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Humanity Imperiled by the Geomagnetic Field and Human Corruption

Authors:
  • Transdyne Corporation, California

Abstract and Figures

Earth's magnetic field acts as a shield, protecting life and our electrically-based infrastructure from the rampaging, charged-particle solar wind. In the geologic past, the geomagnetic field has collapsed, with or without polarity reversal, and inevitably it will again. The potential consequences of geomagnetic collapse have not only been greatly underestimated, but governments, scientists, and the public have been deceived as to the underlying science. Instead of trying to refute or advance a paradigm shift that occurred in 1979, global geoscientists, individuals and institutions, chose to function as a cartel and continued to promote their very-flawed concepts that had their origin in the 1930s and 1940s, consequently wasting vast amounts of taxpayer-provided research money, and making no meaningful advances or understanding. Here, from a first person perspective, I describe the logical progression of understanding from that paradigm shift, review the advances made and their concomitant implications, and touch upon a few of the many efforts that were made to deceive government officials, scientists, and the public. It is worrisome that geoscientists almost universally have engaged in suppressing or ignoring sound scientific advances, including those with potentially adverse implications for humanity. All of this suggests that the entire institutional structure of the geophysical sciences, funding, institutions, and bureaucracies should be radically reformed.
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Advances)in)Social)Sciences)Research)Journal)–)Vol.8,)No.1)
Publication)Date:!%&'(&)*!+#,!+-+.!
DOI/.-0."1234&55)603.07$270!
Herndon, J. M. (2021). Humanity Imperiled by the Geomagnetic Field and H uman Corruptio n. Advances in Social Sciences Research
Journal, 8 (1) 456-478.
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Humanity)Imperiled)by)the)Geomagnetic)Field)and)Human)
Corruption)
)
J.)Marvin)Herndon,)Ph.)D))
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ABSTRACT'
Earth’s' magnetic' field' acts' as' a' shield,' protecting' life' and' our'
electrically-based'infrastructure' from'the'rampaging,' charged-particle'
solar' wind.' In' the' geologic' past,' the' geomagnetic' field' has' collapsed,'
with' or' without' polarity' reversal,' and' inevitably' it' will' again.' The'
potential' consequences' of' geomagnetic' collapse' have' not' only' been'
greatly'underestimated,' but' governments,' scientists,' and' the' public'
have' been' deceived' as' to' the' underlying' science.' Instead' of' trying' to'
refute' or' advance' a' paradigm' shift' that' occurred' in' 1979,' global'
geoscientists,'individuals'and'institutions,'chose'to'function'as'a'cartel'
and' continued' to' promote' their'very-flawed' concepts' that' had' their'
origin' in' the' 1930s'and'1940s,' consequently' wasting' vast' amounts'of'
taxpayer-provided' research' money,' and' making' no' meaningful'
advances' or' understanding.' Here,' from' a' first' person' perspective,' I'
describe'the'logical'progression'of'understanding'from'that'paradigm'
shift,' review' the' advances' made' and' their' concomitant' implications,'
and' touch'upon' a' few' of' the'many' efforts' that' were' made' to' deceive'
government' officials,' scientists,' and' the' public.' It' is' worrisome' that'
geoscientists' almost' universally' have' engaged' in' suppressing' or'
ignoring' sound' scientific' advances,' including' those' with' potentially'
adverse'implications'for'humanity.'All'of'this'suggests'that'the'entire'
institutional' structure' of' the' geophysical' sciences,' funding,'
institutions,'and'bureaucracies'should'be'radically'reformed.'
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Keywords:' Magnetic) reversals;) Corona) ejections;) Electrical) transmission)
networks;) Communications) disruptions;) Solar) wind;) Geomagnetic) storms;)
Paradigm)shift;)Inner)core.'
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INTRODUCTION)
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Herndon, J. M. (2021). Humanity Imperiled by the Geomagnetic Field and Human Corruption. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 8 (1) 456-478.
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Figure'1.'Schematic'representation'of'the'geomagnetic'shield.'From'[4].'
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Herndon, J. M. (2021). Humanity Imperiled by the Geomagnetic Field and Human Corruption. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 8 (1) 456-478.
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Figure'2.'The'simple'picture'of'Earth’s'interior'as'understood'in'1930.'
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Herndon, J. M. (2021). Humanity Imperiled by the Geomagnetic Field and Human Corruption. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 8 (1) 456-478.
