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Impact evaluation of urban sprawl on inland surface waters of Srinagar city in Kashmir valley


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The present paper investigates the reviewed patterns of urban sprawl on inland surface waters of Srinagar city, which lies in fragile knoll ecosystem of Kashmir valley of Jammu and Kashmir Himalaya. The domino effect points towards unexpected and hit and miss inner-city development and transformation. These transformations have sternly shattered the water bodies both in provisions of area as well as its water quality. The quality of these saintly surface water sources is declining at an alarming rate. The present write up reveals that the scenic beauty of different water bodies such as Dal Lake, Lake Anchar, and river Jhelum which lie in the core area of the Srinagar city are economically degraded and under enormous pollution load. Having ravaged the water bodies, people have happened to be vulnerable to aggravated natural disasters like flooding and water logging in the city. The region experienced a severe flood during September 2014, the most terrible in Kashmir in six decades, which flooded Srinagar city and at slightest 50 villages and killed almost 200 people, and distressed 2 million people across the region. Therefore, it becomes a vital responsibility of the government as well as the local dwelling people or public to preserve the "Paradise on Earth" for coming generations by reducing extra pressure of pollution. Thus, precise management of the main water bodies of Srinagar city is the need of the hour to preserve ecological balance to sustain the Srinagar city.
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Impact evaluation of urban sprawl on inland surface
waters of Srinagar city in Kashmir valley
Received: 17 May 2020; Accepted: 30 August 2020
The present paper investigates the reviewed patterns of urban sprawl on inland surface waters of Srinagar
city, which lies in fragile knoll eco-system of Kashmir valley of Jammu and Kashmir Himalaya. The
domino effect points towards unexpected and hit and miss inner-city development and transformation.
These transformations have sternly shattered the water bodies both in provisions of area as well as its
water quality. The quality of these saintly surface water sources is declining at an alarming rate. The
present write up reveals that the scenic beauty of different water bodies such as Dal Lake, Lake Anchar,
and river Jhelum which lie in the core area of the Srinagar city are economically degraded and under
enormous pollution load. Having ravaged the water bodies, people have happened to be vulnerable to
aggravated natural disasters like flooding and water logging in the city. The region experienced a severe
flood during September 2014, the most terrible in Kashmir in six decades, which flooded Srinagar city
and at slightest 50 villages and killed almost 200 people, and distressed 2 million people across the
region. Therefore, it becomes a vital responsibility of the government as well as the local dwelling people
or public to preserve the “Paradise on Earth” for coming generations by reducing extra pressure of
pollution. Thus, precise management of the main water bodies of Srinagar city is the need of the hour to
preserve ecological balance to sustain the Srinagar city.
Key words: Urban sprawl, Urbanization, Inland surface water, Srinagar, Kashmir Himalaya
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 19(4): 382-387, October-December 2020
ISSN: 022-457X (Print); 2455-7145 (Online); DOI: 10.5958/2455-7145.2020.00051.X
1Associate Dean, 2Research Scholar, College of Agricultural Engineering & Technology, SKUAST-Kashmir, Srinagar-190025,
Jammu & Kashmir
3School of Agriculture, IGNOU, Maidan Garhi, New Delhi
*Corresponding author Email id:
Individual actions (change in life style,
urbanization, tourism, agricultural modernization
and land system changes) as well as natural factors
(geology, climate, weathering and soil erosion) have
led to significant decline of inland surface waters,
not only lessening their usage for drinking (Badar
et al., 2013) and irrigation purposes but also taking
a gloomy toll on human health and the
environment. The coverage of extent of the
individual actions on the surface waters has
expedited dramatically during the bygone decades
(Froehner et al., 2010). Spatio-temporal variations
in precipitation, surface runoff, and base flow
fiercely have some bearing on river discharge which
affects the concentration of pollutants in various
water bodies (Zhang et al., 2012).
