International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics
ISSN - 0975 - 7058 Vol 13, Special Issue 1, 2021
DEVELOPMENT OF SUNSCREEN PRODUCTS CONTAINING GREEN TEA LEAF EXTRACT
SETYO NURWAINI1*, LITA ALIANTI1, DHIAH AYU PERMATA SARI1, WAHYU UTAMI2
1Laboratorium of Pharmaceutical, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, 57169, Indonesia. 2Laboratorium of
Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, 57169, Indonesia. *Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine antioxidant activity of green tea leaf extract, the value of sun protection factor (SPF),
physical properties, and stability of green tea cream.
Methods: Green tea leaf extract was obtained by maceration using 96% ethanol. Cream was prepared in three formulas with various concentration
of the green tea leaves extract. The physical evaluations included organoleptic, pH, viscosity, adhesion, spreadability, and stability tests were
done. The determination of the SPF value is calculated using the Mansur equation. Extract of green tea leaf has strong antioxidant activity
(IC50 2.19 µg/ml).
Results: The green tea leaf extract showed high antioxidant activity (2.19 µg/m). All formulas are organoleptically creamy brownish-green to brown,
with a distinctive green tea odor and homogeneous. All formulas met the requirements of physical properties of cream. The creams showed significant
change while they were stored at 4°C and at 40±2°C, but showed no difference when they were stored ad 26°C. SPF values of cream are 0.54; 2.03,
and 2.41, respectively.
Conclusions: It is clearly indicated that the sunscreen cream of green tea leaf extract is potential to be further developed as cosmetic preparations.
Keywords: Camellia sinensis L., Cream, Sunscreen, Antioxidant.
Sunscreen serves to protect skin from ultraviolet (UV) radiation by
absorbing or reflecting radiation so as to reduce the effects of skin
damage due to sun exposure. At present, attention to natural active
ingredients is increasing [1,2]. Green tea leaves are plants that are
popular throughout the world. Indonesia is the 7th tea producer in the
world in 2015 . Usually, tea leaf is brewed to drink. In addition, the
leaves of this plant are also used for cosmetics.
Green tea leaf extract in cosmetic preparations can protect the skin
from UV damage and aging of the skin . Catechin compounds
contained in green tea are polyphenol substance . Polyphenols are
secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense
against UV radiation or aggression by pathogens . The catechin
compounds found in green tea are 2-epicatechin (EC), EGC, (2)-EC-3-
gallate, and epigallocatechin (EGCG) . EGCG is the main polyphenol
contained in green tea which has an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant
function . Green tea leaves are a potential antioxidant with IC50 of
3.17µg/ml . These antioxidant compounds provide absorption at
the wavelength of the UV B area (290–320 nm) so that they can be
used as active ingredients for sunscreen. Its UV protection efficacy and
potent antioxidant activity are resulting synergistic effect in photoaging
Sunscreen preparations can contain both physical photo protective
ingredients, and chemistry. Physical photoprotective materials such
as titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide works by reflecting or
scattering UV light while photoprotective chemical substances such
as p-amino benzoic acid (PABA), PABA esters, cinnamic, salicylate,
antranylate, oxybenzone, benzophenone, and phenolic compounds
work by absorbing light UV so it does not get into the skin . Green
tea extract with a concentration of 18.1 mg% had an SPF value of
5.87  so that it could be used as a sunscreen. A cream preparation
is an effort to increase the usage of green tea. Cream is very suitable
for skin care because it is an easy to use, soothing, moisturizing,
and easy to penetrate the skin so as to provide the desired effect
in healing. Cream of green tea leaf extract with the addition of 1%
Vitamin C has a higher antioxidant activity compared to green tea
leaf extract cream with the addition of 1% Vitamin E . Another
research proved that preparations of green tea with 1–4% green tea
extract and 5% TiO2 have relatively good physical stability .
Dried green tea leaves are obtained from PT. Rumpun Sari Kemuning),
ethanol 96%, cetyl alcohol, paraffin oil, methylparaben, propylparaben,
stearic acid, cera alba, glycerine, tween 80, and span 80, all are
pharmaceutical grade from PT. Brataco Chemica; potassium dihydrogen
phosphate (Merck), 1,1-dipehnyl-2picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) (Sigma
Aldrich), absolute EtOH (Merck), and sodium hydroxide (Merck).
Green tea leaf extracts preparation
Extraction was done by maceration using 96% ethanol. A total of 500
g of green tea powder were extracted using 2 L 96% ethanol. It was
stirred continuously for 3 h, and then allowed to stand for 18 h. The
macerate was filtered using a Buchner funnel and then evaporated
using a vacuum rotary evaporator (IKA RV 10) and evaporated on a
waterbath (Memmert) at 60°C until thick extracts formed.
