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Antecedents and outcomes of health risk perceptions in tourism, following the COVID-19 pandemic

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Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of perceived risks, identify the main antecedents and outcomes of health risk perceptions, and propose a conceptual model of health risk perceptions in tourism. Design/methodology/approach: This paper provides a review of the literature on customer risk perceptions, along with their antecedents and outcomes, and proposes a conceptual model of health risk perceptions in tourism. Findings: Key findings reveal that the main factors of health risk perceptions can be broadly classified into cognitive, affective, individual, and contextual components. The proposed conceptual model of health risk perceptions provides a theoretically integrated overview of relationships between all groups of factors, tourists’ risk perceptions, and travel intentions. Originality/value: The paper contributes to theory by offering a new approach to health risk perceptions in tourism, which remain underexplored in previous studies. The literature review adds to the body of knowledge by introducing four main groups of factors affecting tourists’ health risk perceptions, while the conceptual model proposes relationships between these factors, tourists’ risk perceptions, and travel intentions.

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... According to the study, higher levels of perceived risk were associated with lower satisfaction levels, loyalty, attitude toward a destination, and travel inclinations. Nevertheless, according to Godovykh et al (2020), health risk perceptions have not gotten much attention in past tourist studies. Huang et al (2020) identify that applying the health belief model to tourism is a relatively new phenomenon. ...
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Chapter
### READERS: CLICK DOI LINK ABOVE FOR THE TEXT ### Risk perception refers to people’s subjective judgments about the likelihood of negative occurrences such as injury, illness, disease, and death. Risk perception is important in health and risk communication because it determines which hazards people care about and how they deal with them. Risk perception has two main dimensions: the cognitive dimension, which relates to how much people know about and understand risks, and the emotional dimension, which relates to how they feel about them.
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The purpose of this paper is to provide some insight into the level and type of media coverage that food risks received and consider the translation of press releases into media articles. Past scientific messages dealing with two food risks (Salmonella and Genetically Modified (GM) potatoes) were collected from various Irish media sources over a defined period. In addition, press releases and helpline data were collected. All data pieces were subsequently coded. Based on the audit it is clear that island of Ireland journalists are generally balanced with regard to their reporting on Salmonella. In most cases where press releases could be linked to the newspaper articles, the press release was represented fairly accurately. This brings into clear focus the need by those issuing press releases to be very clear on the meaning of their message. Journalists are using the press releases as the basis for articles therefore vague terms and overemphasis on a particular finding can result in what may appear as a sensational article. In the case of GMs more sensational hooks were used to draw attention to the articles. Thus communicators need to be aware of the characteristics of the risk they are communicating about when designing and delivering a risk message.
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To help understand what determines an individual's risk-taking attitude and behavior of tourists visiting a volcano, an interview survey of 523 adults was undertaken in Mt. Aso, an active volcano in Japan where guidance is designed to prohibit visitors with cardio-pulmonary disorders from ascending to the crater. The survey included the individual's knowledge of the prohibition regulation, their risk perception of life-threat to volcanic gas and risk-taking attitude toward the prohibition. Their hypothetical risk-taking behavior assuming their being accompanied by a health risk companion was also investigated. A logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of various factors on the specific risk perception, attitude, and behavior. In a different model, how the risk perception and knowledge would affect attitude and behavior was also assessed. Those having knowledge of the guidance significantly employed a high perception of the risk (OR, 0.45: 95% CI, 0.27–0.73). Those with low risk perception significantly opposed to the current regulation (OR, 2.56:95% CI, 1.63–4.03). However, if subjects possessed health problems, they were more likely to visit the crater when they were asked to do so by their accompanying health risk subjects (2.89:1.28–6.52). Improving the specific risk perception might have beneficial effect on risk-taking attitude and behavior.