The Kashmir Valley known for good number
of water bodies has good quality water especially
for human consumption which is the bedrock of
equally its ecology and its economy. Regrettably in
the past few centuries, change in lifestyle and vast
urbanization around these water bodies has led to
pollution, siltation owed to deforestation, and over
exploitation of the numerous streams and lakes
which has resulted in vast pressure on water
resources as reported by Gupta (2016). Scores of
water bodies have shrunk to a small percentage of
their original size. The most important changes
have been seen in Srinagar city, in which half of the
water bodies in and around Srinagar have vanished
over the last century under the high demands of
water, and waywardly managed important
resources due to urbanization and modernization.
Srinagar city, the summer capital of Jammu &
Kashmir Union Territory lies between 34°0´N to
34°15´N latitude and 74°45´E to 75°0´E longitude
at an elevation of 1500 m above mean sea level. The
city has a strong natural heritage of magnificent
lakes and scenic wetlands lying along the
floodplains of river Jhelum. However, over the last
few decades, the enduring water quality (Kumar et
al., 2012; Rashid et al., 2017) and land system
changes (Rashid and Aneaus, 2019) as well as
encroachment of otherwise notified wetland areas
and depleting cascade flows (Mitsch and Gosselink,
2007; Romshoo et al., 2015) have impacted their
Srinagar city has recorded a major spread in
built up area and this is primarily due to population
expansion, lifestyle change which have led to
infrastructure development in consequential and
tertiary occupation structure. However, this built
up extension was chaotic and with an improper
planning. The loss of water assortments of Srinagar
city is credited to overwhelming populace
pressures. The loss of these water assortments of
Srinagar has in fact a bearing on the microclimate
of the city as meteorological information of the city
recording during the last century mentioning a
rising temperature pattern in the mean most
extreme temperatures during the summers. It is
recommended that the ascent in mean yearly
temperature in the territory is because of loss of
water bodies. Additionally, the expansion in
developed land prompts increment in the
temperature during summers because of the effect
of urban heat islands. Another effect of the loss of
water bodies comes in the issues relating to
drainage. Srinagar city is confronting an intense
issue of drainage since these wetlands and lakes
acted as sponges during flood (Rashid and Naseem,
2008). Thus, in the present paper the impact of
urban sprawl and spontaneous urbanization on the
inland surface waters of Srinagar municipality is
reviewed. The paper concludes with suggestions
for upcoming exploration in this circumstance and
provides an example of how a choice of methods
can be employed for preserving these water bodies
from imminent degradation and to look after and
preserve, once the “Paradise on Earth” for
upcoming generations.
Inland surface waters of Srinagar City
The Srinagar city has around exceptionally
celebrated water bodies, which are not merely
tourist attractions but, in several behavior, operate
as support to the city. The chief focus of the present
paper is to look into the impact of land
transformation on water bodies, which is ecological
critical land cover class of the Srinagar city. The
water bodies of the city are characterized by
shallow banks, termed as boggy land, locally
acknowledged as dal-dal. The water bodies (Fig.1)
incorporate river Jhelum, Dal Lake, Anchar Lake,
Brari Nambal, Gilsar and Khushalsar (Fazal and
Amin, 2011).
River Jhelum drains the intact of the city and at
the same time flowing slantways in South East to
North West direction. It is stretched over 454
hectares of the city. Dal Lake is a built-up lake,
situated between 34°5´-34°6´ N latitude and 74°8´
-74°9´ E longitude at a height of about 1,584 m above
mean sea level. The lake has been created because
of riverine activity of river Jhelum (Rather, 2012)
and is fed by Dagwan stream (Sabha et al., 2019).
