsely powdered and passed through sieve, weighed, was carried out to determine its macro-and microscopical characters and also some of its quantitative standards. Various standardization parameters such as physicochemical standards, chemo profiles as preliminary analysis, TLC fingerprint profiles and safety evaluation as microbial contamination, heavy metal determination were also evaluated with the market formulations. These findings will be useful towards establishing pharmacognostic standards on identification, purity, quality and classification of the plant, which is gaining relevance in plant drug research. INTRODUCTION: Plants and plant-derived products are part of health care system since ancient human civilizations. There are different types of ayurvedic preparations, such as asava, arishta, ghruta, taila, churna, kwatha. Thus, the churna is a fine powder of well dried drug or drugs described in ancient literature. The kwatha churna, type of churna is the combination of drugs made into coarse powder, kept for preparation of kasaya made with the ingredients in the formulation. The powder completely passed through sieve no. 85. It was found in yellow to brown in color with characteristic odor and taste, bitter as well as texture was like coarse powder.
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Most of the traditional systems of medicine are effective but they lack of standardization. So, there is a need to develop a standardization technique. Central Council of research in Ayurveda and Siddha has given preliminary guidelines for standardizing these conventional formulations. For the uniformity of batches in production of herbal formulations it is necessary to develop methods for evaluation. In the paper, attempt has been made to evaluate Amukkara choornam, a Siddha formulation. Four samples were procured from different manufacturers and were subjected to physiochemical screening, High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) finger printing, microscopic characterization was compared using authentic ingredients as reference. It was observed that all commercial samples matched exactly with that of authentic standards after performing the standardization.
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Embelia ribes burm f., also known as Vidanga, is one of the oldest herbs in Indian traditional medicine. It is used mainly as an anthelmintic, carminative and stimulants. A selective, precise and accurate High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the quantification of Embelin in Vidanga churna formulations. The chromatographic separation was performed on Chromatopak Peerless basic C 18 column (250 mm L x 4.6 mm ID Column; packing size-5µ) with a mobile phase Methanol: Phosphate Buffer pH 3.0 (adjusted with 5% v/v acetic acid) in 90:10 proportion at flow rate was 1.4 ml/min. Densitometric analysis was carried out in the absorbance mode at 291 nm. Developed HPLC method showed good regression (r 2 = 0.9988 ± 0.0012) and the recovery of Embelin was in the range of 99.6 – 102.2%. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 1.94 µg/ml and 5.891µg/ml respectively. The method was validated for precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantitation as per ICH guidelines. The proposed HPLC method was found to be simple, precised and accurate and can be used for the quantitative and chemical fingerprint analysis of Vidanga.
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Quality assurance of herbal products may be ensured by proper quality control of the herbal ingredients and by means of good manufacturing practice. We have developed a simple scheme for the standardization and authentification of Sulaharan Yoga a poly herbal formulation using HPTLC. The present study signifies the use of TLC, HPTLC fingerprint profiles for deciding the identity, purity and strength of the polyherbal formulation and also for fixing standards for this Ayurvedic formulation.
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A simple, precise, rapid, selective, and cost-effective high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been established for simultaneous estimation of curcumin, piperine, and thymol in an ayurvedic formulation. Chromatography was performed on silica gel 60 F 254 plates with toluene-ethyl acetate-methanol, 9 + 1 + 0.5 (v/v), as mobile phase. Plates were developed to a distance of 8 cm at room temperature, without chamber saturation. The plates were scanned and the compounds were quantified at their wavelengths of maximum absorption, 420, 333, and 277 nm for curcumin, piperine, and thymol, respectively. The respective R F values of curcumin, piperine, and thymol were 0.23, 0.30, and 0.64. Response was a linear function of the amount applied to the plate in the ranges 50-250 ng, 10-60 ng, and 100-700 ng for curcumin, piperine, and thymol, respectively. LOD for curcumin, piperine, and thymol were 25, 5, and 50 ng, respectively. The mean results from assay of curcumin, piperine, and thymol in the ayurvedic formulation were found to be 0.85, 12.93, and 3.29 mg g -1, respectively. The respective covariance for curcumin, piperine, and thymol was 0.78, 0.51, and 0.69%, respectively. Recovery was 100.41, 99.52, and 101.21% for curcumin, piperine and thymol, respectively. Rapid identification of curcumin, piperine, and thymol is also possible by spraying the plate with anisaldehyde in sulfuric acid reagent.
