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Word Recognition and Reading Skills to Improve Reading Comprehension

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This research aimed at showing the influence of word recognition, and using skimming and scanning skills to improve reading comprehension. Participants were a group of 15 students whose ages ranged from 14 to 16. They had problems in reading comprehension and vocabulary. This action research was conducted at a private language institute. The instruments to collect data were pre- and post-surveys, pre- post-tests, learning logs, skimming and scanning forms, and an interview. They provided quantitative and qualitative information. Results showed that there was a statistically significant improvement in parts of speech knowledge from the pre- to the post-test. The result was an average improvement of 28.2% in student performance. Cohen’s d was calculated with a result of 1.09 which means there is impact in learning. There was also a steady improvement in skimming and scanning which was exemplified by the ability to correctly complete a form after reading texts. Lastly, students’ perspectives were positive to this innovation. Therefore, it is advisable to apply the same innovation with other learners in order to compare results of improvement of reading comprehension and overall proficiency.
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Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Learning
Volume 6, No. 1, January 2021
Available online at: https://journal.umy.ac.id/index.php/FTL/issue/view/720
e-ISSN: 2580-2070, p-ISSN: 2527-7650
20
Article History:
Submitted:
6 November 2020
Reviewed:
4 January 2021
Edited:
14 January 2021
28 January 2021
Accepted:
28 January 2021
Word Recognition and Reading Skills to
Improve Reading Comprehension
Mayra Yadira Chamba1, Maria Rossana Ramirez-Avila2
1,2Universidad Casa Grande, Ecuador
1mayra.chamba@casagrande.edu.ec
2mramirez@casagrande.edu.ec
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18196/ftl.v6i1.10174
Abstract
This research aimed at showing the influence of word recognition, and using skimming and
scanning skills to improve reading comprehension. Participants were a group of 15 students
whose ages ranged from 14 to 16. They had problems in reading comprehension and vocabulary.
This action research was conducted at a private language institute. The instruments to collect
data were pre- and post-surveys, pre- post-tests, learning logs, skimming and scanning forms, and
an interview. They provided quantitative and qualitative information. Results showed that there
was a statistically significant improvement in parts of speech knowledge from the pre- to the post-
test. The result was an average improvement of 28.2% in student performance. Cohen’s d was
calculated with a result of 1.09 which means there is impact in learning. There was also a steady
improvement in skimming and scanning which was exemplified by the ability to correctly
complete a form after reading texts. Lastly, students’ perspectives were positive to this innovation.
Therefore, it is advisable to apply the same innovation with other learners in order to compare
results of improvement of reading comprehension and overall proficiency.
Keywords: skimming; scanning; word recognition; reading comprehension; language school
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Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Learning
Volume 6, No. 1, January 2021
Available online at: https://journal.umy.ac.id/index.php/FTL/issue/view/720
e-ISSN: 2580-2070, p-ISSN: 2527-7650
21
Introduction
Reading and language proficiency are connected. Studies have found positive correlations
between students who read substantially and high academic performance. This helps them
expand their vocabulary and consequently gain knowledge in other academic content areas, in
the target language (L2) and in their mother tongue (Short et al., 2018). In this regard, the
Programme for International Students Assessment (PISA) performed an assessment to measure
the level of reading proficiency among member countries of the Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development (OECD, 2016). Results indicated that only 12 out of 42
countries have made progress since 2000. The others have either declined results or have
remained at the same proficiency level. These results force educators to reconsider the different
aspects that influence literacy acquisition in students’ L1 in addition to that of a foreign language
(OECD, 2016).
Ecuador has specific proficiency objectives related to English language education which
include the skill of reading. One of the objectives is to apply correct reading comprehension
techniques to understand any type of texts (Ministerio de Educación, 2012). Despite the efforts
to meet them, Ecuador English levels are low. The EF English Proficiency Index (EPI) reports
that the English level in Latin America (50.33%) is lower than in Europe (56.64%). This
represents a low proficiency and a moderate proficiency respectively (Education First, 2020), and
Ecuador is in the 93rd place with a very low proficiency.
The National Institute of Statistics and Census in Ecuador (INEC) reported that 26.5% of
people do not possess the habit of reading in L1. Some of the reasons are a lack of interest in
reading, lack of time, and difficulties maintaining concentration. Similarly, in this report people
stated that they like to read at home more than at school; and, prefer mainly to read newspapers
(Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos, 2012).
