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Hydrogen Rich Water Consumption Positively Affects Muscle Performance, Lactate Response, and Alleviates Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness After Resistance Training

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Botek, M, Krejčí, J, McKune, A, Valenta, M, and Sládečková, B. Hydrogen rich water consumption positively affects muscle performance, lactate response, and alleviates delayed onset of muscle soreness after resistance training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-Positive outcomes of hydrogen rich water (HRW) supplementation on endurance performance have been shown, but the effects of HRW in resistance training are unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 1,260 ml of HRW intake on physiological, perceptual, and performance responses to a resistance training and after 24 hours of recovery. This randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over study included 12 men aged 23.8 ± 1.9 years. Subjects performed a half squat, knee flexion, and extension exercises with the load set at 70% of 1 repetition maximum for 3 sets (10 reps/set). Lunges were performed with a load of 30% of body mass for 3 sets (20 reps/set). Time of each set, lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion were assessed mid-way through exercise and immediately after the exercise. Creatine kinase, muscle soreness visual analog scale ratings, countermovement jump, and heart rate variability were evaluated before the training and at 30 minutes, 6, and 24 hours of recovery. Lunges were performed faster with HRW compared with placebo (p < 0.001). Hydrogen rich water reduced lactate at mid-way and immediately after the exercise (HRW: 5.3 ± 2.1 and 5.1 ± 2.2, placebo: 6.5 ± 1.8 and 6.3 ± 2.2 mmol·L-1, p ≤ 0.008). Visual analog scale ratings were significantly lower with HRW (26 ± 11 vs. 41 ± 20 mm, p = 0.002) after 24 hours of recovery. In conclusion, an acute intermittent HRW hydration improved muscle function, reduced the lactate response, and alleviated delayed onset of muscle soreness.
J Strength Cond Res
. 2021 Feb 4.
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003979. Online ahead of print.
Hydrogen Rich Water
Consumption Positively Aects
Muscle Performance, Lactate
Response, and Alleviates Delayed
Onset of Muscle Soreness After
Resistance Training
Michal Botek 1, Jakub Krejčí, Andrew McKune, Michal Valenta, Barbora Sládečková
Affiliations expand
PMID: 33555824
DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003979
Abstract
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... Our previous studies demonstrated that H 2 attenuated the intensive exercise-induced elevation in oxidative damage or the reduction in antioxidant capacity in humans (Koyama et al., 2008;Dobashi et al., 2020;Shibayama et al., 2020) and thoroughbred horses (Yamazaki et al., 2015). Moreover, H 2 -rich water improved muscle fatigue (Aoki et al., 2012;Botek et al., 2021Botek et al., , 2022 and attenuated an increase in blood lactate concentrations during exercise (Drid et al., 2016;Botek et al., 2019Botek et al., , 2021Mikami et al., 2019), as well as inflammatory responses (Ara et al., 2018;Nogueira et al., 2018Nogueira et al., , 2021. Furthermore, a recent study reported that AEW ingestion improved energy expenditure during submaximal endurance cycling in a heated environment (Ito et al., 2020). ...
... Our previous studies demonstrated that H 2 attenuated the intensive exercise-induced elevation in oxidative damage or the reduction in antioxidant capacity in humans (Koyama et al., 2008;Dobashi et al., 2020;Shibayama et al., 2020) and thoroughbred horses (Yamazaki et al., 2015). Moreover, H 2 -rich water improved muscle fatigue (Aoki et al., 2012;Botek et al., 2021Botek et al., , 2022 and attenuated an increase in blood lactate concentrations during exercise (Drid et al., 2016;Botek et al., 2019Botek et al., , 2021Mikami et al., 2019), as well as inflammatory responses (Ara et al., 2018;Nogueira et al., 2018Nogueira et al., , 2021. Furthermore, a recent study reported that AEW ingestion improved energy expenditure during submaximal endurance cycling in a heated environment (Ito et al., 2020). ...
... Instead, the amount of water that would induce dehydration (more than 2% of weight loss) based on the participants' average body weight was calculated to be approximately 1350 mL. Moreover, we considered the capacity of the sealed aluminum pack and referred the single ingestion volume and time, and total volume of rehydration in previous studies (Botek et al., 2019(Botek et al., , 2021Mikami et al., 2019;Dobashi et al., 2020). Collectively, we set the above drinking protocol in this study. ...
