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Health Problems Experienced in Online Learning During COVID-19 in Nepali Universities

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Health Problems Experienced in Online Learning During COVID-19 in Nepali Universities

Abstract and Figures

This article examines the health problems due to online learning that might have ensued as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal. Any sort of physical contact or social gathering was strictly prohibited during the lockdown, causing educational activities all over the world to be dramatically affected. In Nepal, in-person activities at all schools and universities were completely shutdown. An emergency response in the form of online education was viewed as the only option. For some universities moving on to online education was not a big deal, but for a poor country like Nepal, it was a big jump from traditional classroom teaching and learning to online classes. Almost more than eight months of online classes have brought a massive challenge as well as an opportunity for the education sector in Nepal. So, the perspective from teacher’s and student’s health problems, challenges, and opportunities during online classes were discussed for an equal and a sustainable education. Further exploration of more online platforms can be done, with a variety of golden opportunities that could be fulfilled from innovative ideas to enhance the quality of education better than traditional classroom learning.
Content may be subject to copyright.
© 2021 Northcentral University
Health Problems Experienced in Online Learning During
COVID-19 in Nepali Universities
Megh Raj Dangal
Kathmandu University
Rubin Maharjan
Kathmandu University
Volume 4, Issue 1 (2021)
International Journal of Online Graduate Education, Vol. 4, Iss. 1 (2021)
© 2021 Northcentral University 2
The emergence of new pathogens and the reemergence of other diseases have the potential
to impact human lives. The novel coronavirus of 2019 (COVID-19) is one of them, which has
created a global health crisis. The first case of COVID-19 in Nepal was found on January 23, 2020
(Ministry of Health and Population, 2020; Paudel et al., 2020). All of the economic activities and
social gatherings came to a halt. Because it occurs in congregate settings, Nepal's education system
has been affected tremendously. According to UNICEF (2020), this ultimately kept over eight
million students inside their homes, preventing participation in practically all types of activities,
including classroom education. Over 35,000 schools were closed due to the risk created by the
COVID-19 pandemic (UNICEF, 2020; World Health Organization [WHO], 2020). To overcome
the educational challenges caused by COVID-19, like other countries, Nepal has been forced to
migrate its teaching processes online for most schools. To minimize the impact on students, the
OECD (2020) suggested that remote teaching can offer a significant role in filling educational gaps
during the pandemic.
In Nepal, schools with access to technical devices and knowledge could quickly move
forward with online classes. However, other schools could not do so due to a lack of equipment
and human resources. Experts have expressed concern that online classes may further impact the
country's digital divide, which has already grown over the past two decades (Neupane, 2020).
Witze (2020) showed that digital and educational inequalities would continue to deepen during the
pandemic, with 40% of countries worldwide not supporting learners at risk during the crisis.
UNESCO (2020) called on the region to foster more resilient and equal access by concentrating
more on student groups with the highest potential for being left behind. Because not all students
or schools have or could provide internet and computer access, mixed education methods are
needed to ensure equity of access. Alternative solutions include radio, television, and mobile
technology to minimize educational inequities.
Furthermore, home delivery of printed learning materials for those excluded from
technology would ensure a more extensive reach overall (UNICEF, 2020). Therefore, synchronous
and asynchronous mean scheduled classes beforehand for more interaction during online classes.
Using different devices like mobile phones, laptops with internet access. As suggested by Zhu and
Liu (2020), technical devices students from anywhere can interact with instructors in their study.
The COVID-19 pandemic has also forced most universities to turn to online teaching and
learning modalities, in part, due to a recommendation by the government of Nepal. Due to
immediate crisis response migration in education to online classes, faculties and students were not
mentally or technically prepared for online classes (U.N., 2020a).
Part of the mental health impacts of the pandemic stems from the disruption of day-to-day
activities and economic security. The recent International Monetary Fund (IMF) projections show
International Journal of Online Graduate Education, Vol. 4, Iss. 1 (2021)
© 2021 Northcentral University 3
how ECA countries' economics will be affected by these impacts (UNICEF, 2020). In Nepal, the
growth is expected to fall in the range of 1.5 to 2.8% in the fiscal year 2020, reflecting lower
remittances, trade, tourism, and broad disruptions caused by the COVID-19 outbreak. The
following year, projections show that growth is likely to remain subdued due to the pandemic's
lingering effects, with some recovery expected in the fiscal year 2022 (The World Bank, 2020).
Therefore, this article discussed students' and teachers' perceptions while participating in online
classes during the lockdown. It has also analyzed different health-related problems that arose due
to online classes and their effectiveness with alternative suggestions and future sustainability plans
to tackle the pandemic situation.