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Botanicals and herbal preparations are medicinal preparations, containing a single or two or more medicinal plants. The focus of this review paper is on the analytical methodologies, which included the combination of sample preparation tools and chromatographic techniques for the chemical standardization of marker compounds or active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations. The common problems and key challenges in the chemical standardization of botanicals and herbal preparations were discussed. As sample preparation is the most important step in the development of analytical methods for the analysis of constituents present in botanicals and herbal preparations, the strength and weakness of different extraction techniques are discussed. For the analysis of compounds present in the plant extracts, the applications of common chromatographic techniques, such as HPLC, CE, HRGC/MS, HPLC/MS and HPLC/MS/MS are discussed. The strength, weakness and applicability of various separation tools are stated. Procedures for the identification of marker or active compounds in plant extracts, using HPLC/MS, were proposed. Finally, the effects of batch-to-batch variation of the medicinal plants are investigated and discussed.
Formulation and evaluation of ChaturjatChurna: containing 4 ingredients
  • A Gautam
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Gautam, A.; Yadav, K.; Shah, J. (2011) Formulation and evaluation of ChaturjatChurna: containing 4 ingredients. Int J Pharm Life Sci 2: 554-558.
Pharmacognostical & Pharmaceutical Evaluation of IkshvadiAvaleha
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HPLC Determination of Piperine in 'TrikatuChurna' a Potent Ayurvedic Formulation for Routine Quality Control
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Jain, V.; Vyas, A. and Saraf, S. (2011). HPLC Determination of Piperine in 'TrikatuChurna' a Potent Ayurvedic Formulation for Routine Quality Control. Asian J Res Chem., 4: 183.
Development of quality control methods for polyherbal formulation
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Kasar, R.P.; Laddha, K.S. and Shukla, A. (2006). Development of quality control methods for polyherbal formulation, Chyawanprash. Nat Prod Rad. 5: 33-41.
Standardization of a polyherbal Ayurveda formulation, NisamalakiChurna tablet
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Kumar, P.S. and Kumar, V.K. (2011). Standardization of a polyherbal Ayurveda formulation, NisamalakiChurna tablet. J Pharm Res 4: 1483-1487.
Standardisation of Ayurvedicpolyherbal formulation, PancasamaChurna
  • A K Meena
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Meena, A.K.; Rao, M.M.; Panda, P. and Yadav A.K. (2010). Standardisation of Ayurvedicpolyherbal formulation, PancasamaChurna. Int J Pharmacog Phytochem Res., 2: 11-14.
Standardization of PanchkolChurna by HPTLC
  • H Mistry
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Mistry, H.; Shukla, H. and Prajapati, N. (2010). Standardization of PanchkolChurna by HPTLC. J Planar Chromatography, 105: 126.
Development of fingerprint for single component analysis of an Ayurvedic formulation (SitopaladiChurna) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
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  • S Saraf
Pandey, R.K. and Saraf, S. (2010). Development of fingerprint for single component analysis of an Ayurvedic formulation (SitopaladiChurna) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Scholar Research Library Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2: 464-470.
Development and Validation of HPTLC Method for Simultaneous Quantitation of Embelin and Assay of Marketed Formulation
  • R J Sudani
  • B V Akbari
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Sudani, R.J.; Akbari, B.V. and Vidyasagar, G. (2011). Development and Validation of HPTLC Method for Simultaneous Quantitation of Embelin and Assay of Marketed Formulation. Int J Pharm Biol Archives 2: 652-656.