Antioxidant activity of green tea leaf extract
The measurement of antioxidant activity with DPPH radical
scavenging method is based on the ability of a sample to react with
radical DPPH on wavelength 517 nm. A total of 1.0 ml of DPPH solution
(0.5 Mm) was put into a test tube, then added with 50 µl of various
Full Proceeding Paper
© 2021 The Authors. Published by Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons. org/
licenses/by/4.0/) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2021.v13s1.Y0085. Journal homepage: https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijap
Received 10 January 2020, Revised and accepted 31 Febuary 2020
5th International Conference on Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science (ICPPS) 2020
Int J App Pharm, Vol 13, Special Issue 1, 2021
` Nurwaini et al.
concentration of extract and completed until 5.0 ml with ethanol. The
mixture was stirred using vortex until evenly mixed and allowed to
stand for 30 min. The extract concentration is made in such a way to
result an IC50.
Formulation of green tea leaf extracts cream
The oil phase consisting of paraffin oil, cera alba, glycerine, cetyl
alcohol, span 80, stearic acid, and propylparaben and water phase
consisted of green tea extract, methylparaben, tween 80. Each phase
was mixed separated. The oil phase and water phase are melted in a
±75°C waterbath (Memmert). The oil phase and fused water phase
are mixed in a warm mortar, constantly stirred to form a good cream
preparation. The concentration of extracts used in creams is 1%, 2%,
and 4%. The cream formula of green tea extract is listed in Table 1.
Physical evaluation and stability test of cream
In brief, the cream is tested for its physical properties which include
organoleptic, pH (pH meter Ohaus), viscosity (ViscotesterRion VT-06),
stickiness, and spreadability.
The stability parameters of each cream formula measured are odor,
color, and pH for 4 weeks with observations every 1 week. The cycling
test was carried out for six cycles by the way the sample was stored
at 4°C for 24 h and then transferred to an oven (Memmert) at 40±2°C
for 24 h, the storage time of the two temperatures was considered as
one cycle. Cream preparations were observed for phase separation and
In vitro photoprotective efficacy assessment
The sun protection factor (SPF) was assessed by dissolving 1.0 g
of cream in ethanol to 100.0 mL volumetric flask. The solution was
ultrasonicated for 5 min then it filtered with filter paper. Removed a
10 mL of the first filtrate. A 5.0 mL aliquots was transferred into a 50
mL volumetric flask and diluted with ethanol. Then 5.0 mL aliquots
were diluted again into a 25 mL volumetric flask with ethanol. The
solution was read on a UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Genesis 10S) to
determine the spectrum of sample absorption at wavelengths of
290–320 nm with ethanol as blank. Absorption values are recorded
at 5 nm intervals. SPF values are calculated using the Mansur
( ) ( )
SPF CF x EE x I x Abs
Where: EE-erythemal effect spectrum; I-solar intensity spectrum; Abs-
absorbance of sunscreen; CF-correction factor (=10).
The parameters were compared using ANOVA test with significance
level of p<0.05 using SPSS program version 21.0.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
All formulas have a distinctive smell of green tea and homogeneous.
The color of the cream is determined from the concentration of green
tea extract. The higher the concentration of green tea extract the
browner the cream color. pH test showed that the cream was in the
range pH5.45–5.81 (Table 2). A good cream should have a pH range that
matches the normal skin pH range of 4.5–6.5 . The results indicated
that the cream is acceptable and does not irritate the skin because they
are still in the normal pH range of the skin. If a cream is at a pH that is
too alkaline it will cause scaly skin, if the pH is too acidic it will cause
irritation to the skin . Statistical test results showed the difference
between F1: F2 and F1: F3 with a p=0.00154 (<0.05), so it could be
interpreted that the increase in levels from 2% to 4% does not change
the pH. However, increasing levels from 1% to 2% or 1% to 4% could
change the pH of the cream.
Viscosity test results obtained in the cream preparation were in the range
65–95 dPas (Table 2). A good cream has a viscosity range of 2000–4000
cps, equivalent to 20–40 dPas . However, if the cream has a higher
viscosity than those range, it does not become a problem as long as it is
easily removed from its container, easy to spread, and able to attach well
to the skin. A cream that has low viscosity will affect the length of time to
adhere when used . The statistical tests indicated that an increase in
extract levels from 1% to 4% is not cause significant changes in viscosity.
The results of stickiness test showed creams were in the range
0.61–0.87 s (Table 2). To be able to protect the skin from UV radiation
in a relatively long-time cream preparations are expected to have
stickiness to the skin for a long time. The results of statistical tests
showed that the increase in levels of green tea extract from 1% to 2%
or from 1% to 4% caused changes in stickiness in the cream.
The results of the spreadability test of cream were in the range of
15.55–20.00 cm2 (Table 2). All formulas have a large spread. If a formula
has a large spreadability, then no large pressure is needed so that the
spread of the active ingredient in the skin is more evenly distributed
and the effect is more optimal while if the preparation has a small
spreadability then a large pressure is needed. The statistical test results
obtained showed that the increase in levels of green tea extract from
1% to 4% is not cause a change in the spreadability of cream.