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Purpose This study investigated the effects of 1400 mL intake of alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) or purified water (PW) into which carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE) was dissolved on improving physiological responses during exercise under heat stress. Methods This double-blinded, crossover randomized controlled trial included 10 male participants who completed two exercise trials in a hot environment (35 °C, ambient temperature, and 50% relative humidity) after consuming CE-dissolved PW (P-CE) or CE-dissolved AEW (A-CE). The exercise trial consisted of running for 30 minutes on a treadmill (at an intensity corresponding to 65% of heart rate reserve adjusted for heat stress conditions) and repeated sprint cycling (10 × 7-s maximal sprint cycling), with a 35-min rest interval between the two exercises, followed by a 30-min post-exercise recovery period. Before and after running, and after cycling, the participants drank P-CE (hydrogen concentration of 0 ppm, pH 3.8) or A-CE (0.3 ppm, pH 4.1). Blood samples were obtained before, during (rest interval between running and cycling), and post-exercise. Results Repeated sprint performance and oxidative stress response did not differ between the P-CE and A-CE trials. A-CE consumption significantly attenuated the increase in blood lactate concentration during the running exercise but not during repeated sprint cycling under heat stress conditions. Conclusion Our findings suggested that A-CE did not significantly affect repeated sprint performance; however, the attenuated elevation in blood lactate by A-CE ingestion implies a partial enhancement of endurance performance during submaximal exercise under heat stress.
... H 2 has also been shown to stimulate mitochondrial respiration, Q-cycle [25], and oxidative ATP phosphorylation (OXOPHOS) rate [26]. Pre-exercise HRW intake or H 2 inhalation has been shown to have an antifatigue effect across different modes of exercise, including endurance [27][28][29], strength-endurance drills [30], cycling anaerobic power output [31], maximal isokinetic muscle strength [32], and during prolonged, intermittent sprints [33]. H 2 administration strategies varied across studies, e.g., in duration of pre-exercise administration ( [33], and 4 weeks [27]) and administration mode (HRW [27,28,[30][31][32][33], H 2 inhalation [29]), which complicates the comparison of the study results. ...
... Pre-exercise HRW intake or H 2 inhalation has been shown to have an antifatigue effect across different modes of exercise, including endurance [27][28][29], strength-endurance drills [30], cycling anaerobic power output [31], maximal isokinetic muscle strength [32], and during prolonged, intermittent sprints [33]. H 2 administration strategies varied across studies, e.g., in duration of pre-exercise administration ( [33], and 4 weeks [27]) and administration mode (HRW [27,28,[30][31][32][33], H 2 inhalation [29]), which complicates the comparison of the study results. However, there is a paucity of studies examining the antifatigue effect of HRW consumption on subsequent repeated sprint performance in team sport in general, and specifically in professional soccer. ...
... The dose relative to body mass was 10.2 ± 1.1 µmol kg −1 . This HRW hydration protocol included a 1-week washout period similarly to previous HRW studies [24,28,30]. ...
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Article
Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) supplementation has been shown to have an antifatigue effect across different modes of exercise. However, its effect on repeated sprint performance is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pre-exercise HRWconsumption on repeated sprint performance, lactate, and perceptual responses using a repeated sprint protocol. This randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled, crossover study included 16 professional, male soccer players aged 18.8 � 1.2 years. Athletes performed two indoor tests, particularly 15 � 30 m track sprints interspersed by 20 s of recovery, separated by a 1-week washout period. Sprint time was measured at 15 m and 30 m. Ratings of perceived exertion were assessed immediately after each sprint, and post-exercise blood lactate concentration was measured after the last sprint. There were significantly faster sprint times after HRW consumption compared with placebo at 15 m for the 14th and 15th sprints, representing improvements in time of 3.4% and 2.7%, respectively. Sprint time at 30 m also significantly improved by 1.9% in the HRWgroup in the last sprint. However, neither lactate concentrations nor ratings of perceived exertion were significantly different between HRW and placebo. Pre-exercise HRW supplementation is associated with an increased ability to reduce fatigue, especially during the later stages of repeated sprint exercise.