At the level of primary and secondary school and language institutes research related to
the impact of incrementing vocabulary to improve reading comprehension is scarce in the local
context. There is research that studied the connection between vocabulary and reading
comprehension in international higher education institutions. Laufer and Ravenhorst-Kalovski
(2010) collected data from 745 Israeli students who were enrolled in an English for Academic
Purposes class. The authors concluded that vocabulary size contributes to a better reading
comprehension. Another study established that knowing the meaning of words was an effective
Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Learning
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tool to understand passages. Authors also found that it influences reasoning in reading
comprehension. It was carried out with one hundred and fourteen fifth graders from five
different public elementary schools of an urban area in the north of Israel (Shahar-Yames &
Prior, 2018).
Participants of a private language institute were obtaining low scores in the reading section
of tests. This study focused on word recognition through parts of speech, and the use of
skimming and scanning as a means to improve students’ reading comprehension. Therefore, the
following research questions were addressed: (1) To what extent will students identify parts of
speech in context? (2) To what extent will students improve their reading comprehension as
result of word recognition and the use of skimming and scanning? (3) What are students’
perspective of this process to improve reading comprehension?
Literature Review
Reading Skills
Reading is considered a step-by-step procedure which fosters development of higher-order
thinking skills. The basic elements of reading are to decode the message, comprehend the
message, analyze it, and integrate the whole idea of a text. (Karademir & Ulucinar, 2017). Some
researchers advocated that children and teens have an important performance in reading
accomplishment when they have a vast prior wisdom and words range domain (Kieffer & Lesaux,
2012; Shahar-Yames & Prior, 2018; Snow, 2002).
Reading instruction possesses five elements which are: phonemic awareness, phonics, word
recognition, vocabulary, and comprehension. They all allow the reader to obtain the basic
reading skills to be an acceptable reader (Gunobgunob-Mirasol, 2019). Abdullah (2018) added
that reading can be improved by the use of some activities and techniques such as skimming and
scanning. Jose and Raja (2011) pointed out that scanning is stopping reading until the
information is found to answer a specific question while skimming is the process of grasping the
main idea of the whole text.
Granda and Ramírez-Avila (2020) described reading comprehension as the act of
processing and understanding a text. It allows readers to make connections between their prior
knowledge and the same or new content to understand it. Activities that raise reading
comprehension are repeated reading, timed-reading, and ratebuilding reading (Abdullah,
2018).
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Vocabulary
According to Mofareh (2015), vocabulary is defined as the units of speech or writing
needed to convey a message in written and spoken forms. Harmon and Wood (2018) stated that
the aim of vocabulary instruction is to improve and advocate for deep reading understanding.
Similarly, in another finding it was evidenced that students may achieve the basic knowledge of
lexical size to obtain an in-depth reading comprehension (Rosado & Caro, 2018). Maximo
argued that researchers believed that devoting a lot of time to learn vocabulary is essential to
master a language (as cited in Mofareh, 2015). In line with this, Laufer and Ravenhorst-Kalovski
(2010) confirmed that vocabulary is a good predictor for reading.
For greater improvement on the teaching of vocabulary, Mofareh (2015) mentioned some
strategies and techniques teachers can apply such as focusing on form and on meaning, recalling
short- and long-term memory, employing real objects, using cooperative learning strategies,
incorporating a wide variety of learner preferences, applying total physical response, introducing
lexical sets within a defined cultural context, drilling, and spelling. Nevertheless, McQuillan
(2019) concluded that free reading was 1.70 more efficient to learn vocabulary rather than
teaching vocabulary in short and long periods.
McCarten (2007) devised three main categories to organize lexical sets to help learners
memorize a wide range of new words: real-world groups, language-based groups, and personalized
groups. The greater the range of lexical sets that a language learner knows, the better their
communicative abilities can be even when using inaccurate grammar structures due to their
expanded range of comprehensible expression. However, without an adequate vocabulary
repertoire, the ability to convey any concept is drastically hindered (Wilkins, 1972).