Fig. 1. Location of inland surface waters in Srinagar city (Dar et al., 2020)
384 KUMAR et al. [Journal of Soil & Water Conservation 19(4)
Transformation of inland surface waters in Srinagar city
The Srinagar city at present has a sum of 1895
hectares of land dwelling under water bodies and
a further 468 hectares of soggy domain (the shallow
banks). All of these have recorded decreases in their
coverage area. Water bodies have inflicted with
degradation in both the area as well as in the trait
of water, where boggy areas have been converted
into built-up realm or hovering vegetable gardens/
floating gardens. The total area under water bodies
was 2,145.5 hectares in 1971, which decreased to
1895 hectares in the year 2008 i.e., decreased by
250.5 hectares, losing its area to crop growing (148
hectares), soggy (92 hectares) and others (3
hectares). Whereas, water bodies gained area from
marsh (35 hectares). Similarly, boggy area has
decreased from 1667 hectares to 468.5 hectares, a
decline of 1198.5 hectares; including cultivation
(1081.5 hectares), plantation/orchards (108
hectares), housing (77 hectares), others (49 hectares)
and water body (35 hectares) (Fazal and Amin,
Urban land transformation and its impact
The landscapes and water bodies of Srinagar
city are crucial as they not only act as tourist
attractions but are also enfolded with city’s
economic, collective and cultural existence. These
water bodies are also pivotal for ecological poise
of the city. The present reading reveals that the
growth of Srinagar city and land transformation
therein has rigorously exaggerated the aerial extent
of water bodies as well as the trait of water. Table 1
gives an idea of transformation of water bodies in
Srinagar. The noticeable impacts and their
repercussions are as follows:
Table 1. Causes and consequences of transformation of water bodies and marshy areas in Srinagar
Nature and location of transformation Area Main activities Impacts
Water body to Agriculture
West of Dal Lake: Adjoining to 148 Illegal encroachments of the Shrinking of the Lake,
Hazratbal (25 ha) lake area and practices of Sedimentation and
Rainawari (40 ha) agricultural activities especially, pollution.
Lokut Dal (83 ha) floating gardens producing
lots of vegetables.
Water body to Marshy
East of Dal Lake (58 ha) 92 Effluents from houses, hotels, Conversion of Water
Gagribal (17 ha) restaurants and especially of the body to Marsh.
Lokut Dal adjacent to Gagribal (10 ha) house boats lead to over growth
Brarinambal (7 ha) of dense weeds.
Water body to plantation
West of Nageen Lake 7 Tourist related activities Shrinking along the
western side of the lake
Marshy to Agriculture
Both in Lokut and Bud Dal basins 1081.5 Marshy lands are filled to Complete conversion of
in West of Dal Lake (621 ha) convert them into floating Marshy areas to
Dal Lake adjoining to Jogi lankar gardens to produce mainly Agriculture, leading to
(15 ha) and Rainawari (12 ha) vegetables. water logging and
Rakh-i-Gandakshah- Bemina (198 ha) flooding.
Khumani Chowk (243.5 ha)
Marshy to Plantation/Orchard
Southern Khuhalsar (33.5 ha) 108 Urban forestry Significant area under
In Rakh-i-Gandakshah (34 ha) marsh got shrunk
Lokut Dal (24.5 ha) leading to water logging
Brarinambal (16 ha) and flooding.
Marshy to others
Rakh-i-Gandakshah (29 ha) 49 Conversion into built-up land Complete
Some patches in the west of Dal lake transformation of
at Hazratbal (20 ha) marshy area leading to
extinction of this marsh
(Fazal and Amin, 2011)
River Jhelum
Augmentation of the human population, the
horizontal development of settlements,
encroachments of the watercourses and floodplains,
the redemption of low-lying floodplains of Jhelum
for farming (Rather et al., 2016) have aggravated
the flood lay bare in the Jhelum basin in Srinagar.
With the residential and bungled urbanization of
Jhelum lending impetus, the 2014 flooding attained
catastrophic dimensions. The man-made barriers
are responsible for the high levels of flood waters
in round about areas of floodplains remarkably
around the Srinagar city (Fig. 2). The presence of
the prominent real barriers in the center of the
floodplain controlled the smear of the floodwaters
in areas of the floodplain, by this means growing
the flood water levels in Srinagar municipality
(Romshoo et al., 2018).