... H 2 has also been shown to stimulate mitochondrial respiration, Q-cycle [25], and oxidative ATP phosphorylation (OXOPHOS) rate [26]. Pre-exercise HRW intake or H 2 inhalation has been shown to have an antifatigue effect across different modes of exercise, including endurance [27][28][29], strength-endurance drills [30], cycling anaerobic power output [31], maximal isokinetic muscle strength [32], and during prolonged, intermittent sprints [33]. H 2 administration strategies varied across studies, e.g., in duration of pre-exercise administration ( [33], and 4 weeks [27]) and administration mode (HRW [27,28,[30][31][32][33], H 2 inhalation [29]), which complicates the comparison of the study results. ...
... Pre-exercise HRW intake or H 2 inhalation has been shown to have an antifatigue effect across different modes of exercise, including endurance [27][28][29], strength-endurance drills [30], cycling anaerobic power output [31], maximal isokinetic muscle strength [32], and during prolonged, intermittent sprints [33]. H 2 administration strategies varied across studies, e.g., in duration of pre-exercise administration ( [33], and 4 weeks [27]) and administration mode (HRW [27,28,[30][31][32][33], H 2 inhalation [29]), which complicates the comparison of the study results. However, there is a paucity of studies examining the antifatigue effect of HRW consumption on subsequent repeated sprint performance in team sport in general, and specifically in professional soccer. ...
... The dose relative to body mass was 10.2 ± 1.1 µmol kg −1 . This HRW hydration protocol included a 1-week washout period similarly to previous HRW studies [24,28,30]. ...
Full-text available
Article
Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) supplementation has been shown to have an antifatigue effect across different modes of exercise. However, its effect on repeated sprint performance is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pre-exercise HRW consumption on repeated sprint performance, lactate, and perceptual responses using a repeated sprint protocol. This randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled, crossover study included 16 professional, male soccer players aged 18.8 ± 1.2 years. Athletes performed two indoor tests, particularly 15 × 30 m track sprints interspersed by 20 s of recovery, separated by a 1-week washout period. Sprint time was measured at 15 m and 30 m. Ratings of perceived exertion were assessed immediately after each sprint, and post-exercise blood lactate concentration was measured after the last sprint. There were significantly faster sprint times after HRW consumption compared with placebo at 15 m for the 14th and 15th sprints, representing improvements in time of 3.4% and 2.7%, respectively. Sprint time at 30 m also significantly improved by 1.9% in the HRW group in the last sprint. However, neither lactate concentrations nor ratings of perceived exertion were significantly different between HRW and placebo. Pre-exercise HRW supplementation is associated with an increased ability to reduce fatigue, especially during the later stages of repeated sprint exercise.
... Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been shown to be a healthy, safe gas [20] with a strong and selective antioxidative capability for scavenging the harmful hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite anion [20,21]. Numerous studies have indicated that H2 has anti-inflammatory [22], anti-apoptosis [23], antifatigue [24][25][26][27], and regulatory properties [28]. Based on the reported beneficial health effects across a variety of diagnoses [22,29], H2 administration has recently been proposed as a promising therapeutic gas for COVID-19 patients [7,[30][31][32][33][34][35]. ...
... Hence, we suggest that 2 weeks of daily H2 inhalation resulted in a clinically relevant improvement in physical function in our cohort of acute post-COVID-19 patients. From an improved physical fitness standpoint, the antifatigue effect of H2 demonstrated in the present study has already been documented in other studies examining different modes of exercise in a healthy population [26,27], well-trained athletes [25,45,59], and animal models [24]. The antifatigue effect of H2 supplementation was explained by its ability to stimulate oxidative metabolism, reduce oxidative stress, adjust the cellular redox environment and improve immune function. ...