During storage of all formulas did not show the presence of oil phase
separation and water phase. The creams that stored at 40±2°C tend to
turn brownish, while creams stored at 4°C tend to be brownish green
and the color of the cream stored at 26°C was not change. The higher
the concentration of green tea extracts the browner after being stored.
This is because high temperatures cause the polyphenols in the extract
more easily oxidized .
All formulas of the cream showed change in pH while they were stored
for 4 weeks at 4°C, 26°C, and 40±2°C (g. 1a). The pH change tends to
be more acidic. This is because green tea extract contains weak acidic
polyphenols. In addition, hydrolysis reactions between polyphenols
and glycosides occur more quickly so that the polyphenols are released
from glycosides and are in a more acidic free form .
Table 2: Physical properties of green tea leaf extract cream
F1 F2 F3
Color Brownish green Light brown Brown
Odor Green tea Green tea Green tea
Homogeneity Homogeneous Homogeneous Homogeneous
pH 5.81±0.01 5.45±0.01 5.45±0.01
Viskosity (dPas) 65±0.07 75±0.07 95±0.07
Stickiness (s) 0.61±1.41 0.81±2.12 0.87±1.41
20.00±0.57 15.90±1.98 15.55±2.47
Table 1: Green tea leaf extract cream formula
Phase Ingredients Formula (%)
F1 F2 F3
Water Green tea leaf extract 1 2 4
Methylparaben 0.2 0.2 0.2
Tween 80 6.9 6.9 6.9
Oil Paraffin oil 6 6 6
Cera alba 5 5 5
Glycerin 10 10 10
Cethyl alcohol 4 4 4
Span 80 1.9 1.9 1.9
Stearic Acid 3 3 3
Propylparaben 0.3 0.3 0.3
Perfume 1 1 1
Phosphate Buffer pH 7.4 until 100 100 100
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Nurwaini et al.
The viscosity of all creams was decreased when stored at 4°C, 26°C, and
at 40±2°C for 4 weeks, except for formula F1 and F2 which are stored
at 40±2°C (Fig. 1b). After 4 weeks the viscosity of F1 decreased almost
a half than before.
Stickiness of all formulas was changed when stored at 4°C, 26°C, and
40±2°C for 4 weeks except in formula F1 which was stored at 4°C and
26°C not there are changes. The stickiness of the cream decreases, due
to its alteration of viscosity. While the viscosity of the cream decreases,
the adhesive strength of the cream also decreases (Fig. 1c).
All formulas changed its spreadability when stored at 4°C and 40±2°C.
However, when it stored at 26°C all formulas did not show change in
spreadability. The change in spreadability could be affected by its viscosity.
The results of this study depicted that the viscosity undergoes a change at
a temperature of 26°C but has no effect on its dispersion (Fig. 1d).
From the results of cycling tests conducted for six cycles between 4°C
and 40±2°C, all formulas did not show a separation between the oil
phase and the water phase.
Evaluating of antioxidant activity is one of the general procedures to
establish the safety and quality of the nature product used in cosmetics.
The same natural source (plants) but from different area of cultivating
may result a different antioxidant activity . Compared to previous
research, antioxidant activity of green tea leaf extracts has value that
almost same (<5 µg/ml) .
SPF as an indicator for efficacy of sunscreen products could be assessed
using in vivo or in vitro method. In vitro method was selected due to its
efficient, cheaper, and more ethical . Furthermore, in vitro method
also more applicable in industrial practice.
Protection of skin from dangerous UV rays is important for preventing
of skin aging and photoaging. A product could be claimed has sunscreen
protection if it has SPF value from 2 to 100 values . Sunscreen
products that containing antioxidant are highly recommended for
protection from skin damage .
The results of the SPF study showed that the cream containing of 1%
green tea extract had limited protection. The creams containing green
Fig. 1: (a-d) Stability of the green tea leaf extract cream
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tea extract 2% and 4% provide protection (2.03 and 2.41). The higher
the concentration of green tea extract the higher the SPF value (Fig. 2).
The results of the statistical test of the SPF value obtained that the
increase in levels from 1% to 2% or 1% to 4% can cause changes in
the SPF value of the cream. The structure of green tea polyphenols (i.e.,
2-EC, EGC, (2)-EC-3-gallate, and EGCG) contains a chromophore system
and an auxochrome group which is bound to the chromophore system.
The existence of this system causes green tea polyphenols has ability to
absorb UV radiation.
All formulas meet the requirements of physical test for cream
preparation. All formulas show significant changes while they were
stored at 4°C and at 40±2°C, but showed no difference when they were
stored ad 26°C. The cream that containing 2–4% green tea leaf extracts
provides protection from UV-B.
The authors would like to thank Faculty Pharmacy, Universitas
Muhammadiyah Surakarta for the financial support.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
There are no conflicts of interest.
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Fig. 2: Sun protection factor value of green tea leaf extract cream
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