Dal Lake
During 1200 A.D., the boundary of Dal Lake
was about 75 or 76 km2 (Wani et al., 2013). The lake
roofed a region of 32 km2 in 1859 and has shrunk
to 24 km2 (including the lake interiors) (Gupta,
2016) predominantly suitable to the increase of
reimbursement areas and proliferation of
settlements (Rashid et al., 2017). The lake supported
the growth of river macrophytes like Eurayle ferox
and Chara sp. but then they were almost pushed to
extinction due to pollution and eutrophication of
the lake. The boatmen (locally called as Ha’enz) are
the foremost culprits in charge for altering the
ecosystem shield of the lake (Fazal and Amin, 2012),
there are guiding principle failures that have led to
the catastrophic degradation of the lake. The land
use and land cover pattern of the lake are presently
self-possessed of open water (10.5 km2), river plants
(8.64 km2), perched gardens (2.89 km2), and
settlements (2.02 km2) (Rashid et al., 2017). During
the past 50 years, the quick rise in houseboats,
inhabitant’s pressure, encroachment, urbanization,
pollution, and sewage has resulted in the decline
of the quality of the lake water (Amin et al.,2014).
About 1200 houseboats (Bhat et al., 2015) present
in the lake are a key foundation of raw sewage and
pollution to the lake (Tanveer et al., 2017). The water
tests or analysis have found high ranking level of
pH value, turbidity, BOD and COD in the waters
of Dal Lake which are presented in Table 2.
Anchar Lake
The present area of the lake is 4.26 km2 (Fazili
et al.,2017). The water supply of Anchar Lake is
maintained by Sindh, a side stream of Jhelum and
Achan Nallah in addition to springs down the
vicinity of the lake. The lake has a substantial
catchment part that constitutes a concoction of
residential, forest, agricultural and horticultural
area (Bhat et al., 2013). The past few decades have
resulted in the degradation of the water quality
feature of the lake (Farooq et al., 2018). The highest
causes of catastrophic degradation of Anchar Lake
are anthropogenic activities, encroachments,
sewage, and dumping of domestic wastes plus
polythene, clothes, plastic bottles, and effluents
from hospitals and wastewater treatment plants
(Bhat et al., 2013; Fazili et al., 2017).
Fig. 2. Breached Jhelum embankments in and around Srinagar city (Romshoo et al., 2018)
386 KUMAR et al. [Journal of Soil & Water Conservation 19(4)
Table 2. Water quality results of Dal Lake
Parameter Value
pH 7.49±0.17
Turbidity 16.87±11.03 N.T.U
BOD 190.80±10.68 mg/l
COD 287.83±11.79 mg/l
(Dar et al., 2017)
Growth of weeds in water bodies
The land transformations and activities in and
around the water bodies has resulted in hasty
bushes of weeds in the all the water bodies of
Srinagar city, particularly the current full-grown up
weed Azolla pinnata. This has converted the water
into dense boggy land because of assorted nitrogen
and phosphorous effluents dumped by houses,
hotels, restaurants and the house boats, which act
as the manure to these weeds (Fazal and Amin,
Local climatic change
Number of research studies reported that there
is a rising trend in the maximum temperatures of
Srinagar city. The foremost incentive attributed to
this microclimatic deviation is land transformation
and attenuation of water bodies in the city. Studies
insinuate that mean most temperatures during
summers show a rising trend (Rashid and Naseem,
2008). An examination of regular high temperature
figures in the month of July exhibit to have
increased by about 4 degree Celsius.
