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Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine antioxidant activity of green tea leaf extract, the value of sun protection factor (SPF),physical properties, and stability of green tea cream.Methods: Green tea leaf extract was obtained by maceration using 96% ethanol. Cream was prepared in three formulas with various concentrationof the green tea leaves extract. The physical evaluations included organoleptic, pH, viscosity, adhesion, spreadability, and stability tests weredone. The determination of the SPF value is calculated using the Mansur equation. Extract of green tea leaf has strong antioxidant activity(IC50 2.19 μg/ml).Results: The green tea leaf extract showed high antioxidant activity (2.19 μg/m). All formulas are organoleptically creamy brownish-green to brown,with a distinctive green tea odor and homogeneous. All formulas met the requirements of physical properties of cream. The creams showed significantchange while they were stored at 4°C and at 40±2°C, but showed no difference when they were stored ad 26°C. SPF values of cream are 0.54; 2.03,and 2.41, respectively.Conclusions: It is clearly indicated that the sunscreen cream of green tea leaf extract is potential to be further developed as cosmetic preparations.
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International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics
ISSN - 0975 - 7058 Vol 13, Special Issue 1, 2021
1Laboratorium of Pharmaceutical, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, 57169, Indonesia. 2Laboratorium of
Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, 57169, Indonesia. *Email:
Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine antioxidant activity of green tea leaf extract, the value of sun protection factor (SPF),
physical properties, and stability of green tea cream.
Methods: Green tea leaf extract was obtained by maceration using 96% ethanol. Cream was prepared in three formulas with various concentration
of the green tea leaves extract. The physical evaluations included organoleptic, pH, viscosity, adhesion, spreadability, and stability tests were
done. The determination of the SPF value is calculated using the Mansur equation. Extract of green tea leaf has strong antioxidant activity
(IC50 2.19 µg/ml).
Results: The green tea leaf extract showed high antioxidant activity (2.19 µg/m). All formulas are organoleptically creamy brownish-green to brown,
with a distinctive green tea odor and homogeneous. All formulas met the requirements of physical properties of cream. The creams showed significant
change while they were stored at 4°C and at 40±2°C, but showed no difference when they were stored ad 26°C. SPF values of cream are 0.54; 2.03,
and 2.41, respectively.
Conclusions: It is clearly indicated that the sunscreen cream of green tea leaf extract is potential to be further developed as cosmetic preparations.
Keywords: Camellia sinensis L., Cream, Sunscreen, Antioxidant.
Sunscreen serves to protect skin from ultraviolet (UV) radiation by
absorbing or reflecting radiation so as to reduce the effects of skin
damage due to sun exposure. At present, attention to natural active
ingredients is increasing [1,2]. Green tea leaves are plants that are
popular throughout the world. Indonesia is the 7th tea producer in the
world in 2015 [3]. Usually, tea leaf is brewed to drink. In addition, the
leaves of this plant are also used for cosmetics.
Green tea leaf extract in cosmetic preparations can protect the skin
from UV damage and aging of the skin [4]. Catechin compounds
contained in green tea are polyphenol substance [5]. Polyphenols are
secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense
against UV radiation or aggression by pathogens [6]. The catechin
compounds found in green tea are 2-epicatechin (EC), EGC, (2)-EC-3-
gallate, and epigallocatechin (EGCG) [7]. EGCG is the main polyphenol
contained in green tea which has an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant
function [8]. Green tea leaves are a potential antioxidant with IC50 of
3.17µg/ml [9]. These antioxidant compounds provide absorption at
the wavelength of the UV B area (290–320 nm) so that they can be
used as active ingredients for sunscreen. Its UV protection efficacy and
potent antioxidant activity are resulting synergistic effect in photoaging
Sunscreen preparations can contain both physical photo protective
ingredients, and chemistry. Physical photoprotective materials such
as titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide works by reflecting or
scattering UV light while photoprotective chemical substances such
as p-amino benzoic acid (PABA), PABA esters, cinnamic, salicylate,
antranylate, oxybenzone, benzophenone, and phenolic compounds
work by absorbing light UV so it does not get into the skin [10]. Green
tea extract with a concentration of 18.1 mg% had an SPF value of
5.87 [11] so that it could be used as a sunscreen. A cream preparation
is an effort to increase the usage of green tea. Cream is very suitable
for skin care because it is an easy to use, soothing, moisturizing,
and easy to penetrate the skin so as to provide the desired effect
in healing. Cream of green tea leaf extract with the addition of 1%
Vitamin C has a higher antioxidant activity compared to green tea
leaf extract cream with the addition of 1% Vitamin E [12]. Another
research proved that preparations of green tea with 1–4% green tea
extract and 5% TiO2 have relatively good physical stability [13].