There is an impact of vocabulary in the development of reading. Learners get better scores
when taking test because of the guessing of the meaning of some words and by relating meaning
with the root of a word itself. In addition to raising communicative competence by developing
vocabulary knowledge, learners also gain the peripheral advantage of performing better in written
evaluations. A study conducted by Senoo and Yonemoto (2014) stated that new words are only
acquired when the learners have needs: the need to know what the word means, the need to find
the significance of that word by themselves, and the need to compare the different meaning of
words. Motivation is also important for reading so a good attitude to learn and acquiring new
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words is also vital. Thus, readers may understand the text but if they are not motivated they may
not be a good reader (Gunobgunob-Mirasol, 2019).
Parts of Speech
One way to improve the lexical width and sets of students is by identifying the parts of
speech. In this study, participants will read and classify new words into their parts of speech. This
classification will meet McCarten’s (2007) organization of words to help students memorize
them. Additionally, Skehan as cited in Ellis (2005) advocated that students should possess a vast
range knowledge of expressions and parts of speech to compile accuracy. Porosoff (2018)
contributed with the definitions of some parts of speech: Adjectives describe traits; verbs show
behaviour; adverbs show how the actions are performed; nouns show who or which the
performers of the actions are; conjunctions are used to combine or mix ideas in statements; and,
pronouns replace the antecedents.
Methodology
This was an action-research with analysis of qualitative and quantitative data. Ravid (2015)
defined Action Research (AR) as a tool used by practitioner researchers in their context to deal
with problematic situations. Additional, Burns (2008) made a revision of the purposes of AR
from different authors’ perspectives. She mentioned: to describe and understand the processes
carried in classroom settings that lead to change, and to explain classroom procedures supported
by academic findings, among others. For Burns (2008), action research brings improvement and
change in a variety of contexts. In this case, the context was the classroom.
AR is a cyclical process. It starts by defining a problem, researching for possible solutions,
applying an intervention, assessing the results, and continuing the process (Ravid, 2015). In this
study, the cycle was implemented once. It is important to highlight that students applied the
classification of words and skills seven times during the study. During that time, the teacher was
observing, monitoring, and providing feedback as it is seen in Table. 1.
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Table. 1. Action Research Phases
Phase
Problem
Possible Solution
Assessment
Action
Students in a
language school
reported low
grade in reading
tests.
Knowing the
meaning and
function of the
words (Classifying
parts of speech) and
reading skills.
They are included
in the results
section.
Participants
Students (N=15) from a private English language institute participated in the study. There
were eight females and seven males. Participants’ ages ranged from fourteen to sixteen years old.
Their English level was intermediate to upper-intermediate (equivalent to Level B1 of the
Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, CEFR). Their proficiency was
determined based on the program they were immersed in- Teens 6.
The researcher, who also served as the class teacher, invited students to participate in the
study. They were informed that their participation was voluntary. They were also assured that
their test scores and survey responses would be kept confidential and would not affect their
course grades.
The study integrated the use of Google sheets in drive. Students had to insert new words
and classify them into the different parts of speech. Regarding the access to technology, fourteen
out of fifteen students answered they had access to the internet. In the pre survey related to the
use of the application, all students had an e-mail account, but only three of them knew how to
use it.
Classroom Procedures
In order to help students improve their reading comprehension, this innovation aimed to
extend students’ word recognition through classifying new vocabulary into parts of speech and
applying reading skills (skimming and scanning). The classification of words was done in groups.
Each group shared a sheet document in drive. Students had a Gmail account, they knew how to
share documents and how to navigate within the Google sheets. There were three students who
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had shared a document before. Thus, a training on how to use Google sheets was planned and
delivered for those that had not used this application before.
Parts of speech were introduced and practiced. The teacher selected passages according to
students’ level and interests. New words for students were selected from passages and introduced
at the beginning of the lesson with a variety of techniques: pictures, videos, definitions, and
synonyms. This new vocabulary was classified in the shared sheet according to the vocabulary
function in context (parts of speech). The teacher’s role was to guide and scaffold the activities
during the process as well as to provide feedback.
To improve reading comprehension, the teacher introduced a form which included
skimming and scanning activities. The teacher and students completed it together at the
beginning. Later on, students completed it individually. Once the form was filled in, students
compared with a classmate. The forms were corrected in class. In every other class, students
conducted individual practices regarding skimming and scanning.