Occurrence of floods and water logging
The dwindling and also the squeezing of water
bodies and marshland in Srinagar city has resulted
in higher and amplified incidence of floods and
water logging specifically in and after showery
season. The chief reason logically is the land
transformation, since, these boggy areas and water
bodies used to act as the sponge and undertake in
water, preventing it to spill in low-lying areas of
the city. If the present trend of urban sprawl
continues, there will be further loss of water bodies
and wetlands and thus the flood peril could be a
regular attribute (Fazal and Amin, 2011).
The present investigation evidently points out
towards the truth that city development has
devoured a large section of the water bodies and
the boggy areas of Srinagar city and the means is
still continuing. The quality of water is too fading
at a frightening rate. It is an urgent obligation to
defend and preserve these water bodies, once the
“Paradise on Earth” for coming generations. Thus,
accurate management is the need of the hour for
cooperation maintaining ecological poise as
satisfactorily as sustainability of Srinagar city. The
surface waters of Srinagar city are degrading at an
alarming rate generally straight to anthropogenic
pressures and climate change. The main threats to
surface waters in the city include pollution,
siltation, encroachments, urbanization, change in
lifestyle and establishment of hovering gardens.
The paper suggests some critical measures for the
sustainable management of water bodies in
Srinagar city:
i) The prime remedy lies in limiting any
expansion in the settlements in and around
these water bodies and boggy lands. The union
territory’s tribunal in 2003 in this context has
already prohibited all kinds of constructional
projects within 200 meters from the periphery
of Dal Lake that need to be properly
implemented with immediate effect.
ii) The already advanced inhabitants in and
around the lake region must be relocated and
renewed outside the Dal Lake periphery. In this
context, the Jammu and Kashmir Lakes and
Water Ways Development Authority has
already started relocating the local inhabitants
and has made separate colonies for the
rehabilitation of the same. This need to be
completed at a fast rate.
iii) Further, Srinagar city has failed in operating the
sewage treatment plants and as a result all the
untreated sewage is directly disposed of in one
or the other water bodies. This has led to serious
and catastrophic degradation of water quality
and at the same time has affected the aquatic
life too. Thus, there is an urgent need to
immediately wake up to stop this disastrous
activity to protect these important natural
surface waters before it’s too late.
iv) Srinagar city requires a proper site plan of the
settlements in and around the water bodies to
assess the illegal constructions and settlements
and make a master plan of the entire city under
proper urbanization at the earliest.
v) The inland surface waters of the Srinagar city
once a serene ambience, present a pathetic
condition now and thus demands immediate
rehabilitation measures and attention of
governmental and non-governmental
organizations, before it is too late and havocs
like 2014 floods are wreaked again.
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The pristine aquatic ecosystems in the Himalayas are facing an ever increasing threat from various anthropogenic pressures which necessitate better understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of pollutants, their sources, and possible remedies. This study demonstrates the multi-disciplinary approach utilizing the multivariate statistical techniques, data from remote sensing, lab, and field-based observations for assessing the impact of massive land system changes on water quality of the river Jhelum. Land system changes over a period of 38 years have been quantified using multi-spectral satellite data to delineate the extent of different anthropogenically driven land use types that are the main non-point sources of pollution. Fifteen water quality parameters, at 12 sampling sites distributed uniformly along the length of the Jhelum, have been assessed to identify the possible sources of pollution. Our analysis indicated that 18 % of the forested area has degraded into sparse forest or scrublands from 1972 to 2010, and the areas under croplands have decreased by 24 % as people shifted from irrigation-intensive agriculture to orchard farming while as settlements showed a 397 % increase during the observation period. One-way ANOVA revealed that all the water quality parameters had significant spatio-temporal differences (p < 0.01). Cluster analysis (CA) helped us to classify all the sampling sites into three groups. Factor analysis revealed that 91.84 % of the total variance was mainly explained by five factors. Drastic changes in water quality of the Jhelum since the past three decades are manifested by increases in nitrate-nitrogen, TDS, and electric conductivity. The especially high levels of nitrogen (858 ± 405 μgL(-1)) and phosphorus (273 ± 18 μgL(-1)) in the Jhelum could be attributed to the reckless application of fertilizers, pesticides, and unplanned urbanization in the area.