Emergency e-learning requires efforts to mitigate structural inequalities of class and race.
In the long run, open access to rural communities with broader access, along with a decrease in
tuition fees, is required (Michael & Murphy, 2020). This compulsion situation of online classes
has increased the standard of education. However, the question remains of it has been able to utilize
its full potential and will imply a positive impact in the long run. Closures of schools and other
learning spaces have impacted 94% of the world's student population and up to 99% in low and
lower-middle-income countries (U.N., 2020b). The pandemic's foremost challenges include the
unequal distribution of ICT infrastructure, quality of education, digital Illiteracy, digital divide,
technology cost, and obsolescence (Dhawan, 2020). So, the digital learning systems empowered
by artificial intelligence can now observe how students learn or what kind of tasks and thinking
interests them the most, and what kind of problems they find tedious or difficult. However, along
with technology comes the question of access to it, where 43% (some 700 million students) have
no internet access at home, and 56 million students live in locations that are not served by mobile
networks (Janssen, 2020; Neil Selwyn, 2020, UNESCO, 2020).
Teachers with school-aged children reported having to juggle school teaching and
homeschooling their children in addition to participating in other regular household routines (Beng
et al., 2020). Innovation needs to be utilized accurately as a capable partner in making a difference
to cut that regular burden (Genna, 2020). Online courses ordinarily require a principal sum of
perusing and assignments than conventional classes. Programs in common are moving forward the
quality of their online courses, which implies that students will need to demonstrate that they have
acquired the skills to expand teaching-learning quality (Serin & Bozdag, 2020; Tom, 2017).
Simultaneously, virtual supervision gives a reasonable elective for tending issues that frequently
compromise adequate supervision. Their exercises include reviewing, checking, telling, rating and
checking, and advancing these exercises. ICT can be an essential asset that serves to upgrade both
these capacities and forms of school settings supervision (Cano & Garcia, 2013). Teacher rapport
with students and their parents is built by establishing ground rules for behavior and being
accountable for their actions, managing transitions during instructions, motivating students to
International Journal of Online Graduate Education, Vol. 4, Iss. 1 (2021)
© 2021 Northcentral University 4
maximize time on task, and supervising students in their work. All of this helps students master
these critical skills making them open-minded and creative (African Virtual University, 2020).
Method
The study followed a mixed method consisting of a convenience sampling technique
conducted for the quantitative part of the research. The purposive method of identifying
participants for online interviews was conducted with three professors, who were regularly
engaged in online teaching-learning to gain in-depth knowledge under the qualitative method. The
interview was taken through an online video call with the professors during the lockdown period.
Two of the professors were from Kathmandu University, and one from Tribhuvan University was
selected to fulfill the purpose of the study. A web-based self-administered questionnaire was
designed in Google Forms by predetermined questionnaire bundle online and spread through social
media to survey the teachers and students. Using an existing questionnaire, this one-time cross-
sectional method was used to receive information regarding experiencing health problems during
COVID-19 teaching (Dangal & Bajracharya, 2020).
The survey respondents were studying at the following affiliated college, Tribhuvan
University, Kathmandu University, and Pokhara University located in the Kathmandu Valley and
some from outside the valley. The targeted population of the study comprised only undergraduates
and Graduate students. The respondents in the target population using a self-administered
questionnaire through social media. Finally, 74 students' respondents and 27 Teacher's respondents
that completed the questionnaires were included in the final analysis (100% response rate). Data
were analyzed with SPSS Version 23 as well as google forms. The survey questions were mostly
multiple-choice type questions with some Yes/No questions and few open-ended questions. The
professors for the key informant's interview were from Kathmandu University and Tribhuvan
University. Professor teaching online classes to only undergraduates and Graduate students were
taken for the interview. Interview conservation was transcribed and reflected to bring out only
specific issues to address the research objective.
Analysis of descriptive statistics was conducted to illustrate the demographic and other
selected characteristics of the respondents. A non-parametric test was used to explore the
significant associations between sample characteristics and the health problem level during the
COVID-19 epidemic due to the data's non-normal distribution. A Chi square test for independence
was used to evaluate the association between categories within gender, residence, university,
education level, different age group versus the reported level of health problems. A two-tailed p <
.05 was considered statistically significant (Cao et al., 2020). A comparative table of both student's
and the teacher's perspective was analyzed to understand the problems and benefits of emergency
International Journal of Online Graduate Education, Vol. 4, Iss. 1 (2021)
© 2021 Northcentral University 5
online classes. The participant's confidentiality was maintained, and no identity was revealed
(Dangal & Bajracharya, 2020) during the web-based survey.