Dried green tea leaves are obtained from PT. Rumpun Sari Kemuning),
ethanol 96%, cetyl alcohol, paraffin oil, methylparaben, propylparaben,
stearic acid, cera alba, glycerine, tween 80, and span 80, all are
pharmaceutical grade from PT. Brataco Chemica; potassium dihydrogen
phosphate (Merck), 1,1-dipehnyl-2picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) (Sigma
Aldrich), absolute EtOH (Merck), and sodium hydroxide (Merck).
Green tea leaf extracts preparation
Extraction was done by maceration using 96% ethanol. A total of 500
g of green tea powder were extracted using 2 L 96% ethanol. It was
stirred continuously for 3 h, and then allowed to stand for 18 h. The
macerate was filtered using a Buchner funnel and then evaporated
using a vacuum rotary evaporator (IKA RV 10) and evaporated on a
waterbath (Memmert) at 60°C until thick extracts formed.
Antioxidant activity of green tea leaf extract
The measurement of antioxidant activity with DPPH radical
scavenging method is based on the ability of a sample to react with
radical DPPH on wavelength 517 nm. A total of 1.0 ml of DPPH solution
(0.5 Mm) was put into a test tube, then added with 50 µl of various
Full Proceeding Paper
© 2021 The Authors. Published by Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons. org/
licenses/by/4.0/) DOI: Journal homepage:
Received 10 January 2020, Revised and accepted 31 Febuary 2020
5th International Conference on Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science (ICPPS) 2020
Int J App Pharm, Vol 13, Special Issue 1, 2021
` Nurwaini et al.
concentration of extract and completed until 5.0 ml with ethanol. The
mixture was stirred using vortex until evenly mixed and allowed to
stand for 30 min. The extract concentration is made in such a way to
result an IC50.
Formulation of green tea leaf extracts cream
The oil phase consisting of paraffin oil, cera alba, glycerine, cetyl
alcohol, span 80, stearic acid, and propylparaben and water phase
consisted of green tea extract, methylparaben, tween 80. Each phase
was mixed separated. The oil phase and water phase are melted in a
±75°C waterbath (Memmert). The oil phase and fused water phase
are mixed in a warm mortar, constantly stirred to form a good cream
preparation. The concentration of extracts used in creams is 1%, 2%,
and 4%. The cream formula of green tea extract is listed in Table 1.
Physical evaluation and stability test of cream
In brief, the cream is tested for its physical properties which include
organoleptic, pH (pH meter Ohaus), viscosity (ViscotesterRion VT-06),
stickiness, and spreadability.
The stability parameters of each cream formula measured are odor,
color, and pH for 4 weeks with observations every 1 week. The cycling
test was carried out for six cycles by the way the sample was stored
at 4°C for 24 h and then transferred to an oven (Memmert) at 40±2°C
for 24 h, the storage time of the two temperatures was considered as
one cycle. Cream preparations were observed for phase separation and
In vitro photoprotective efficacy assessment
The sun protection factor (SPF) was assessed by dissolving 1.0 g
of cream in ethanol to 100.0 mL volumetric flask. The solution was
ultrasonicated for 5 min then it filtered with filter paper. Removed a
10 mL of the first filtrate. A 5.0 mL aliquots was transferred into a 50
mL volumetric flask and diluted with ethanol. Then 5.0 mL aliquots
were diluted again into a 25 mL volumetric flask with ethanol. The
solution was read on a UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Genesis 10S) to
determine the spectrum of sample absorption at wavelengths of
290–320 nm with ethanol as blank. Absorption values are recorded
at 5 nm intervals. SPF values are calculated using the Mansur
equation [14].
( ) ( )
λλ λ
SPF CF x EE x I x Abs
Where: EE-erythemal effect spectrum; I-solar intensity spectrum; Abs-
absorbance of sunscreen; CF-correction factor (=10).
Statistical analysis
The parameters were compared using ANOVA test with significance
level of p<0.05 using SPSS program version 21.0.
All formulas have a distinctive smell of green tea and homogeneous.