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Figure'5.'Letter'from'Inge'Lehmann'to'the'author.'
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Herndon, J. M. (2021). Humanity Imperiled by the Geomagnetic Field and Human Corruption. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 8 (1) 456-478.
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Figure'6.'Comparison'of'the'mass'percent'of'iron'alloy'in'various'chondrite'meteorites'to'that'of'the'
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Figure'7.'(A)'Nearly'complete'slice'of'the'Abee'enstatite'chondrite.'(B)'Micrograph'showing'its'
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Herndon, J. M. (2021). Humanity Imperiled by the Geomagnetic Field and Human Corruption. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 8 (1) 456-478.
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Figure'8.'Schematic'representation'of'the'interior'parts'of'Earth'as'indicated'by'the'mass'ratio'
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Figure'9.'Schematic'representation'of'the'georeactor,'a'natural'planetocentric'nuclear'fission'
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Figure'10.'Oak'Ridge'georeactor'simulation'data'calculated'at'energies'of'3'and'5'terawatts'
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Herndon, J. M. (2021). Humanity Imperiled by the Geomagnetic Field and Human Corruption. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 8 (1) 456-478.
"12!
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Figure'11.'Schematic'representation'of'Earth’s'georeactor,'not'to'scale.'Planetary'rotation'and'fluid'
motions'are'indicated'separately;'their'resultant'motion'is'not'shown.'Stable'convection'is'expected'
with'the'bottom'hotter'than'the'top'and'with'heat'removal'at'the'top.'Scale'in'km.'
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systems&shut-down,&fuel&delivery&disruptions,&loss&of&ozone&and&increased&skin&cancers,&cardiac&deaths,&
and& dementia.& This& list& is& not& exhaustive.& It& is& likely& that& a&geomagnetic & field&collapse& would& cause&
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recommendations(for(future(study.!f?<:C:J>)<I&B':>?J5/!%<()'&C!<D!>K:!f?<:C:J>)<I&B':>?J5!@<J?:>*,!8K:!@<J?:>*!
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Herndon, J. M. (2021). Humanity Imperiled by the Geomagnetic Field and Human Corruption. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 8 (1) 456-478.
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Herndon, J. M. (2021). Humanity Imperiled by the Geomagnetic Field and Human Corruption. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 8 (1) 456-478.
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... In 1982, Scheidegger [21] scale occurred at all, a completely unknown energy source must be found". In 1993 and 2005, I discovered two unknown energy sources, georeactor nuclear fission energy [51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59] and the stored energy of protoplanetary compression [29,60,61], set forth Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics [41,60,62], and resolved geophysical cognitive dissonance by the still dominant theories of plate tectonics and continental drift. ...
... Earth's central nuclear-fission georeactor [51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59] powers and produces its geomagnetic field and aids whole-Earth decompression by providing heat to replace the lost heat of protoplanetary compression. Georeactor heat also channels from Earth's core to its surface [41]. ...
... The Yellowstone Vol.8, Issue 2, Febraury-2021 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal (ASSRJ) measurements, which indicate that Yellowstone's heat source is the nuclear-fission georeactor, is of serious concern, because Yellowstone is believed to be a potential super-volcano [87][88][89][90]. Natural or anthropogenic disruption of the geomagnetic field might trigger eruption of that supervolcano [57][58][59]. ...
Article
Neither plate tectonics nor Earth expansion theory is sufficient to provide a basis for understanding geoscience. Each theory is incomplete and possesses problematic elements, but both have served as stepping stones to a more fundamental and inclusive geoscience theory that I call Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics (WEDD). WEDD begins with and is the consequence of our planet's early formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant and permits deduction of:(1) Earth's internal composition, structure, and highly-reduced oxidation state; (2) Core formation without whole-planet melting; (3) Powerful new internal energy sources - proto-planetary energy of compression and georeactor nuclear fission energy; (4) Georeactor geomagnetic field generation; (5) Mechanism for heat emplacement at the base of the crust resulting in the crustal geothermal gradient; (6) Decompression driven geodynamics that accounts for the myriad of observations attributed to plate tectonics without requiring physically-impossible mantle convection, and; (7) A mechanism for fold-mountain formation that does not necessarily require plate collision. The latter obviates the necessity to assume supercontinent cycles. Here, I review the principles of Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics and describe a new underlying basis for geoscience and geology.