The survey is trying to find out the changes seen in the students and teachers, especially
with concerned with health issues. What were the benefits and problems from online classes that
both students and teachers were facing? This sudden change during the pandemic time from
physically attending class habits to an entirely new online teaching and learning process. How
much comfortable the students and the teachers were feeling? Moreover, what future do they see
in online classes to make them more effective? A self-administered questionnaire was used for
quantitative. Due to the pandemic time physically collecting the data, an alternative online
interview and online survey were impossible.
Results
Health problem due to online class
Adaptation of online education during this pandemic situation for a developing country
like Nepal is indeed a big challenge in itself. On top of that, most of the COVID-19 pandemic
quarantine facilities in rural areas are created inside the school compound, which has added more
time for students to get back to their school. Those schools having the right technical equipment
and technical skills have immediately changed their teaching and learning pattern into online
classes. However, the rest of the school without any technical equipment or skills remains closed.
Unequal distribution of education plays a significant role in creating a big risk in online classes
and the whole education system. All the students, including teachers attending online classes
during the lockdown, were of Bachelor’s and Master’s level.
Different health problems with two less or two more problems from the list of back pain,
neck pain, eye pain, headache, cannot sleep, and anxiety were taken from Table 1. Having two or
more than two problem show more severity of problem due to online classes. As for the
convenience of calculation, the health problems were grouped under two categories. Looking at
all data of gender, residence, university, education level, and age, we can see that most of them
face one health problem due to online classes that need to be looked into.
Demographic characteristics of the students and teachers attending online classes indicated
an average age of 27.3 years among 101 respondents with a standard deviation of 0.501 years. The
other demographic and selected characteristics of the study population are shown in Table 1.
Among the sample of 101, there were 74 students and 26 teachers. Almost equal gender balance
was present with 47% women and 53% men. 70% of the respondents were living inside
Kathmandu, as 30% were outside Kathmandu. Maximum participation was from Tribhuvan
International Journal of Online Graduate Education, Vol. 4, Iss. 1 (2021)
© 2021 Northcentral University 6
University with 57.4%, Kathmandu University 38.6%, and the remaining 4% from Pokhara
University.
Table 1
Analytical table showing Health Problems due to online classes
Particular
Health Problems
Chi-
Square
p-value
Two or
Less
More than
Two
Gender
35
12
0.725
0.394
44
10
Residence
52
19
3.477
0.062
27
3
University
30
9
8.047
0.045
2
0
47
11
Education
Level
22
5
0.575
0.750
29
10
Age
15
7
5.993
0.541
25
9
18
4
7
0
6
1
3
0
3
0
2
1
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© 2021 Northcentral University 7
Table 1 shows all socio-demographic characteristics such as gender, residence, University,
Education level, and age. There is a significant association between the university of study and the
onset of health problems (p = 0.045), which may be due to the number of classes per day or the
duration of classes. Other variables such as residence show some association with increased health
problems (p = 0.062). According to the results, variables such as age, gender, and education level
did not associate with health problems. One of the professors from Kathmandu University reported
having faced similar health problems (in the online interview) with eye pain and back pain due to
long hours of online classes during this pandemic. Teaching the online class was becoming
difficult for the professor.
Students and teachers comparative table on the perception of online classes.
The comparative table (Table 2) shows that both students and teachers have faced similar
health situations due to the online classes that started quickly after the lockdown. Looking into
teachers' and students' health, the most common seems to be eye pain and back pain, and headache.
In comparison to teachers, a larger percentage of students are reported to have headaches and neck
pain. In contrast, back pain and eye pain have created significant concern for a larger percentage
of teachers, perhaps due to continuing long classes and sitting in the same position for a longer
time. 27% of the students who participated in the study have some anxiety, and 13.5% reported
that they could not sleep properly.
Regarding difficulty during the online classes, the perspectives of both students and
teachers are very similar. 41.9% of the students included in the survey reported having difficulty
with interaction and asking questions to the teachers, while 37.8% had difficulty giving online
class presentations. A similar situation can be seen in the teachers' responses as well, where 55.6%
felt difficulty in interacting with the students, 48.1% felt that they had problems gaining students'
attention, and 44.4% had difficulty in online classes due to emerging technical difficulties. In the
context of students' preference about their grades and examinations, 59.5% and 39.2% reported
assignments and term paper/ presentation to be their preferred method for final exam evaluation,
and only 24.3% preferred actual examinations (multiple responses). In teachers' case, 96.2%
preferred assignments, 76.9% presentation, and 30.8% book reviews. Similar to the students, only
30.8% of the teachers preferred to take examinations.