The color of the cream is determined from the concentration of green
tea extract. The higher the concentration of green tea extract the
browner the cream color. pH test showed that the cream was in the
range pH5.45–5.81 (Table 2). A good cream should have a pH range that
matches the normal skin pH range of 4.5–6.5 [15]. The results indicated
that the cream is acceptable and does not irritate the skin because they
are still in the normal pH range of the skin. If a cream is at a pH that is
too alkaline it will cause scaly skin, if the pH is too acidic it will cause
irritation to the skin [16]. Statistical test results showed the difference
between F1: F2 and F1: F3 with a p=0.00154 (<0.05), so it could be
interpreted that the increase in levels from 2% to 4% does not change
the pH. However, increasing levels from 1% to 2% or 1% to 4% could
change the pH of the cream.
Viscosity test results obtained in the cream preparation were in the range
65–95 dPas (Table 2). A good cream has a viscosity range of 2000–4000
cps, equivalent to 20–40 dPas [15]. However, if the cream has a higher
viscosity than those range, it does not become a problem as long as it is
easily removed from its container, easy to spread, and able to attach well
to the skin. A cream that has low viscosity will affect the length of time to
adhere when used [17]. The statistical tests indicated that an increase in
extract levels from 1% to 4% is not cause significant changes in viscosity.
The results of stickiness test showed creams were in the range
0.61–0.87 s (Table 2). To be able to protect the skin from UV radiation
in a relatively long-time cream preparations are expected to have
stickiness to the skin for a long time. The results of statistical tests
showed that the increase in levels of green tea extract from 1% to 2%
or from 1% to 4% caused changes in stickiness in the cream.
The results of the spreadability test of cream were in the range of
15.55–20.00 cm2 (Table 2). All formulas have a large spread. If a formula
has a large spreadability, then no large pressure is needed so that the
spread of the active ingredient in the skin is more evenly distributed
and the effect is more optimal while if the preparation has a small
spreadability then a large pressure is needed. The statistical test results
obtained showed that the increase in levels of green tea extract from
1% to 4% is not cause a change in the spreadability of cream.
During storage of all formulas did not show the presence of oil phase
separation and water phase. The creams that stored at 40±2°C tend to
turn brownish, while creams stored at 4°C tend to be brownish green
and the color of the cream stored at 26°C was not change. The higher
the concentration of green tea extracts the browner after being stored.
This is because high temperatures cause the polyphenols in the extract
more easily oxidized [13].
All formulas of the cream showed change in pH while they were stored
for 4 weeks at 4°C, 26°C, and 40±2°C (g. 1a). The pH change tends to
be more acidic. This is because green tea extract contains weak acidic
polyphenols. In addition, hydrolysis reactions between polyphenols
and glycosides occur more quickly so that the polyphenols are released
from glycosides and are in a more acidic free form [13].
Table 2: Physical properties of green tea leaf extract cream
F1 F2 F3
Color Brownish green Light brown Brown
Odor Green tea Green tea Green tea
Homogeneity Homogeneous Homogeneous Homogeneous
pH 5.81±0.01 5.45±0.01 5.45±0.01
Viskosity (dPas) 65±0.07 75±0.07 95±0.07
Stickiness (s) 0.61±1.41 0.81±2.12 0.87±1.41
20.00±0.57 15.90±1.98 15.55±2.47
Table 1: Green tea leaf extract cream formula
Phase Ingredients Formula (%)
F1 F2 F3
Water Green tea leaf extract 1 2 4
Methylparaben 0.2 0.2 0.2
Tween 80 6.9 6.9 6.9
Oil Paraffin oil 6 6 6
Cera alba 5 5 5
Glycerin 10 10 10
Cethyl alcohol 4 4 4
Span 80 1.9 1.9 1.9
Stearic Acid 3 3 3
Propylparaben 0.3 0.3 0.3
Perfume 1 1 1
Phosphate Buffer pH 7.4 until 100 100 100
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Nurwaini et al.
The viscosity of all creams was decreased when stored at 4°C, 26°C, and
at 40±2°C for 4 weeks, except for formula F1 and F2 which are stored
at 40±2°C (Fig. 1b). After 4 weeks the viscosity of F1 decreased almost
a half than before.
Stickiness of all formulas was changed when stored at 4°C, 26°C, and
40±2°C for 4 weeks except in formula F1 which was stored at 4°C and
26°C not there are changes. The stickiness of the cream decreases, due
to its alteration of viscosity. While the viscosity of the cream decreases,
the adhesive strength of the cream also decreases (Fig. 1c).