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Molecular hydrogen (H2) is potentially a novel therapeutic gas for acute post-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients because it has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis, and antifatigue properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 14 days of H2 inhalation on the respiratory and physical fitness status of acute post-COVID-19 patients. This random-ized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study included 26 males (44 ± 17 years) and 24 females (38 ± 12 years), who performed a 6-min walking test (6 MWT) and pulmonary function test, specifically forced vital capacity (FVC) and expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1). Symptomatic participants were recruited between 21 and 33 days after a positive polymerase chain reaction test. The experiment consisted of H2/placebo inhalation, 2 × 60 min/day for 14 days. Results showed that H2 therapy, compared with placebo, significantly increased 6 MWT distance by 64 ± 39 m, FVC by 0.19 ± 0.24 L, and, in FEV1, by 0.11 ± 0.28 L (all p ≤ 0.025). In conclusion, H2 inhalation had beneficial health effects in terms of improved physical and respiratory function in acute post-COVID-19 patients. Therefore, H2 inhalation may represent a safe, effective approach for accelerating early function restoration in post-COVID-19 patients.
... reducing the biological reaction to radiation-induced oxidative stress (Kang et al., 2011), other studies showed a reduction of mitochondrial DNA damage (Tomofuji et al., 2014) and improved autonomic cardiac function after 4 weeks of administration in healthy adults (Mizuno et al., 2017). In addition to clinical studies, there is positive effect also in physically active humans while HRW was reported to reduce blood acidosis (Ostojic & Stojanovic, 2014) and lactate concentration (Aoki et al., 2012;Botek et al., 2019Botek et al., , 2021, improve perceptual and ventilatory response to exercise (Botek et al., 2019) or having an antifatigue effect (Aoki et al., 2012;Botek et al., 2020Botek et al., , 2021Da Ponte et al., 2018). Zanini et al. (2020) found an alternative effect of HRW to caffeine in terms of sleep deprivation where HRW was suggested to have a stimulating effect on the brain, particularly improved sensory stimulation. ...
... reducing the biological reaction to radiation-induced oxidative stress (Kang et al., 2011), other studies showed a reduction of mitochondrial DNA damage (Tomofuji et al., 2014) and improved autonomic cardiac function after 4 weeks of administration in healthy adults (Mizuno et al., 2017). In addition to clinical studies, there is positive effect also in physically active humans while HRW was reported to reduce blood acidosis (Ostojic & Stojanovic, 2014) and lactate concentration (Aoki et al., 2012;Botek et al., 2019Botek et al., , 2021, improve perceptual and ventilatory response to exercise (Botek et al., 2019) or having an antifatigue effect (Aoki et al., 2012;Botek et al., 2020Botek et al., , 2021Da Ponte et al., 2018). Zanini et al. (2020) found an alternative effect of HRW to caffeine in terms of sleep deprivation where HRW was suggested to have a stimulating effect on the brain, particularly improved sensory stimulation. ...
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Background: Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) has been shown to have a stimulating effect on the human body. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of acute HRW intake on autonomic cardiac regulation during 50 min of rest sitting. Methods: Fourteen healthy females (age 21.7 ± 1.2 years, body mass 67.8 ± 8.7 kg, height 167 ± 5.5 cm) took part in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with crossover design. Heart rate variability (HRV) was monitored in the sitting position after administration of 1260 ml of HRW or placebo. Time domain indexes of HRV as the square root of the mean of the squares of differences between adjacent RR intervals (RMSSD), the standard deviation of all RR intervals (SDNN) and the ratio of SDNN/RMSSD as an index of sympatho-vagal balance were used to assess autonomic cardiac response. The values were transformed using natural logarithm (Ln). Results: After administration of HRW, we found significantly increased ratio Ln SDNN/RMSSD when comparing it to placebo in 25 min (HRW: 0.40 ± 0.30, placebo: 0.26 ± 0.25, p = .049) and 35 min (HRW: 0.44 ± 0.30, placebo: 0.28 ± 0.28, p = .029) of rest sitting. Ln SDNN was significantly increased after HRW administration when compared to placebo in 45 min (HRW: 4.41 ± 0.42 ms, placebo: 4.28 ± 0.31 ms, p = .049) of rest sitting. Conclusions: Acute HRW ingestion induced a relative increase in sympathetic activity between 25 and 35 min post-ingestion, whereas vagal activity was not affected.