... Ultimately, myriad seemingly complex and theoretically unresolved observations can be resolved and understood in logical, causally related ways. For example, the apparent correlation of geomagnetic field reversals with species extinction [27,28], with major episodes of volcanism [29,30], and with drastic sea-level changes [31], is understandable as geomagnetic field collapse, in principle, can lead to a spike in georeactor output energy, and thus possibly trigger a decompression spike manifest, for example, by volcanism, earthquakes, continent splitting, species extinction, mountain formation, etc. [19,20,32]. ...
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Earth's mountain ranges, characterized by folding and unique among Terrestrial planets, are inexplicable in plate tectonics, but are consequences of Earth's initial formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant, as described by Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics. The violent T-Tauri outbursts from thermonuclear ignition of the sun stripped away the primordial gases and ices leaving behind a cold, compressed rocky Earth, entirely covered by continental crust without ocean basins, but containing within it two powerful energy sources, the stored energy of protoplanetary compression and a nuclear fission georeactor. Over time heat added by nuclear fission and radioactive decay energy replaced the lost heat of protoplanetary compression making possible Earth's decompression. As Earth decompresses two surface phenomena must necessarily occur: (1) more surface area is produced by the formation of and in-filling of decompression cracks, and (2) continental surface areas adjust to new surface curvature primarily by the surface buckling, breaking and falling over (thereby forming mountain ranges characterized by folding) and secondarily by tension tears at continental edges (thereby forming fjords and submarine canyons). The present continental surface area plus continental shelves provides a "first guess" estimate of the juvenile crustal surface area, but it is an underestimate due to not considering the surface area that had buckled, broken and fallen over to form mountains. Preliminary calculations provide relative estimates of the "excess" surface area during whole-Earth decompression that would form mountains. Currently, there is a dearth of reliable data on the ages of fold-mountain formation and on the amount of surface matter they contain, as well as on the initial time of decompression crack formation, especially those cracks that ultimately became ocean Short Communication Herndon; JGEESI, 26(3): 52-59, 2022; Article no.JGEESI.86810 53 basins. The absence of fold-mountains on other Terrestrial planets may be understood as a consequence of their not having been compressed by massive shells of protoplanetary gases and ices.
... With a mass of about one ten-millionth that of the fluid core, georeactor sub-shell convection can potentially be disrupted by great planetary trauma, such as an asteroid impact, or by major solar outbursts or even by human activities, for example, by deliberate electromagnetic disturbance of the near-Earth environment, including the Van Allen belts. Furthermore, sub-shell convection disruption might trigger surface geophysical disasters, such as super-volcano eruptions [2][3][4]. ...
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Despite the importance for understanding the nature of the geomagnetic field, and especially its potential for radically disrupting modern civilization [1], virtually all scientific publications relating to it are based upon the false assumption that the geomagnetic field is generated in the Earth’s fluid core. By adhering to an outmoded paradigm, members of the geoscience community have potentially exposed humanity to globally devastating risks, leaving it unprepared for an inevitable geomagnetic field collapse. There is no scientific reason to believe that the geomagnetic field is generated within the fluid core. Convection is physically impossible in the fluid core due to its compression by the weight above and its inability to sustain an adverse temperature gradient. There is no evidence of ongoing inner core growth to provide energy to drive thermal convection or to cause compositional convection. Moreover, there is no mechanism to account for magnetic reversals and no means for magnetic seed-field production within the fluid core to initiate dynamo amplification. Earth’s nuclear georeactor, seat of the geomagnetic field, has none of the problems inherent in putative fluid-core geomagnetic field production. With a mass of about one ten-millionth that of the fluid core, georeactor sub-shell convection can potentially be disrupted by great planetary trauma, such as an asteroid impact, or by major solar outbursts or even by human activities, for example, by deliberate electromagnetic disturbance of the near-Earth environment, including the Van Allen belts. Furthermore, sub-shell convection disruption might trigger surface geophysical disasters, such as super-volcano eruptions [2-4]. Scientists have a fundamental responsibility to tell the truth and to provide scientific understanding that benefits humanity.