Instruments
The following instruments were used in the study: (1) a demographics survey; (2) a pre-and
post-tests about reading; (3) learning logs; (4) a pre-post survey about vocabulary; and, (5)
skimming and scanning forms, and (5) a semi-structure interviewed. The surveys, learning logs
and interview were presented in the target language and in students’ mother tongue, to ensure
that the questions and instructions were easy to understand and answer.
Demographic survey: The researcher took this survey to gather information relevant to
participants´ background such as age, gender, profession, English language proficiency and
English language experiences. This information was used to describe the participants.
Pre-test and Post-test: The pre-test was administered to determine if students recognized
and classified words correctly into their parts of speech. It contained twenty items. The post-test
was used to assess the participants’ vocabulary improvement and effectiveness of the study,
respectively. The text of the posttest was longer and had fifteen multiple choice questions. Both
tests were graded over 10 points. Three EFL specialists validated the content of these tests for
this study. The passages were taken from the placement test of the book students were using.
Learning logs: Learners wrote their reflections about what they learned at the end of the
class. Similarly, the information obtained was a referent to compare and analyze the results. In
these logs, there were open-ended questions which referred to vocabulary and reading
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comprehension reflections. This qualitative data was transformed to quantitative information.
Students completed six learning logs.
Pre-post surveys about vocabulary: They were used to have a general idea of the perspective
and knowledge students had about vocabulary and reading comprehension. They were taken
from Granda and Ramírez-Avila’s (2020) study. The authors reported a Cronbach’s Alpha of
0.903 for the pre-survey and 0.902 for the post-survey.
Skimming and scanning form: These forms were introduced by the teacher-researcher. The
first one was introduced and done by the teacher as an example. Following forms were completed
by students. The teacher provided feedback about them. For the analysis, three of them were
chosen. These forms were graded over 10 points.
Interview: It was conducted at the end of the study. Students answered to eight questions.
They were open questions. They asked about vocabulary in terms of difficulty, confidence using
the new words, perspectives about improvement, importance of vocabulary learning, and the
incidence of vocabulary knowledge in understanding texts. Four participants were randomly
chosen to be interviewed. It was carried out in Spanish to obtain reliable information.
Data Analysis
The study was conducted over a period of six weeks during the September through January
semester. Quantitative data was analyzed with the use of SPSS statistical software. Means,
standard deviations, and p value were run to examine differences between pre- and post-test
scores. Qualitative data were analyzed by identifying patterns in student responses to open-ended
questions in the learning logs and the interview. After reading students had to complete
skimming and scanning worksheets, they were graded; for the purpose of the analysis, three forms
were considered: the first, the one in the middle, and the last. Results are shown in a figure to
visually compare the means. Information from the instruments was triangulated to validate
results. To determine the impact of this study the Cohen’s d was reported.
Results
Research Question 1: To what extent will students identify parts of speech in context?
Results are presented in table 1. The mean of the pre-test was 5.53 (SD=2.41). The mean of the
post-test was 8.35 (SD=2.77). Cohen’s d was calculated and it resulted in 1.09, which indicates a
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great effect. The p value was 0.005 which means the results did not happen coincidentally. It is
shown in Table. 2.
Table. 2. Pre-Post test results
N
Mean
Standard
Deviation
Standard Error
Mean
Cohen’s d
Pre-test
15
5.53
2.40
0.62
1.09
Post-test
15
8.35
2.77
0.71
In the pre and post survey from items 8 to 12 that are related to the improvement of the
identification of parts of speech, the data was compared. Results show that there was an
improvement from the results of the pre-survey with a mean of 4.04 to a mean of 4.59 obtained
from the post-survey. Figure 1 also shows students’ perspectives of improvement related to
different categories of words functions at the end of the innovation. It is evident that in the post
test there was a positive change of improvement.
Figure 1. Parts of Speech Improvement taken from the Pre and Post Surveys from
Vocabulary
Note: Blue color is the results of the pre-survey and red color displays the results of the posttest.
From the data collected of the learning logs, there were two open-ended questions in four
learning logs which were applied. This qualitative information was transformed to quantitative
to make a better analysis. In Table. 3, there is a summary of students’ answers. Most of the
students referred to the acquisition of the new words and their functions as nouns, verbs,
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
FUNTION
WORDS RECOG. NOUN RECOG. VERB RECOG. ADJ. RECOG. ADV.
Vocabulary Improvement
Function of words Noun Verb Adjectives Adverbs
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adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections. Thus, students considered they
learned to classify words into parts of speech.