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Purpose: Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) has been shown to have an antifatigue effect. This study assessed up-hill running performance, as well as physiological and perceptual responses after supplementation with 1680 mL HRW between 24 h and 40 min before running, in athletes of heterogeneous running ability. Methods: Sixteen males (mean [SD] age 31.6 [8.6] y, VO2max 57.2 [8.9] mL·kg-1·min-1, body fat 13.4% [4.4%]) participated in this study. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, participants consumed either HRW or placebo prior to performing two 4.2-km up-hill races separated by a week. Race time (RT), average race heart rate, and immediately postrace rating of perceived exertion were assessed. Results: After analysis of data for all runners, HRW effect was unclear (-10 to 7 s, 90% confidence interval) for RT, likely trivial for heart rate (-2 to 3 beats·min-1), and likely trivial for postrace rating of perceived exertion (-0.1 to 1.0). A possible negative correlation was found between RT differences and average RT (r = -.79 to -.15). HRW for the 4 slowest runners (RT = 1490 [91] s) likely improved the RT (-36 to -3 s), whereas for the 4 fastest runners (RT = 1069 [53] s) the performance effect of HRW was unclear (-10 to 26 s). Conclusions: HRW intake had an unclear antifatigue effect on performance in terms of mean group values. However, it appears that the magnitude of the antifatigue effect of HRW on performance depends on individual running ability.
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Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a colorless, tasteless, odorless, and minimal molecule with high flammability. Although H2 has been thought to be an inert gas in living bodies for many years, an animal study reported that inhalation of H2 gas decreased oxidative stress and suppressed brain injury caused by ischemia and reperfusion injury due to its antioxidant action. Since then, the antioxidant action of H2 has attracted considerable attention and many studies have reported on its benefits. Most studies have reported the effects of H2 on diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cerebral infarction, and Alzheimer’s disease. However, little is known regarding its effects on healthy subjects and exercise. Thus far, including our study, only 6 studies have explored the effect of H2 on exercise. H2 is the smallest molecule and therefore can easily penetrate the cellular membrane and rapidly diffuse into organelles. H2 is thought to be able to selectively reduce hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite and does not affect physiologically reactive species. H2 can be supplied to the body through multiple routes of administration, such as oral intake of H2 water and H2 bathing. Therefore, H2 may be a potential alternative strategy for conventional exogenous antioxidant interventions in sports science. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence regarding the effects of H2 intake on changes in physiological and biochemical parameters, centering on exercise-induced oxidative stress, for each intake method. Furthermore, this review highlights possible future directions in this area of research.
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This study aimed to compare the acute effects of hypertrophic (HYP) and maximum strength (MAX) loadings on heart rate variability (HRV) and to compare possible loading-specific alterations with other markers of recovery. Ten young men with strength training experience performed two leg press loadings (HYP: five times 10 repetitions at 70% of one repetition maximum (1RM) with 2 minutes inter-set rest; MAX: 15 times one repetition at 100% of 1RM with 3 minutes inter-set rest) in a randomized order. The root mean square of successive differences statistically decreased after both protocols (HYP: 65.7 ± 26.6 ms to 23.9 ± 18.7 ms, p = 0.026; MAX: 77.7 ± 37.0 ms to 55.3 ± 22.3 ms, p = 0.049), while the frequency domains of HRV remained statistically unaltered. The low frequency (LF) band statistically increased at 48h post-MAX only (p = 0.033). Maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) statistically decreased after HYP (p = 0.026) and returned to baseline after 24h of recovery. Creatine kinase (CK) statistically increased above baseline at 1h post-loadings (HYP p = 0.028; MAX p = 0.020), returning to baseline at 24h post. Our findings indicate no distinct associations between changes in HRV and MVC or CK.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of neutrophil dynamics and function in exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and the effect of molecular hydrogen (H2) intake on these parameters. Nine healthy and active young men performed H2 and placebo bath trial in a crossover design. They carried out downhill running (−8% slope) for 30 min at a speed corresponding to 75~85% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Subsequently, they repeated bathing for 20 min per day for one week. Degree of muscle soreness (visual analogue scale: VAS), peripheral leukocyte counts, neutrophil dynamics and function, muscle damage, and inflammation markers were measured. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 concentration was significantly correlated with peripheral neutrophil count, VAS, and serum creatine kinase activity, respectively, after downhill running. Peripheral neutrophil count and serum myoglobin concentration were also significantly correlated. Conversely, there were no effects of H2 bath. These results suggest that IL-6 may be involved in the mobilization of neutrophils into the peripheral blood and subsequent EIMD and DOMS after downhill running; however, it is not likely that H2 bath is effective for the inflammatory process that was centered on neutrophils after downhill running.