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The discovery of static electricity in the 18th century and electromagnetism in the 19th was one of the most momentous scientific-technological events in human history. In the 21st century our way of life depends on the electromagnetic force so totally that were our electromagnetic infrastructure to collapse, our civilization would collapse virtually simultaneously. Despite this situation of profound dependency, few citizens understand the electromagnetic force, how it was discovered, how it works, and what wonders of modern life it controls. Nor do citizens understand the roles that Earth’s magnetosphere, ionosphere, and global electric circuit play in making electricity and life possible. Here, I review Earth’s natural electric environment and how electricity first began to be scientifically understood with the innovation of the Leyden jar in the mid-18th century; Franklin’s insights about electricity’s positive and negative poles, and its movement (later named a “current”); Galvani’s discovery of bioelectricity; and Volta’s seminal invention of the bi-metallic electrochemical battery in 1800. Ørsted’s discovery that an electric current affected a magnetized needle, causing it to swivel, in 1820 led to experiments with electromagnets by Schweigger, Arago, Ampère, Sturgeon, Henry, Faraday, and others over the course of the next decade. Observing how conducting wires induced magnetism in iron bars whenever the wires were electrified, Faraday and Henry separately discovered the principle of induction, whereby a moving magnetic field could reciprocally induce electricity in a coiled wire. Out of these momentous discoveries the “magneto-electric” telegraph was invented, and, within a single generation, the world was wired.
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Understanding dynamics across phase transformations and the spatial distribution of minerals in the lower mantle is crucial for a comprehensive model of the evolution of the Earth’s interior. Using the multigrain crystallography technique (MGC) with synchrotron x-rays at pressures of 30 GPa in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell to study the formation of bridgmanite [(Mg,Fe)SiO 3 ] and ferropericlase [(Mg,Fe)O], we report an interconnected network of a smaller grained ferropericlase, a configuration that has been implicated in slab stagnation and plume deflection in the upper part of the lower mantle. Furthermore, we isolated individual crystal orientations with grain-scale resolution, provide estimates on stress evolutions on the grain scale, and report {110} twinning in an iron-depleted bridgmanite, a mechanism that appears to aid stress relaxation during grain growth and likely contributes to the lack of any appreciable seismic anisotropy in the upper portion of the lower mantle.
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The Earth’s core consists of iron as the major component. The melting point of iron at the inner core boundary constrains the thermal structure and solidification of the Earth’s core. However, the current estimation of the melting temperature of iron under the core conditions has significant variations. Here, we measured the temperatures of iron shocked up to ~256 GPa using precise pyrometer and velocimeter diagnostics via a two‐stage light‐gas gun. Our results indicated that the melting temperatures of iron at the core‐mantle and inner‐core boundaries are 4300(250) K and 5950(400) K, respectively. These temperatures are significantly lower than some previous shock experiments but are overall consistent with the recent results determined by fast X‐ray diffraction techniques, X‐ray absorption experiments in laser‐heated diamond anvil cells, and by ab initio computations. Our iron melting curve indicates a relatively small Clapeyron slope and supports thermal models for a young inner core.
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In 2015, Tyler J. Williams authored “Cataclysmic Polarity Shift: Is U. S. National Security Prepared for the Next Geomagnetic Pole Reversal?” That document provides an extremely cogent and thorough description of some of the risks to national security and infrastructure expected to result from a geomagnetic polarity reversal. However, it describes geomagnetic field generation solely as currently promoted by the geophysics community which is based upon old ideas, circa 1940s-1960s, that are taken to be factual without any attempt to understand their limitations or to evaluate their validity in light of subsequent scientific developments. Moreover, the security concerns Williams described are relevant to humanity globally. Here I have reviewed the historical development of those old ideas, pointed out their problematic nature, and reviewed subsequent published advances that overcome their inherent problems and lead to a better understanding of the geophysics related to geomagnetic polarity reversals, geomagnetic excursions, and, at some yet unknown time, the permanent demise of the geomagnetic field. Mechanisms of rapid geomagnetic field collapse, both natural and potentially human-induced, are described. The present state of nuclear georeactor activity, whether geomagnetic field collapse leads to increased georeactor output, and whether it is likely to trigger earthquakes and volcano eruptions are yet unknown matters of seriously troubling human security concerns. Global security preparedness, even though addressed by sovereign nations, should be predicated upon the latest and most correct scientific understanding. In some areas that may be the case, but in the scientific areas described here there are clearly problems. The inherent problems, I submit, do not result from inadequate funding, but from inadequate methodologies, expectations and responsibilities of scientists, their national and parent institutions, publishers, and respective funding-agencies.
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U. S. President Donald J. Trump is leading America and the world against the elitist-globalist goal of a One World Government. His efforts to free American entrepreneurs from unwarranted control by others are producing an economic renaissance. From a lifetime of first-hand knowledge and experience, I describe the problems that beset American science, and posit solutions for producing the cutting-edge science that Trump’s economic renaissance requires.