All formulas changed its spreadability when stored at 4°C and 40±2°C.
However, when it stored at 26°C all formulas did not show change in
spreadability. The change in spreadability could be affected by its viscosity.
The results of this study depicted that the viscosity undergoes a change at
a temperature of 26°C but has no effect on its dispersion (Fig. 1d).
From the results of cycling tests conducted for six cycles between 4°C
and 40±2°C, all formulas did not show a separation between the oil
phase and the water phase.
Evaluating of antioxidant activity is one of the general procedures to
establish the safety and quality of the nature product used in cosmetics.
The same natural source (plants) but from different area of cultivating
may result a different antioxidant activity [19]. Compared to previous
research, antioxidant activity of green tea leaf extracts has value that
almost same (<5 µg/ml) [9].
SPF as an indicator for efficacy of sunscreen products could be assessed
using in vivo or in vitro method. In vitro method was selected due to its
efficient, cheaper, and more ethical [20]. Furthermore, in vitro method
also more applicable in industrial practice.
Protection of skin from dangerous UV rays is important for preventing
of skin aging and photoaging. A product could be claimed has sunscreen
protection if it has SPF value from 2 to 100 values [21]. Sunscreen
products that containing antioxidant are highly recommended for
protection from skin damage [22].
The results of the SPF study showed that the cream containing of 1%
green tea extract had limited protection. The creams containing green
Fig. 1: (a-d) Stability of the green tea leaf extract cream
5th International Conference on Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science (ICPPS) 2020 32
Int J App Pharm, Vol 13, Special Issue 1, 2021
` Nurwaini et al.
tea extract 2% and 4% provide protection (2.03 and 2.41). The higher
the concentration of green tea extract the higher the SPF value (Fig. 2).
The results of the statistical test of the SPF value obtained that the
increase in levels from 1% to 2% or 1% to 4% can cause changes in
the SPF value of the cream. The structure of green tea polyphenols (i.e.,
2-EC, EGC, (2)-EC-3-gallate, and EGCG) contains a chromophore system
and an auxochrome group which is bound to the chromophore system.
The existence of this system causes green tea polyphenols has ability to
absorb UV radiation.
All formulas meet the requirements of physical test for cream
preparation. All formulas show significant changes while they were
stored at 4°C and at 40±2°C, but showed no difference when they were
stored ad 26°C. The cream that containing 2–4% green tea leaf extracts
provides protection from UV-B.
The authors would like to thank Faculty Pharmacy, Universitas
Muhammadiyah Surakarta for the financial support.
There are no conflicts of interest.
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Fig. 2: Sun protection factor value of green tea leaf extract cream
5th International Conference on Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science (ICPPS) 2020 33
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Full-text available
Senyawa yang mampu menghambat oksidasi molekul lain adalah senyawa antioksidan. Daun teh hijau dikenal sebagai tanaman yang mengandung senyawa katekin. Senyawa katekin diketahui merupakan antioksidan. Dari penelitian yang dilakukan, daun teh hijau diketahui memiliki IC50 sebesar 3,17µg/mL. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk memanfaatkan daun teh hijau sebagai zat aktif dalam sediaan krim antioksidan. Dibuat 4 Formulasi sediaan krim antioksidan yaitu F0 yang berisi basis krim tanpa ekstrak daun teh hijau dan F1, F2 serta F3 yang masing-masing berisi 0,5%; 1% dan 5%. Evaluasi sediaan meliputi pemeriksaan organoleptis, pengukuran pH, viskositas dan stabilitas antioksidan selama penyimpanan 28 hari. Hasil menunjukkan baik F0, F1, F2 maupun F3 tidak mengalami perubahan secara organoleptis, pengukuran pH dan viskositas dapat dikatakan stabil. Hasil pengukuran persen peredaman pada formulasi F0, F1,F2 dan F3 pada hari ke 28 menunjukkan nilai persen peredaman masing-masing yaitu 50,44%; 88,92%; 92,86%; 94,46%. Kata Kunci: Camellia sinensis L, Ekstrak daun Teh Hijau, krim, antioksidan.