Many students (41%) and teachers (37%) have felt that online classes are not practical
enough compared to actual in-person classes. Less interaction seems to be a con of the online
classes on both sides. 37% of the students reported their slow internet problem to be the worst part
of online classes, whereas 26% of the teachers had no worst parts. On the brighter side, 54% of
students reported that time-saving was a major pro of the online class, and 18% said good
communication. Flexible class timing is reported to be the biggest pro of online classes, with 52%
International Journal of Online Graduate Education, Vol. 4, Iss. 1 (2021)
© 2021 Northcentral University 8
reporting that this was the best part of shifting to the online modality, along with 15% of the
teachers that reported working from home to be the best part.
Table 2
Students and teachers comparative table on the perception of online classes
Issue
Students
Teachers
Back Pain
35.1%
38.5%
Neck Pain
25.7%
19.2%
Eye Pain
55.4%
65.4%
Headache
39.2%
26.9%
Cannot sleep
properly
13.5%
-
Anxiety
27%
-
Difficulty during
online classes
Less interaction-41.9%
Asking question- 41.9%
Giving Presentation-37.8%
Less interaction-55.6%
Students attention-48.1%
Technology difficulty- 44.4%
Final exam
preference
Assignments-59.5%
Term paper/Presentation-39.2%
Objective/ Subjective/ open book
exam-24.3%
Assignments-96.2%
Presentation-76.9%
Test from an open book and
objective questions-53.8%
Book review-30.8%
The worst part
of online classes
Not Effective- 41%
Slow internet-37%
Less interaction-12%
Not Effective-37%
Less interaction-26%
No-26%
The best part of
online classes
Saves Time- 54%
Communication- 18%
Flexible Time- 52%
Work from home- 15%
International Journal of Online Graduate Education, Vol. 4, Iss. 1 (2021)
© 2021 Northcentral University 9
Student's and Teacher's spending time in online classes
The total number of hours per day spent on online classes also matters a lot. Students have
been reported to spend from 1 to 4 hours in front of a screen at a time, which is very long and may
cause health-related problems increasing in the students. Teachers also reported similar timings
where some teachers took 1-hour classes. In contrast, some reported taking a maximum of 4-hour
class at a time, which might precursor the teachers' stress and health-related issues. In one online
interview with a university professor, the individual clearly stated that due to long hours of taking
online classes and staying in the same position for an extended amount of time, he experienced
many health issues like back pain, neck pain, eye pain, and headache, along with other minor
problems. Proper management of online class timing and at least 30 minutes of break is suggested
between each online class.
Students not able to attend online classes due to technical problem
Technical problems such as power outages were a significant detractor for the online
modality of teaching and learning. Approximately 90% of the total student respondents had faced
this kind of problem. In most cases, the online classes were recorded to listen to the recording later,
but its effectiveness is yet to be explored. In this context, one of the professors from Kathmandu
University living outside of Kathmandu valley reported having difficulty ensuring students'
participation in online classes, which has become an issue regarding online class attendance. One
of the professors from Kathmandu University stated that "If only one student is left out during
online class due to access to the internet or technical devices, the whole education system is a
failure. Education is a component of human rights. Now looking at the aspect of students where
everyone is given equal priority. If ten of the students have all the access, and only one student
cannot access it, then it is the university's responsibility to bring that student into the mainstream.
As students connected with the University, it plays a vital role in involving students in online
classes. Even if one student who wants to learn cannot attend the class, we are a failure. If Nepal's
total schools opened with one school not being able to due to quarantine, then the whole education
is a failure.
Discussion
Online education has been a considerable shift in the learning and teaching process due to
the sudden and unpredicted lockdown situation created by COVID-19. For Nepal, it is indeed a
big challenge and an opportunity to expand education all over the country. According to data of
2075-76 from the National Planning Commission of Nepal, only 65% of the population have
access to internet facilities. Still, 35% of the population has no access to the internet. One of the
International Journal of Online Graduate Education, Vol. 4, Iss. 1 (2021)
© 2021 Northcentral University 10
basic requirements for online education in Nepal that still needs improvement is internet facilities
and connectivity. Immediate shutdown and shifting from physical classes to online classes have
brought lots of difficulties in the learning and teaching process. This survey indicates that 90% of
the students have already been missing online classes due to internet problems or no electricity.
The flow of the learning and teaching process has been disturbed.