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Nature is the necessary condition for the existence and development of society. But increasing interventions by man in recent past have altered the natural environment to ‘humanize’ it for their benefits. The relationship between man and nature is twofold. On one hand, man’s actions and activities are influenced and conditioned by natural environment. On the other hand, mankind continuously conquers nature and reform geographical surrounding in the process of their development. The bridge between these is man’s productive activity through which he continuously changes his geographical surroundings. Every natural system has its carrying capacity. Over dependency and over exploitation of this system beyond its capacity leads to destruction and disintegration of living and non-living components of the system. The present study focuses on the interaction between ‘hanjis’ and ecologically important Dal Lake and its surroundings in Srinagar city (India). The Dal is one of the beautiful lakes of the world for which Lawrence has said, “Perhaps in the whole world there is no corner as pleasant as the Dal lake”. The study finds that the Hanjis with increase in their population have inflected transformations in and around the lake with their activity. These transformations are leading to deterioration of the Dal lake and its environs and there is an urgent need for intervention for the welfare of the Hanjis and the management of the Dal lake.
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Lidder tributary in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) of the Himalayas, an important source of surface and ground water, is experiencing clear indications of climate change. In the basin, minimum, maximum and average temperatures are showing a significant increasing trend in all the four seasons. Precipitation is showing insignificant decrease over time in the basin. However, the proportion of snow is decreasing and correspondingly, the proportion of rains is increasing. The temperature projections also show increasing trends for the end of this century. The time series analysis of the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) shows a depletion of the snow-cover in the region. Furthermore, during the last 51 years, the glacier area in the basin has decreased from 46.09 km2 in 1962 to 33.43 km2 in 2013, a depletion of 27.47%. As a result of glacier recession in the basin, the streamflow fed predominantly by snow- and glacier-melt, is showing a statistically significant decline since the mid-nineties. The declining streamflows have potential to adversely affect agriculture, energy production, tourism and even domestic water supplies. The Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) was tested for estimating the runoff from this glaciated basin on an operational basis. The average simulated runoff 11.94 m3/s at the outlet is in concordance with the average measured runoff 13.51 m3/s showing R2 of 0.82. The model could thus be used for snowmelt runoff estimation, on an operational basis, for judicious utilization of the depleting water resources in the region.
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In the present study, various physico-chemical parameters of water were assessed over a period of six months (from February, 2012 to July, 2012) on monthly basis at six study sites in Anchar lake of Kashmir valley. The correlation matrix and dendrogram of physicochemical factors have been computed and analyzed. The positive co-relation coefficient was observed between, free carbon dioxide and calcium, alkalinity and nitrate, alkalinity and phosphate, total hardness and calcium, total hardness and magnesium, nitrate and phosphate, conductivity and chloride and total dissolved solids and chloride, while as negative correlation coefficient was found between dissolved oxygen and biological oxygen demand and pH and dissolved carbon dioxide. The Bray Curtis similarity analysis showed that there is a similarity of 96 % between sites III and V, 94% between sites I and II, and < 92 % for other sites. The physico-chemical analysis of Anchar revealed it is heavily polluted as a result of anthropogenic pressures.
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The present study focuses on the growing human needs which drive the native boatmen of the Kashmir valley (Hanjis) that bring the interchanges of land use/cover classes in Dal lake and its environs of Srinagar city. Further to assesses the effects of land transformation on lake water quality. The results suggested that the significant land use changes have been occurred during the past of 30 years (1981–2011). Besides this, interchange of land has taken place between different land uses classes, which has resulted into lake water pollution due the addition of various nutrients/pollutant discharged from Hanjis activities. The study concludes that the land transformation has converted the once fresh water lake much deteriorated pond.