Full-text available
Epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) in green tea extract has activity as an anti-inflammatory agent. On the other hand the stability of EGCG is poor because of the oxidation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of Vitamine C and Vitamine E in formulation of green tea extract cream to the stabiliy of EGCG. The green tea extract was obtained from the extraction process by infundation followed by fractination with ethyl acetate as the solvent. The three formulas were compiled in similar composition with the concentration of vitamine C 1% (FI), Vitamine E 1% (FII) and there was no Vitamine C and Vitamine E (FIII) as a control. The EGCG level was determinated by TLC-densitometry methode. The stability parameter was determinated by calculated of the Q 10 of each formula. The result of this study showed that the parameter of t 90 of EGCG with Vitamine C 1%, Vitamine E 1% and control addition were 0.0108 hours, 0.0087 hours, 0.0084 hours, respectively. Stability of EGCG in green tea leaf extract cream with addition of the vitamin C 1% was higher than it stability with the addition of vitamin E 1%. The concentration of Vitamin C 1% was the optimum concentration as antioxidant in formulation of green tea extract cream.
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Kurkumin merupakan hasil isolasi bahan alam yang telah diketahui manfaatnya dalam pengobatan. Pemberian dalam bentuk topikal lebih baik untuk tujuan pengobatan di kulit. Asam stearat merupakan bahan yang secara luas diketahui digunakan sebagai basis sediaan topikal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan konsentrasi asam stearat terhadap karakteristik sediaan dan pelepasan kurkumin dari krim sesaat setelah dibuat dan setelah penyimpanan 40°C selama 14 hari. Variasi konsentrasi asam stearat yang digunakan sebesar 5%, 7,5%, dan 10% terhadap bobot sediaan. Nipagin, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), dan oleum menthae telah ditambahkan untuk meningkatkan akseptabilitas krim. Karakteristik sediaan yang diuji meliputi organoleptis, pH, viskositas, dan ketersebaran. Pelepasan kurkumin diamati selama 9 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan peningkatan konsentrasi asam stearat memberikan pengaruh terhadap karakteristik sediaan dan pelepasan kurkumin dari krim.
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Passion fruit seed was refluxed in methanolic water and further liquid - liquid extracted yielding n-Hexane, Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and aqueous (Aq.) extracts. The EtOAc part was the most potent antioxidant (IC50DPPH = 2.7 ± 0.2 and IC50ABTS = 9.0 ± 0.0 µg/mL) that significantly (p < 0.05) better than Aq. extract (IC50DPPH = 177.8 ± 1.3 and IC50ABTS = 15.4 ± 0.0 µg/mL). The antioxidant EtOAc exhibited ferric reducing powder (EC1mM FeSO4 = 2,813.9 ± 11.6) and tyrosinase inhibitory effect (39.9 ± 0.0 % at 1 mg/mL). The more potent active extract had significant higher total phenolic content than the Aq. one (p < 0.05). Sun protection factor of the EtOAc extract was comparable to ferulic acid. Chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid and quercetin were highly found in EtOAc extract, whereas kojic acid and gallic acid were largely determined in the Aq. part. The most potent biologically active fraction was non cytotoxic in vero cells at the highest test concentration (50 µg/mL). A process to minimize the waste from the fruit juice production is offered. Passion fruit value and profitability in agribusinesses will be increased by the biochemical transformation of the seed into active extracts appraisal for natural cosmetic as a multifunction ingredient.
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To determine the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol component of green tea, in human corneal epithelial cells (HCEpiC). HCEpiC were challenged with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) for 18 h or hyperosmolarity (440 mOsm) for 24 h. Luminex technology was used to determine the effects of EGCG (0.3-30 µM) on IL-1β- or hyperosmolar-induced cytokine release into the medium. Cell metabolic activity was measured using the alamarBlue assay. Effects of EGCG on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation were determined by cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting. Effects of EGCG on nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional activity were assessed by reporter gene assay. The effects of EGCG on glucose oxidase (GO)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was determined using the ROS probe CM-H₂DCFDA. Treatment of HCEpiC with 1 ng/ml IL-1β for 18 h significantly increased release of the cytokines/chemokines granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), while hyperosmolarity-induced release of IL-6 and MCP-1. When cells were treated with IL-1β and EGCG or hyperosmolarity and EGCG there was a dose-dependent reduction in release of these cytokines/chemokines, with significant inhibition observed at 3-30 µM. There was no effect of EGCG on cell metabolic activity at any of the doses tested (0.3-30 µM). EGCG significantly inhibited phosphorylation of the MAPKs p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and NFκB and AP-1 transcriptional activities. There was a significant dose-dependent decrease in GO-induced ROS levels after treatment of HCEpiC with EGCG. EGCG acts as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent in HCEpiC and therefore may have therapeutic potential for ocular inflammatory conditions such as dry eye.