Table. 3. Learning Logs and Vocabulary Development
Opinions and Comments
Log 1
Log 2
Log 3
Log 4
Parts of Speech
14
7
3
4
New Words
X
X
6
5
Other Answers related to reading comprehension
1
8
6
6
Total
15
15
15
15
Furthermore, within the interviews, participants mentioned that their level of vocabulary
knowledge had increased. Here some extracts from what they said in the interviews: Participant
1: “I think my vocabulary has increased.” Participant 4: “My confidence has increased.”
Research Question 2: To what extent will students improve their reading comprehension
as result of word recognition and the use of skimming and scanning? The analysis of the
scaffolding forms showed that learners steadily increased their reading understanding of most of
the activities during the research. Those activities were graded over 10 points. Figure 2 displays
the scores of the skimming and the scanning worksheets applied. It is important to highlight that
the difficulty of the readings increased during the process from an intermediate passage to a high
intermediate one.
Figure 2. Skimming and Scanning Worksheets
7.4
8.17
9.03
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
DEAR LIFE COACH-SKIM-
SCAN
EVERYDAY MISTERIES-SKIM-
SCAN
SUPER BRAIN-SKIM-SCAN
Scafolding Forms
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Figure 3 compares the pre and post survey between the items 6 and 7 regarding the
knowledge of the skimming and scanning from students’ perspectives. The improvement is
notorious with a Mean= 4.93 for both strategies.
Figure 3. Skim and Scan Strategies Improvement for Reading Comprehension
Note: Blue color is the results of the pre-survey and red color displays the results of the posttest.
The pre and post surveys about reading comprehension were compared in order to
determine their improvement. Figure 4 presents the variation in the participants’ perspectives
related to improvement.
Figure 4. Pre-Post Survey Reading Comprehension
Note: Blue color is the results of the pre-survey and red color displays the results of the posttest.
The learning logs also evidenced that after every class, most students learned the strategies:
skimming and scanning. Eleven students referred to the scanning and eight to the skimming
strategy in the learning logs.
0
2
4
6
Skim Scan
Skimming and Scanning for Reading
Comprehension
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
UND.TEXT UND.
PHRASES
FAMILIAR
WORDS
FIRST
READING
REREDING
TEXT
Reading Comprehension Impact
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Research Question 3: What are students’ perspective of this process to improve reading
comprehension? An analysis of the learning logs showed they had a good attitude with the use
of the innovation to learn parts of speech facilitated with the e-tool. A revision of the Google
Drive sheet also reflected they all worked and introduced words in the different categories. Table.
4 shows that most students met their expectations with this innovation.
Table. 4. Students’ perspectives
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Yes
13
86.7
86.7
86.7
No
2
13.3
13.3
100
Total
15
100
100
Additionally, the interview supported the data about the improvement they had achieved
and the difficulties they had when they classified the words into their parts of speech at the
beginning. Here is an extract of some of the words taken from the dialogue of the interview
videos: Participant 1: “I think the most difficult part in the reading was parts of speech.” Participant 2:
for me the most difficult thing is to identify the parts of speech”; Participant 3: “No, it was so easy because
we have to put the words and do some easy things”; Participant 4: “The most difficult part for me was the
meaning of vocabulary words and parts of speech.”
However, two out of the four students interviewed, mentioned that in the end, they had a
good experience about knowing how to classify the parts of speech into the Excel-Spreadsheet
into the Google Drive: Participant 1: “the tool is humm… that is… it was easy…that I know…. the words
that I know I put in the sheet. Besides this, the sheet was to improve my vocabulary because I recognize new
parts in the sentence or texts.”; Participant 2: it was easy because I can put the words in order and my
friends helped me in some things for example when I put the answers according to the readings… my Friends
help me to know how the readings and what are the things I have to do.”
Discussion
The current study examined the impact that vocabulary, skimming and scanning skills had
on the process of improving reading comprehension. Findings of this study reflect an
improvement of d = 1.09. The impact of the intervention is large. The skimming and scanning
forms that students complete during the study also showed a steady improvement. It is important
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to recall that the level of difficulty of the passages also increased during the intervention.
Abdullah (2018) recommended that skimming and scanning can improve reading
comprehension.