Wetlands in Kashmir are showing myriad signs of deterioration. In the present study, we assessed the spatio-temporal variations in the land use land cover of a semi-urban Narkara wetland, Kashmir, using high-resolution satellite data of 1965, 1980, and 2016. We also analyzed the impact of land system changes on the health Narkara wetland by estimating soil loss in the catchment of Narkara wetland using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) in GIS during the observation period. The land system changes indicated a massive increase of ~ 2663% in built-up area, while the area under agriculture showed ~ 78% decrease between 1965 and 2016. Small insignificant changes were manifest in other land cover types as well. The soil erosion estimates for the wetland catchment for 1965, 1980, and 2016 indicate 106.33 t ha⁻¹ soil detachment for 1965, 120.21 t ha⁻¹ for 1980, and 62.16 t ha⁻¹ for 2016. This significant reduction in the soil erosion is attributed to the barren lands and agriculture being taken over by built-up area between 1980 and 2016. The reckless urbanization both within Narkara and its catchment not only affects the hydrology and ecology of this important semi-urban wetland but also increases vulnerability of people to flooding in this part of Himalaya.
The study analyses the long-term biophysical and demographic changes in Dal lake, located in the heart of Srinagar city, Kashmir India, using a repository of historical, remote sensing, socio-economic and water quality data supported by the extensive field observations. The lake faces multiple pressures from the unplanned urbanization, high population growth, nutrient load from intensive agriculture and tourism. The data showed that the lake has shrunk from 31 km2 in 1859 to 24 km2 in 2013. Significant changes were observed in the land use and land cover (LULC) within the lake (1859-2013) and in the vicinity of the lake (1962-2013). Analysis of the demographic data indicates that the human population within the lake has shown more than double the national growth rate. Additionally, 7 important water quality parameters from 82 well distributed sites across the lake were analysed and compared with the past data to determine the historical changes in the water quality from 1971-2014. The changes in the LULC and demography have adversely affected the pollution status of this pristine lake. Ortho-phosphate phosphorous concentration has increased from 16.75 μgL−1 in 1977 to 45.78 μgL−1 in 2014 and that of the nitrate-nitrogen from 365 μgL−1 to 557 μgL−1, indicating nutrient enrichment of the lake over the years. Built-up area within the lake has increased 40 times since 1859, which, together with the changes in the population and settlements, have led to the high discharge of untreated nutrient-rich sewage into the lake. Similarly the expansion of floating gardens within the lake and agriculture lands in the catchment have contributed to the increased nutrient load into the lake due to the increasing use of fertilizers. The information about the existing land cover, demography and water quality was integrated and analyzed in GIS environment to identify the trophic status of the lake. The analysis indicated that 32% of the lake falls under sever degradation, 48% under medium degradation while as 20% of the lake waters are relatively clean. It is believed that the results provide improved knowledge and insights about the lake health and causal factors of its degradation necessary for effectively restoring its ecological and hydrological functionality.
The present study was conducted in five micro watersheds of Dal catchment in Kashmir valley to evaluatethe runoffyield. Linear and log linear model were developed for annual runoff. At micro level planning, watershed delineation and stream network are the preliminary steps for watershed prioritization, integrated watershed management and sustainable development of natural resources within the watershed. Geomorphological parameters of watershed have been determined, which are interrelated to parameters of watershed characteristics. The value of drainage density was comparatively on higher side ranging from 4.91-5.95 km km2. The catchment shows low value of bifurcation ratio and the drainage pattern has not been distorted by structural disturbance. The study has shown that the watershed is in conformity with the Horton’s law of stream numbers and stream lengths. The runoff developed model has close agreement between observed and predicted values at 5% level of significance. The R2 value between mean observed and predicted runoff was 0.87 which shows close agreement between field observed and model predicated runoff value.The morphologic parameters have been proved to be efficient tools for morphometric analysis indicates the presence of dendritic drainage pattern pointing out favorable conditions in selecting the soil and water conservation measures and water harvesting systems.