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Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate antifatigue effect of hydrogen water (HW) drinking in chronic forced exercise mice model. Materials and methods: Twelve-week-old C57BL6 female mice were divided into nonstressed normal control (NC) group and stressed group: (purified water/PW-treated group and HW-treated group). Stressed groups were supplied with PW and HW, respectively, ad libitum and forced to swim for the stress induction every day for 4 consecutive weeks. Gross antifatigue effects of HW were assessed by swimming endurance capacity (once weekly for 4 wk), metabolic activities, and immune-redox activities. Metabolic activities such as blood glucose, lactate, glycogen, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as immune-redox activities such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and the related cytokines were evaluated to elucidate underlying mechanism. Blood glucose and lactate were measured at 0 wk (before swimming) and 4 wk (after swimming). Results: HW group showed a higher swimming endurance capacity (p < 0.001) than NC and PW groups. Positive metabolic effects in HW group were revealed by the significant reduction of blood glucose, lactate, and BUN in serum after 4 wk (p < 0.01, resp.), as well as the significant increase of liver glycogen (p < 0.001) and serum LDH (p < 0.05) than PW group. In parallel, redox balance was represented by lower NO in serum (p < 0.01) and increased level of GPx in both serum and liver (p < 0.05) than PW group. In line, the decreased levels of serum TNF-α (p < 0.01), IL-6, IL-17, and liver IL-1β (p < 0.05) in HW group revealed positive cytokine profile compared to PW and NC group. Conclusion: This study shows antifatigue effects of HW drinking in chronic forced swimming mice via metabolic coordination and immune-redox balance. In that context, drinking HW could be applied to the alternative and safety fluid remedy for chronic fatigue control.
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There is emerging evidence that hydrogen-rich water (H 2 -water) has beneficial effects on the physiological responses to exercise. However, few studies investigate its ergogenic potential. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of H 2 -water ingestion on physiological responses and exercise performance during incremental treadmill running. In a double-blind crossover design, 14 endurance-trained male runners (age, 34 ± 4 years; body mass, 63.1 ± 7.2 kg; height, 1.72 ± 0.05 m) were randomly assigned to ingest 2 doses of 290-mL H 2 -water or placebo on each occasion. The first bolus was given before six 4-min submaximal running bouts, and the second bolus was consumed before the maximal incremental running test. Expired gas, heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded; blood samples were collected at the end of each submaximal stage and post maximal running test. Cardiorespiratory responses, RPE, and blood gas indices were not significantly different at each submaximal running intensity (range: 34%–91% maximal oxygen uptake) between H 2 -water and placebo trials. No statistical difference was observed in running time to exhaustion (618 ± 126 vs. 619 ± 113 s), maximal oxygen uptake (56.9 ± 4.4 vs. 57.1 ± 4.7 mL·kg ⁻¹ ·min ⁻¹ ), maximal HR (184 ± 7 vs. 184 ± 7 beat·min ⁻¹ ), and RPE (19 ± 1 vs. 19 ± 1) in the runners between the trials. The results suggest that the ingestion of 290 mL of H 2 -water before submaximal treadmill running and an additional dose before the subsequent incremental running to exhaustion were not sufficiently ergogenic in endurance-trained athletes. Novelty Acute ingestion of H 2 -water does not seem to be ergogenic for endurance performance. A small dose of H 2 -water does not modulate buffering capacity during intense endurance exercise in athletes.