This study included not only the reading strategies (skimming and scanning) but also word
recognition through the classification of words into their parts of speech. This coincides with
Karademir and Ulucinar’s (2017) step-by-step procedure that starts by decoding the message to
later comprehend it. Additionally, Maximo (cited in Mofareh, 2015), Harmon and Wood (2018),
and Rosado and Caro (2018) stated in their study, the fundamental role of vocabulary to booster
reading comprehension, the bigger range of vocabulary they possess the better for deeper text’s
comprehension. These findings match some author’s conclusions that vocabulary size
contributes to reading comprehension (Gunobgunob-Mirasol, 2019; Kieffer & Lesaux, 2012;
Laufer & Ravenhorst-Kalovski, 2010; Shahar-Yames & Prior, 2018; Snow, 2002).
In this research, students learned to identify the different parts of speech, and they
classified them after each reading which displayed a steady progress. In the post survey related to
vocabulary improvement students positively changed their perspective about vocabulary
recognition. While the pre survey, the mean was equal to 4.04, on the post survey, there was a
mean of 4.59. Students knowing the function and meaning of the words and their better
comprehension of the texts might have changed their perspectives.
Furthermore, Gunobgunob-Mirasol (2019) stated that word recognition is one of the
elements that allow the reader to be considered an acceptable reader. Students’ performance on
the scaffolding forms was acceptable as their improvement was evidenced through the grading
done after every lesson.
While building word recognition skills, reading comprehension was impacted. The
scaffolding forms scores, for example, captured that there was a significant improvement in their
ability to read after the process, which is aligned to what Capotosto et al., (2017) mentioned that
learners have better performance when they have a vast range of vocabulary knowledge.
In the learning logs, students referred to two main strategies in this investigation which
were skimming and scanning. Abdullah (2018) mentioned that apart from other language
elements the skimming and scanning skills can booster reading comprehension. Due to the
practices done during classes, most students mentioned in the post survey that they could use
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the skimming and scanning techniques. Identifying the main idea and specific information may
have helped students to also improve the results in the posttests.
Tang et al. (2016), in their study, mentioned that it is vital for learners to develop an
affirmative learning attitude, set clear objectives, and increase a course for language awareness
and use. Motivation is also important for reading so a good attitude to learn and get new words
is also vital. Thus, a reader may understand the text but if they are not motivated s/he may not
be a good reader (Gunobgunob-Mirasol, 2019). Results of students’ perspectives showed that
participants of this study felt satisfied with the skills and resources applied in this innovation.
So, they recommended to continue with the same practices to improve reading. This implies that
when students notice they are learning and understanding through the proposed activities they
become engage and participate in the lessons.
Conclusion
In this study, learners differentiated parts of speech in order to recall and expand their
vocabulary, and were trained to use skimming and scanning. Post results of the study showed
that learners’ word knowledge and reading strategies were to a great extent effective to improve
reading comprehension.
During the classes, students defined words well, created almost accurate sentences, and
classified the words in the shared document. The shared document let students see the new
words of their classmates which also expanded vocabulary knowledge. In an analysis of the
classification of words in the shared document, ninety percent of the words that were introduced,
were classified appropriately. This practice helped students to retain the meaning of the words.
Participants claimed to have learned more about how to classify parts of speech in context. The
study also sheds light on the great potential of making use of existing technology like a shared
document in Drive for learning.
Limitations
It has to be considered that there were not studies conducted at school, high school or
institutional levels in order to have a better support of cases previously conducted. Time was
another influential factor on getting a better consistency of the data obtained. Sometimes, the
different activities planned during the process of the intervention was sort of rushed because
students were in a hurry most of the time due to the limited sixty minutes they had in class. The
influence of the teacher as the researcher may also affect the veracity of the data, as some of them
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might feel the whole process was graded even when they were told that none of the activities in
this study would be considered as part of their grades.
Recommendations
The classification of words into their parts of speech can be applied to improve the other
skills of the language. More time should be given to students to work on all the activities.
Students have to attend classes during the whole process, so if they missed one class they had to
catch-up in an extra class as an alternative for the analysis of the results later. Furthermore, the
planning of the instructional design has to have a variety of activities so that all the participants
are addressed with one of their learning styles. Finally, this research can be applied to a different
group of students who do not have the researcher as their teacher, or an assistant might help
apply the research.
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