Education systems across the globe have taken a range of alternative options during the
lockdown guided, in part, by observing other countries' actions. Some of the internal resources
used were instructional package (textbooks, worksheets, printouts), radio education, educational
television, existing online instructional resources, online instruction delivered by the same teachers
of the students learning, online instruction provided by private tutors, and other modalities (OECD,
2020). A few schools and governments have also provided computerized equipment to students in
need (World Economic Forum, 2020). Therefore, the schools, physical classrooms, and mood of
the students and the learning process have become more efficient (Tang, 2020).
As Piryani et al. (2020) posited, COVID-19 is expected to linger for some time with the
potential to have lasting psychological effects on both students and teachers. A total of 27% of the
students that responded to our study responded to have some anxiety. A study on the pandemic's
impact on Nepal's college students suggested that 66.67% of students reported having increased
anxiety levels (Dangal & Bajracharya, 2020). Online education in Nepal is a new way of teaching
and learning that needs proper planning, which needs a different teaching modality compared to
physical classes. A different approach is needed in making the students feel at ease and more
comfortable to learn and reduce their anxiousness during this pandemic situation. Looking at the
current situation of online classes in Nepal, radio and television course teaching and online classes
are going on, which have been helping a lot to reduce the education gap. However, merely one-
way interaction during these media broadcasting courses and online classes seems to be an issue,
which hinders the effective learning process.
Conclusion
Various new platforms have emerged to help with social distancing and teaching-learning
during the given pandemic emergency. This situation can also be taken as a lesson learned for
preparedness for the future. It is apparent that further planning for a sustainable and equal
educational opportunity for all is necessary. Interventions from universities and the Nepal
government are needed for students who cannot attend their online classes. Those students must
be identified and provided with necessary facilities like internet services as well as technical
support. Full participation must be ensured in online classes, making sure that no one is left behind.
Proper feedback mechanisms and health analysis must be conducted regularly from the concerned
universities, and appropriate action must be taken accordingly to better the students' performance.
International Journal of Online Graduate Education, Vol. 4, Iss. 1 (2021)
© 2021 Northcentral University 11
Taking every problem that arises due to COVID-19 as an opportunity to change towards a
new learning and teaching way is the best way of educating oneself. Getting familiar with the
technical devices with proper evaluation of online classes to overcome such health-related
problems will change teachers' and students' perceptions of online classes. This might help them
move towards more a safer and more comfortable online class. Remote teaching has become an
essential part of our life after this pandemic, which has left us with much learning for any future
situation or challenge that requires distant or online education. With the students' and teachers'
health challenges and discomfort during the given pandemic, further research on providing quality
online education without compromising their health is recommended.
International Journal of Online Graduate Education, Vol. 4, Iss. 1 (2021)
© 2021 Northcentral University 12
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... Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID- 19) is an infectious disease, first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 became declared pandemic status on March 12, 2020. [1] This pandemic affects everyone and everywhere in the world and confronted with unprecedented challenges. ...
... The most common health problems were eye pain, back pain, and headache. [19] The findings of this study suggest that while diverse stakeholders are more prepared to implement online teaching learning, there is still improvements to be made. This study's result is also expected to serve as a foundation and guide for future efforts to improve the quality of online teaching learning. ...
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Introduction: Online teaching can play a vital role in the process of teaching and learning during COVID-19 pandemic. However, teachers’ perceptions and challenges are major factors in the adoption and effectiveness of online teaching learning, especially at institutions where it is newly adopted. This study aimed to investigate the perception and challenges faced by nursing teachers regarding online teaching learning during the pandemic in Bharatpur, Chitwan. Materials and methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 162 nursing teachers of different nursing colleges of Chitwan actively involved in online teaching learning for undergraduate and postgraduate programs during the pandemic. Non-probability enumerative sampling technique was used to select the sample. A structured questionnaire consisting of 23 items (5-point Likert scale) covering four domains for teachers perception (usefulness, ease of use, system use and behavioral intention toward online teaching learning) was distributed to the teachers using Google Form from 2021 June 5th to 2021 July 20th. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: More than half (56.2%) of the teachers had good perception towards online teaching learning during COVID 19 pandemic. Teachers faced challenges to implement online teaching learning such as poor internet connection, electricity problem, difficult to assemble all the students for the class, difficult for interaction with students, and lack of information technology skills. Conclusions: Despite having to confront numerous challenges in the online teaching process, teachers can demonstrate the positive perception toward technology of online teaching. Teachers need to be equipped with e-learning technology for effectiveness of online teaching classes
... Social isolation refers to the lack of physical contact with or separation from family, friends, and social networks as well as the lack of involvement in outside activities. During the COVID-19 pandemic, where there are many social restrictions applied especially to elderly people, gardening can be a safe and extremely beneficial activity for them to stay engaged (Dangal & Maharjan, 2021). In connection with this reference, an experience of participant Mr. Ghimire: "People are confined at home due to Corona scourge. ...