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This paper presents a comprehensive geoneutrino measurement using the Borexino detector, located at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. The analysis is the result of 3262.74 days of data between December 2007 and April 2019. The paper describes improved analysis techniques and optimized data selection, which includes enlarged fiducial volume and sophisticated cosmogenic veto. The reported exposure of (1.29±0.05)×1032 protons ×year represents an increase by a factor of two over a previous Borexino analysis reported in 2015. By observing 52.6−8.6+9.4(stat)−2.1+2.7(sys) geoneutrinos (68% interval) from U238 and Th232, a geoneutrino signal of 47.0−7.7+8.4(stat)−1.9+2.4(sys) TNU with −17.2+18.3% total precision was obtained. This result assumes the same Th/U mass ratio as found in chondritic CI meteorites but compatible results were found when contributions from U238 and Th232 were both fit as free parameters. Antineutrino background from reactors is fit unconstrained and found compatible with the expectations. The null-hypothesis of observing a geoneutrino signal from the mantle is excluded at a 99.0% C.L. when exploiting detailed knowledge of the local crust near the experimental site. Measured mantle signal of 21.2−9.0+9.5(stat)−0.9+1.1(sys) TNU corresponds to the production of a radiogenic heat of 24.6−10.4+11.1 TW (68% interval) from U238 and Th232 in the mantle. Assuming 18% contribution of K40 in the mantle and 8.1−1.4+1.9 TW of total radiogenic heat of the lithosphere, the Borexino estimate of the total radiogenic heat of the Earth is 38.2−12.7+13.6 TW, which corresponds to the convective Urey ratio of 0.78−0.28+0.41. These values are compatible with different geological predictions, however there is a ∼2.4σ tension with those Earth models which predict the lowest concentration of heat-producing elements in the mantle. In addition, by constraining the number of expected reactor antineutrino events, the existence of a hypothetical georeactor at the center of the Earth having power greater than 2.4 TW is excluded at 95% C.L. Particular attention is given to the description of all analysis details which should be of interest for the next generation of geoneutrino measurements using liquid scintillator detectors.
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Animals can move thousands of kilometres in the ocean before returning with pinpoint accuracy to specific locations. How animals accomplish this feat continues to puzzle scientists. New research provides evidence for how turtles re-orientate during their migrations.
Article
The degassing of primordial gases from Earth's interior is evidenced by the high He3/4He ratios in submarine hydrothermal plumes, vent fluids, and rock samples with mantle origin from active hydrothermal systems in mid-ocean ridges (MOR) and subduction zone volcanism. As the largest aquifer on Earth, the uppermost 40-500 m of permeable submarine ridge flank basement (1-65 million-years-old, Myr) holds ∼2% of the ocean volume and accounts for 70% of the seafloor hydrothermal heat flux. However, the degassing of primordial gases through the oceanic ridge flank crust has not yet been directly quantified. Here, we show that high integrity hydrothermal (65 °C) fluids from the sediment-buried 3.5 Myr basaltic crust from the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR) contain elevated ³He. The He3/4He for the basaltic fluid is 4.5 ± 0.1 Ra (relative to the air ratio), which is greatly elevated when compared to deep seawater (1.05 Ra), but is half of that observed for high-temperature vent fluids (∼8 Ra) emitting from MOR. Only a small fraction of the ³He in ridge flank fluids is derived from the entrainment of high-temperature ridge-axis fluids and is better explained by degassing of the mantle through the mantle-crust boundary. The lower than MOR He3/4He ratios indicate that radiogenic ⁴He originates from aged uranium and thorium decay within the mantle as well as from the ridge-flank basalts. The ³He outgassing through warm ridge flanks (4.9 to 36 mol/yr) accounts for 0.7-6% of the global ³He outgassing, exceeded only by degassing through mid-ocean ridges and subduction volcanism. The presence of mantle ³He suggests that the abiogenic methane present in the ridge flank fluids might be mantle-derived. Based on the ³He outgassing flux, a possibly mantle-derived abiotic methane production rate at the ridge flank is estimated to be 0.3–35×108mol/yr.