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The potential anti-fatigue and performance benefits of hydrogen rich water (HRW) have resulted in increased research interest over the past 5 years. The aim of this study was to assess physiological and perceptual responses to an incremental exercise protocol after administration of 600 ml HRW within 30 min before exercise. This randomized, double blinded placebo-controlled cross over study included twelve healthy males aged 27.1±4.9 years. The exercise protocol consisted of a 10 min warm-up at 1.0 W.kg-1, followed by 8 min at 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 W.kg-1, respectively. Cardio-respiratory variables, lactate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed in the last minute of each step. A significantly lower blood lactate was found with HRW (4.0±1.6 and 8.9±2.2 mmol.l-1) compared to Placebo (5.1±1.9 and 10.6±3.0 mmol.l-1) at 3.0, and 4.0 W.kg-1, respectively. Ventilatory equivalent for oxygen and RPE exhibited significantly lower values with HRW (32.3±7.2, and 17.8±1.2 points, respectively) compared to Placebo (35.0±8.4, and 18.5±0.8 points, respectively) at 4 W.kg-1. To conclude, acute pre-exercise supplementation with HRW reduced blood lactate at higher exercise intensities, improved exercise-induced perception of effort, and ventilatory efficiency.
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Acute physical exercise increases reactive oxygen species in skeletal muscle, leading to tissue damage and fatigue. Molecular hydrogen (H2) acts as a therapeutic antioxidant directly or indirectly by inducing antioxidative enzymes. Here, we examined the effects of drinking H2 water (H2-infused water) on psychometric fatigue and endurance capacity in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion. In Experiment 1, all participants drank only placebo water in the first cycle ergometer exercise session, and for comparison they drank either H2 water or placebo water 30 min before exercise in the second examination. In these healthy non-trained participants (n = 99), psychometric fatigue judged by visual analogue scales was significantly decreased in the H2 group after mild exercise. When each group was divided into 2 subgroups, the subgroup with higher visual analogue scale values was more sensitive to the effect of H2. In Experiment 2, trained participants (n = 60) were subjected to moderate exercise by cycle ergometer in a similar way as in Experiment 1, but exercise was performed 10 min after drinking H2 water. Endurance and fatigue were significantly improved in the H2 group as judged by maximal oxygen consumption and Borg's scale, respectively. Taken together, drinking H2 water just before exercise exhibited anti-fatigue and endurance effects.
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) time-dependent changes in muscle damage (MD) biomarkers, oxidative stress (OS) indices, and maximum strength performance; (b) the relationship between changes in maximum strength performance and changes in MD and OS indices; and (c) whether eccentric exercise-induced MD is related to OS. Method: Twenty-nine male volunteers (age: 22.13 ± 3.1 years) participated in the study. Participants performed 60 maximal eccentric actions of the elbow flexors at a constant velocity of 60°·s⁻¹. Maximum isokinetic strength (MIS), visual analog scale soreness scores, serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, total antioxidant status, total oxidant status (TOS), protein carbonyl (PCO), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine level were analyzed. Blood samples were obtained before, immediately after, and 24 h, 48 h, and 96 h after the eccentric exercise. Change in total work (%ΔTWk), peak torque (%ΔPT), and OS index were calculated. Results: CK, PCO, and TOS significantly increased over time (p < .05). However, no significant main effect was observed for MIS or any other investigated biomarkers (p > .05). MIS was not related to MD or OS indices. However, %ΔTWk demonstrated a moderate inverse correlation with OS indices. No significant relationship was observed between %ΔPT and any of the selected biomarkers. Conclusions: Our findings confirm the hypothesis that acute eccentric exercise increases MD biomarkers and OS indices. However, indices of OS damage were significantly related, particularly, to the strength loss of flexors. This finding suggests that the decline in strength performance is not the primary determinant of the magnitude of MD following voluntary eccentric contraction.
Article
Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a type of ultrastructural muscle injury. The manifestation of DOMS is caused by eccentric or unfamiliar forms of exercise. Clinical signs include reduced force capacities, increased painful restriction of movement, stiffness, swelling, and dysfunction of adjacent joints. Although DOMS is considered a mild type of injury, it is one of the most common reasons for compromised sportive performance. In the past few decades, many hypotheses have been developed to explain the aetiology of DOMS. Although the exact pathophysiological pathway remains unknown, the primary mechanism is currently considered to be the ultrastructural damage of muscle cells due to unfamiliar sporting activities or eccentric exercise, which leads to further protein degradation, apoptosis and local inflammatory response. The development of clinical symptoms is typically delayed (peak soreness at 48 - 72 h post-exercise) as a result of complex sequences of local and systemic physiological responses. The following narrative review was conducted to present an overview of the current findings regarding the damaging mechanisms as well as the pathophysiology of DOMS and its diagnostic evaluation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.