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Ageing is a natural phenomenon, and it is inevitable. Everyone eventually grows, and this growth brings weakness and decline in the individual’s physical, mental, and overall well-being. There have been many studies done regarding identifying the possible link between the plant-human relationship and its impact on the well-being of humans. This phenomenological study has provided the perspective of elderly people/senior citizens concerning their experience with plant-related activities. The foundation of this study is based on five key primary questions in the thematic area of “plant-health relationship for subjective wellbeing in later life of retirees”. This study involved fifteen participants: four women and eleven men aged 60-80 years who were retired from 20 to 40 years of service in governmental, semi-, and non-governmental organizations. They were living with their families and had fairly similar physical and cognitive abilities. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using the descriptive phenomenological method. Retired professionals from different sectors (education, police force, banking, agriculture, Army, engineering, nursing, community development, etc.) were found to be active, having a good understanding of plants and their relationship to human wellbeing. Most of them spent more than three hours daily in their horticultural activities (like kitchen gardening, rooftop gardening, terrace gardening, lawn or indoor plants). They utilized their competence and experiences gained from parents and ancestors, keeping themselves busy and productive after retirement. The narrative presented in this study directs towards a strong link between plant-human relationships and wellbeing.
... Though online learning provided the much-needed platform for continued learning, it cannot sustain itself in providing wholesome learning, as it comes with challenges of its own, the challenges which could have adverse effects. It brings in psychological, social, and philological issues on long term usage (Maharjan, 2021), along with the fact that transfer of knowledge cannot be assessed (Shah Shreeda, 2020). On the contrary, the chalk and board model will also not provide a wholesome learning experience as it does not provide all the skills required as per today and tomorrow's technological trends (Kim, 2016). ...
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The teacher is not possible to teach all those things among their students and there is a possibility for the teacher to engage their students into different self learning techniques. At present digital age observes educators attention to the modifications on characteristics of learners in the learning environment. There are different types of technology resources which the learners using for the improvement of their learning. The period of globalization academic performance of students has closely connected with different types of learning method. At present there are different learning methods are available however, the few learning methods are very applicable for the students who improve their academic performance. The self directed learning method is most important method for the young minds of toady. At present the culture of learning among the learners gradually moves to self-directed learning because it is a self paced one whenever the learners have interest who can able to learn. The self directed learning method is most effective method especially young minds of today. It provides self independency among the learners. Hence, the teacher of today motivates the young minds of today to involve the self directed learning.
... Though online learning provided the much-needed platform for continued learning, it cannot sustain itself in providing wholesome learning, as it comes with challenges of its own, the challenges which could have adverse effects. It brings in psychological, social, and philological issues on long term usage (Maharjan, 2021), along with the fact that transfer of knowledge cannot be assessed (Shah Shreeda, 2020). On the contrary, the chalk and board model will also not provide a wholesome learning experience as it does not provide all the skills required as per today and tomorrow's technological trends (Kim, 2016). ...
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This chapter explains the importance of immersive learning techniques which are required for creating an innovative learning environment for the learners by providing virtual reality and augmented reality in the field of education. It created a tremendous learning environment for the learner to acquire the knowledge meticulously which in turn promotes deep learning among the learners. Virtual reality is a technology-based environment created by using computer-generated images and objects which exactly appear to be real and show 360° view also known as simulated environment whereas Augmented Reality provides virtual factors to a stay view frequently through the use of the digital camera on a smartphone. It is utilized in apps for smartphones and tablets. It uses a head-mounted or handheld display and pinch gloves to view the objects. In this chapter, we are going to briefly discuss the importance and usage of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR).
... Though online learning provided the much-needed platform for continued learning, it cannot sustain itself in providing wholesome learning, as it comes with challenges of its own, the challenges which could have adverse effects. It brings in psychological, social, and philological issues on long term usage (Maharjan, 2021), along with the fact that transfer of knowledge cannot be assessed (Shah Shreeda, 2020). On the contrary, the chalk and board model will also not provide a wholesome learning experience as it does not provide all the skills required as per today and tomorrow's technological trends (Kim, 2016). ...