The fruits of Spondias purpurea are found in many parts of the world, where it is an important natural source of phenolic compounds such as tannins, phenolic acids and flavonoids. This study targets the photoprotective capacity of the S. purpurea L. peel crude extract (SPPE) against in vitro UVA and UVB rays and its incorporation in a sunscreen formulation as an active principle. The phenolic and flavonoid contents, scavenger radical activity (DPPH), antimicrobial activity and chemical analysis were also evaluated. The SPPE was shown to be effective against UVB (sun protection factor 43.78 ± 0.19 in dilution of 50 mg/mL) and UVA (protection comparable to the rutin and benzophenone-3, used as patterns). The phenolic and flavonoid contents were 28.68 ± 0.046 mg GAE/g and 2.64 ± 0.005 mg EQ/g extract, respectively. The antioxidant activity showed inhibition percentage equal to 74.41, with EC50 27.11 μg/mL. The high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn) analysis allowed the characterization of the compounds dicaffeoyl-glucose, HHDP-galloyl-glucose, galloyl-bis-HHDP-glucose, rutin and quercetin. The formulation containing 30% of extract showed excellent activity against UVA rays, with a protection percentage of 46.16 and UVB protection with SPF 43.01 ± 0.81 for dilution of 50 mg/mL.
A considerable problem associated with the manufacture of topically applied pharmaceutical products is the establishment of reliable techniques for their characterization. The efficacy of a topical therapy depends on the patient spreading the drug formulation in an even layer to administer a standard dose. Spreadability is therefore an important characteristic of these formulations and is responsible for correct dosage transfer to the target site, ease of application on the substrate, extrudability from the package, and most important, consumer preference. This article discusses the various aspects of spreading, including the factors affecting it, the techniques available for its assessment, and various additives and interactions that can alter the spreadability of the final formulation.
Up to date, no worldwide standard in vitro method has been established for the determination of the sun protection factor (SPF), since there are many problems in terms of its repeatability and reliability. Here, we have studied the problems on the in vitro SPF measurements brought about by the phenomenon called viscous fingering. A spatially periodic stripe pattern is usually formed spontaneously when a viscous fluid is applied onto a solid substrate. For the in vitro SPF measurements, the recommended amount of sunscreen is applied onto a substrate, and the intensity of the transmitted UV light through the sunscreen layer is evaluated. Our theoretical analysis indicated that the nonuniformity of the thickness of the sunscreen layer varied the net UV absorbance. Pseudo-sunscreen composites having no phase separation structures were prepared and applied on a quartz plate for the measurements of the UV absorbance. Two types of applicators, a block applicator and a 4-sided applicator were used. The flat surface was always obtained when the 4-sided applicator was used, while the spatially periodic stripe pattern was always generated spontaneously when the block applicator was used. The net UV absorbance of the layer on which the stripe pattern was formed was found to be lower than that of the flat layer having the same average thickness. Theoretical simulations quantitatively reproduced the variation of the net UV absorbance led by the change of the geometry of the layer. The results of this study propose the definite necessity of strict regulations on the coating method of sunscreens for the establishment of the in vitro SPF test method. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
The key issue of the safety assessment of botanical ingredients in personal care products (PCP) is the phytochemical characterisation of the plant source, data on contamination, adulteration and hazardous residues. The comparative approach used in the safety assessment of GM-plants may be applied to novel botanical PCP ingredients. Comparator(s) are the parent plant or varieties of the same species. Chemical grouping includes definition of chemical groups suitable for a read-across approach; it allows the estimation of toxicological endpoints on the basis of data from related substances (congeneric groups) with physical/chemical properties producing similar toxicities. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) and Dermal Sensitisation Threshold (DST) are tools for the assessment of trace substances or minor ingredients. The evaluation of skin penetration of substances present in human food is unnecessary, whereas mixtures may be assessed on the basis of physical/chemical properties of individual substances. Adverse dermal effects of botanicals include irritation, sensitisation, phototoxicity and immediate-type allergy. The experience from dietary supplements or herbal medicines showed that being natural is not equivalent to being safe. Pragmatic approaches for quality and safety standards of botanical ingredients are needed; consumer safety should be the first objective of conventional and botanical PCP ingredients.