Article
The short-lived 182Hf-182W isotope system (t1/2 = 9 Ma) left evidence in both ancient and modern terrestrial rock record of processes that took place during the earliest stages of Earth’s accretionary and differentiation history. We report µ182W values (the deviation of 182W/184W of a sample from that of laboratory standards, in parts per million) and corresponding 3He/4He ratios for rocks from 15 different hotspots. These rocks are characterized by µ182W values that range from ∼0 to as low as -23 ± 4.5. For each volcanic system that includes rocks with negative µ182W values, the values tend to be negatively correlated with 3He/4He. The W-He isotopic characteristics of all samples can be successfully modeled via mixing involving at least three mantle source reservoirs with distinct µ182W-3He/4He characteristics. One reservoir has 3He/4He ≈ 8 R/RA and μ182W ≈ 0, which is indistinguishable from the convecting upper mantle. Based on high 3He/4He, the other two reservoirs are presumed to be relatively un-degassed and likely primordial. One reservoir is characterized by µ182W ≈ 0, while the other is characterized by µ182W ≤-23. The former reservoir likely formed from a silicate differentiation process more than 60 Myr after the origin of the solar system, but has remained partially or wholly isolated from the rest of the mantle for most of Earth history. The latter reservoir most likely includes a component that formed while 182Hf was extant. Mass balance constraints on the isotopic composition of the core suggest it has a strongly negative µ182W value of ∼ -220. Thus, it is a candidate for the origin of the negative µ182W in the plume sources. Mixing models show that the direct addition of outer core metal into a plume rising from the core-mantle boundary would result in collateral geochemical effects, particularly in the abundances of highly siderophile elements, which are not observed in OIB. Instead, the reservoir characterized by negative µ182W most likely formed in the lowermost mantle as a result of core-mantle isotopic equilibration. The envisioned equilibration process would raise the W concentration and lower the µ182W of the resulting silicate reservoir, relative to the rest of the mantle. The small proportion (<0.3 %) of this putative core-mantle equilibrated reservoir required to account for the µ182W signatures observed in OIB is insufficient to result in observable effects on most other elemental and/or isotopic compositions. The presumed primordial reservoirs may be linked to seismically distinct regions in the lower mantle. Seismically imaged mantle plumes appear to preferentially ascend from the vicinity of large low-shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs), which have been interpreted as thermochemical piles. We associate the LLSVPs with the primordial reservoir characterized by high 3He/4He and µ182W = 0. Smaller, ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs) present at the core-mantle boundary have been interpreted to consist of (partially) molten lower mantle material. The negative µ182W signatures observed in some plume-derived lavas may result from small contributions of ULVZ material that has inherited its negative µ182W signature through core-mantle equilibration.
Article
High-Fo olivine (Fo = Mg/(Mg+Fe) mol%) is an ideal proxy for establishing the compositions of primary melts and their mantle sources. This has been exploited in establishing lithological variations in the mantle source regions of oceanic basalts, including in Iceland. However, previous studies on Icelandic olivine lack spatial and temporal coverage. We present high-precision in-situ major, minor and trace element analyses of Fo-rich olivine from a suite of 53 primitive basalts erupted in the neovolcanic rift and flank zones of Iceland, as well as in older regions of Quaternary and Tertiary crust. Most of these samples have previously been analysed for ³He/⁴He, which ranges from 6.7 to 47.8 RA, the largest span reported for any oceanic island. By combining trace elemental variability with ³He/⁴He, we assess the extent of lithological variability in the Icelandic mantle plume. Trace-element ratios that are likely to preserve information about mantle source regions (e.g., Mn/Fe, Ni/(Mg/Fe), Ga/Sc, Zn/Fe and Mn/Zn) suggest a peridotitic mantle source in all rift-related volcanic regions, as well as in the off-rift flank zones of Öræfajökull and Snæfellsnes. However, a signal of a more pyroxenitic mantle lithology is clearly visible in olivine from the South Iceland Volcanic Zone, which represents the southward propagation of the Eastern Rift Zone, while olivine from Tertiary lavas suggests a mixed peridotite-pyroxenite source composition. We are able to identify four components present in the Icelandic mantle: a lithologically heterogeneous plume component with ³He/⁴He >MORB; a depleted MORB-like peridotite; an isotopically enriched MORB-like peridotite; and a peridotitic component with ³He/⁴He <MORB, sampled in the off-rift flank zone at Öræfajökull. The spatial distribution of these four components can be explained by a northward tilted mantle plume. This has previously been proposed by geophysical and geochemical studies of both Hawaii and Iceland suggesting that the plume geometry could be a contributing factor in controlling some of the spatial variation in source lithology beneath ocean islands.