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The epidemic of COVID-19 has disrupted education in over 150 nations and harmed 1.6 billion children. As a result, a number of nations have introduced some type of remote learning employing technology and students were encouraged to engage in self-determined learning. Many Educational Institutions that previously resisted changing their traditional pedagogical method were forced to use online teaching and learning exclusively. Internet-educated kids who have never encountered this issue are unfamiliar with it. As a result, they are confronted with a number of psychological issues and are negatively impacting the health, social, and material well-being of children globally, with the poorest children, such as homeless children and children in detention, being the hardest hit. As a result, the editors came to the conclusion that it would be beneficial to issue a call for papers in order to discuss the difficulties and opportunities associated with the practise of heutagogy from the psychological and technological vantage points indicated in the title
... The current study said that one-quarter of students increased their study time by more than 4 hours per week due to COVID-19, while another quarter decreased their study time by more than 5 hours per week out of 1500 participants [19]. [20]. ...
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The COVID-19 has rapidly changed in higher education all across the world. As a result, education has transferred face-to-face teaching to online education platforms, which directly affects the quality of education. The study aimed to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on online Occupational Therapy (OT) education in Bangladesh through the student’s perspectives. A cross-sectional online survey was performed to conduct the study through email.160 undergraduate Occupational Therapy students were selected by comprehensive sampling technique. Self-developed structured survey questionnaire and five point Likert scale were used for data collection. Descriptive analyses were used to analyze survey results. Data were obtained from 114 responses. Results indicated that males were 34% and females were 66%. The study findings that most participants were used Zoom and mobile phone. They had an average of 10-12 hours weekly screen time for institutional lectures and 3-5 hours average weekly screen time for self-study. The reported health-related problems were eye problem 74.6%, attention problem 71.1%, headache 70.2% and 57% neck and back pain. During the online education, 59.6% participants faced ‘always’ difficulties in practical learning. 98.2% faced internet disconnection, 70.2% and 43% audio and video interruption and 39.5% freeze screen during internet use. Participants developed new skills in the pandemic where 78.9% were learned household activities. Strength of the online education was participants engaged in the class from anywhere. The study has broad implications for the field of OT education. Participants recommended for improving internet connectivity, provide free internet packages, lecture method up-gradation, and e-library facilities for future online education.
... Social isolation refers to the lack of physical contact with, or separation from family, friends, and social networks as well as the lack of involvement in outside activities. During the COVID-19 pandemic, where there are many social restrictions (Dangal & Maharjan, 2021) applied especially to elderly people, gardening can be a safe and extremely beneficial activity for them to engage in. ...
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This paper provides the insights for a better understanding of individual, familiar, and social factors of loneliness that influence wellbeing of people in later life. The review offers a thematic analysis on loneliness in elderly people and the therapeutic effects of gardening activities for healthy ageing. Five key themes related to loneliness of elderly people emerged across the papers: loneliness-an issue for wellbeing in life after retirement; the effects of gardening and plants on loneliness; gardening – a therapeutic tool to combat loneliness; elderly’s loneliness during the pandemic and home gardening; and national and international initiatives to decrease loneliness in the elderly population. The review found a significant gap in literature directly connecting loneliness in the elderly with gardening activities for happy and healthy life ageing. The review found that there is a limited number of literatures on the loneliness situation of elderly people during the pandemic, where gardening plays a vital role to reduce the psychological problem while maintaining the social distancing and isolation.
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ABSTRACT Background COVID-19 started in China and has spread throughout the world since December 2019. The pandemic has not only brought the risk of morbidity and mortality from infection but also psychological burden. Objective To find out the psychological impacts of COVID-19 on students from high schools, colleges and universities in Nepal, along with examining the association between socio-demographic and other related variables and level of anxiety in the students. Method This study sampled students from Nepal using convenience sampling and responded to a quantitative questionnaire that included the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and other basic information. Finally, 105 respondents were included in the final analysis (100% response rate). Convenient sampling technique was used to gather the sample. Result The results indicated that 18.1% of the respondents were experiencing severe anxiety, 22.9% moderate anxiety, and 25.7% mild anxiety. Moreover, females were more prone to anxiety as compared to males. The results of correlation analysis indicated that economic effects, and delays in academic activities, were positively associated with anxiety symptoms (p < .05). However, social support was negatively correlated with the level of anxiety (p < .001). Conclusion It is recommended that the mental health of students should be monitored during public health emergencies, such as this one. This study examines the psychological impacts of COVID-19 among the college students in Nepal.
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With the advances in science and technology, the use of technology in education continues to become widespread. This situation also increases importance of studies on teachers' attitudes towards the use of technology in education. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between teacher attitudes concerning technology use in education and autonomy behaviors. Analyzes were carried out with the data collected from a total of 440 teachers. According to the analysis results, teacher attitudes concerning technology use in teaching do not change according to gender and school type, but according to their education level. While the autonomy behaviors of teachers do not vary in relation to their gender and education level, it differs according to the type of school they work. The attitudes of teachers regarding technology use in teaching and autonomy behaviors do not differ according to their professional seniority. According to the order of importance, the teacher's teaching process autonomy and professional communication autonomy behaviors significantly predict their attitudes regarding technology use in education. These two variables together explain 30% of teachers' attitudes toward technology use in education.
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerged disease that has become a global public health concern as it rapidly spread around the world. The etiologic agent responsible for this disease has been named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses as it shows similar genomic features to that of SARS-CoV which caused a pandemic in 2002. This disease first appeared in Hubei province of China and it follows human-to-human transmission but the path this virus took to set up human infection remains a mystery. By 17 April 2020, globally there have been 2,074,529 confirmed cases with 139,378 deaths because of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 shows several similarities with SARS?CoV, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) with its clinical presentations. This can vary from asymptomatic infection to severe disease and mortality. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) screening is considered as the standard laboratory test for the diagnosis of COVID-19. There is no proven antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2 so the treatment for COVID-19 is symptomatic, aiming for the management of the symptoms and prevention of the complications. The outbreak of COVID-19 has led to the implementation of extraordinary public health measures throughout the world. Numerous antiviral compounds used to treat other infections are being clinically researched to find possible treatment. Similarly, the traditional public health outbreak response strategy of isolation, quarantine, social distancing and community containment has been implemented in multiple countries and has played an important role in the prevention of new outbreaks. This review aims to enhance our understanding of COVID 19. Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; novel coronavirus 2019; severe acute respiratory syndrome-2
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How virtual classrooms and dire finances could alter academia: part 1 in a series on science after the pandemic. How virtual classrooms and dire finances could alter academia: part 1 in a series on science after the pandemic.
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A COVID-19 epidemic has been spreading in China and other parts of the world since December 2019. The epidemic has brought not only the risk of death from infection but also unbearable psychological pressure. We sampled college students from Changzhi medical college by using cluster sampling. They responded to a questionnaire packet that included the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and those inquiring the participants’ basic information. We received 7,143 responses. Results indicated that 0.9% of the respondents were experiencing severe anxiety, 2.7% moderate anxiety, and 21.3% mild anxiety. Moreover, living in urban areas (OR = .810, 95% CI = .709 - .925), family income stability (OR = .726, 95% CI = .645 - .817) and living with parents (OR = .752, 95% CI = .596 - .950) were protective factors against anxiety. Moreover, having relatives or acquaintances infected with COVID-19 was a risk factor for increasing the anxiety of college students (OR = 3.007, 95% CI = 2.377 - 3.804). Results of correlation analysis indicated that economic effects, and effects on daily life, as well as delays in academic activities, were positively associated with anxiety symptoms (P < .001). However, social support was negatively correlated with the level of anxiety (P < .001). It is suggested that the mental health of college students should be monitored during epidemics.
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This study aims to evaluate and analyze strategies, proposals, and ICT tools to promote a paradigm shift in educational supervision that enhances the schools of this century involved not only in teaching-face learning, but e-learning and blended learning. Traditional models of educational supervision do not guarantee adequate supervision of the teaching models based on Web 2.0 as well as the digital learning environments supporting classical lectures. The study has been approached from a quantitative perspective, in which we examined the practices and perceptions of 278 local supervisors in three different regions of Spain when supervising the 2.0 teaching model promoted by the Ministry of Education in 5th primary grade through a model "one laptop per student." The analysis in this context led us to postulate that a supervision model that complements the techniques and strategies of traditional supervision and incorporates new ways of addressing the educational processes based on Web 2.0 is needed. This model may be called "virtual supervision" and it must be oriented towards an intervention to analyze, improve, and substantially transform schools and the teaching-learning processes.
Online learning: A panacea in the time of COVID-19 crisis
  • S Dhawan
Dhawan, S. (2020). Online learning: A panacea in the time of COVID-19 crisis. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0047239520934018
Isolation education, education technology
  • A Genna
Genna, A. (2020). Isolation education, education technology. https://edtechnology.co.uk/peoplepolicy-politics/the-report-isolation-education-teacher-wellbeing/
How COVID-19 exposed challenges for technology in education
  • L Janssen
Janssen, L. (2020). How COVID-19 exposed challenges for technology in education. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 49(1) 5-22. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0047239520934018