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CROPPING PATTERN IN BALARAMPUR TRIBAL AREA OF PURULIA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL

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Abstract

Agricultural sector has a significance role in Indian economy. For proper development of agricultural production, a farmer must have clear knowledge about cropping pattern. 'Cropping pattern' can be said as in a certain point of time the production of area cover with various crops. This study also tries to analysis the cropping pattern at Balarampur Block in Purulia District. Our objective is that, to analysis the present scenario of cropping pattern in Balarampur block. For this analysis both primary and secondary data has been used. Primary data has been collected through a questionnaire and also applied personal interview, group discussion, focus group diction etc. District Statistical Hand Book (DSHB) has been used as a secondary data base. In Balarampur block the maize crop has been produced in highest amount according to DSHB in 2014-2015. The crop production of Balarampur block is moderate compare to other blocks in Purulia district.
Review Of ReseaRch
impact factOR : 5.7631(Uif) UGc appROved JOURnal nO. 48514 issn: 2249-894X
vOlUme - 8 | issUe - 1 | OctObeR - 2018
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CROPPING PATTERN IN BALARAMPUR TRIBAL AREA OF PURULIA
DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL
Rupai Hembram1 , Pintu Mandal2 , Raj Narayan Podder3 and Uttam Kr. Patra4
1Research Scholar, Department of Geography, S.K.B University, Purulia, WB.
2Assistant Teacher, Purulia, WB.
3Ex-Student Of Geography Dept. S.K.B University, Purulia, WB.
4Faculty member of J.K. Collage, Purulia, WB.
ABSTRACT
Agricultural sector has a significance role in Indian economy. For proper development of agricultural
production, a farmer must have clear knowledge about cropping pattern. ‘Cropping pattern’ can be said as in
a certain point of time the production of area cover with various crops. This study also tries to analysis the
cropping pattern at Balarampur Block in Purulia District. Our objective is that, to analysis the present
scenario of cropping pattern in Balarampur block. For this analysis both primary and secondary data has
been used. Primary data has been collected through a questionnaire and also applied personal interview,
group discussion, focus group diction etc. District Statistical Hand Book (DSHB) has been used as a secondary
data base. In Balarampur block the maize crop has been produced in highest amount according to DSHB in
2014-2015. The crop production of Balarampur block is moderate compare to other blocks in Purulia district.
KEYWORDS: Kharif crop, Rabi Crop, Zaid Crop, Cropping Pattern.
INTRODUCTION
The backbone of Indian economy is depends upon the agricultural sector. So this sector holds an
important position in academic domain. For properly manage this sector it is necessary to get proper
information. In this connection ‘cropping pattern’ is an important concept to keep information about various
crops. It is helpful for future planning and maintains the diversities of crops towards sustaining our progress.
The term ‘cropping pattern’ comprised with two words ‘crop’ and ‘pattern’. Where crop means all
kinds of plant products that can be cultivated for economic profit or for sustaining the life. ‘Pattern’ refers to
the probability of regular occurrenceof a particular phenomenon in the world or in man-made
environment.Simply the cropping pattern means the production of various crops in a particular area and in a
certain time. It is regulated by various natural as well as man-made phenomena. The cropping pattern of a
particular place has been highly influenced by the local climate. Where the climate is highly dry, their
drought tolerant crops are shown and their life cycle too much shorter than any other types of rain fedcrops.
On the other side where humid climate is prevailed, their flood tolerant
crops are shown. Soil is an important controlling factor for determining
the cropping pattern. Topography also plays an important role like
climate and soil. The man-made causes are cultural practices, use of
fertilizer and use of pesticide etc.
STUDY AREA:
The present study area is a small part of Purulia district. It is
situated in the southern portion of the district. The study area i.e.
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Balarampur block is one among 20 blocks of the district. It surrounded with different blocks and with
neighbouring state. The northern portionof the study area surrounded with Arsha block, eastern portion
with Barabazar block, western portion with Baghmundi block and south western portion with Jharkhand
state. The geographical extension of Balarampur block is from 23˚ 0 00̋ N latitude to 23˚ 15 00̋ and from 86˚
5’ 00̋ E longitude to 86˚ 20 00̋ E longitude.
Figure.1 Location Map of the Study area
Objective:
To points out the present scenario of cropping pattern of Balarampurtribal area.
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METHODOLOGY:
The study has been carried out by using both primary and secondary data. The whole work have
gone through three stages, these are i) Pre-field ii) Field and iii) Post-field.
The methodological details are given below
i) Pre-field: In the initial stage of this study the researchers went through various articles, books and
collected district census hand book of Purulia district. After that a pilot survey has been done. Finally a
suitable questionnaire has been prepared.
ii) Field: The data has been collected by considering different sampling methods like as Random sampling,
purposive sampling method, focused group discussion and personal interview.
iii) Post field: After gathering primary and secondary data a crop calendar has been prepared and with the
help of crop calendar the researchers explain the present scenario of cropping pattern.
CROP CALENDAR
Crop calendar is crucial one for a person who engaged with agriculture. It is help full to understand
what type of crops should be cultivated in a particular season. We able to know about the last rainfall have
fallen in which time. It is also useful to predict the approximate dates of rainfall, condition of temperature
and moisture in a particular month or season of the year. We able to also know the last rain fall have fallen
in which time. On the other hand crop calendar is also important and through this calendar we come to
know, how much crops has been produced in a particular place in a particular year or season.Different crops
of the study area have been seen in a crop calendar and showing the sowing, growing and harvesting time in
a pictorial diagram. The pictorial representation of crop calendar is easy to understand the cropping pattern.
Table. 1. Crop Calendar
Source: Field survey done by the authors in 2017
SEASON
Kharif season:
The domesticated plant which has been cultivated during June to November in India is called as
Kharif crops. In Purulia 285614thousand hectors area has been used for kharif crops. Mainly rice (Aman),
maize and khesari are predominantly seen in this study area. It contributed a large portion of total food grain
of Purulia district. According to District Statistical Hand Book 64310.128 thousand tons kharif crop has been
produced during the year of 2014-15. The highest amount of kharifcrops (77.955 thousand tons) has been
produced from Barabazar block and minimum amount of crops has been produced from Neturia block
(14.955thousand tons) in 2014-15, where Balarampur block produced 40.83 thousand tonskharif crops.
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Paddy: In Purulia, The Aman rice has been produced as an important kharif crop. Aman rice have
been cultivated approximately 279151 thousand hectors an area, according to DSHB in 2014-15. The
ploughing of aman rice is starts from the middle of May to June. Though the ploughing time depends upon
monsoon rainfall and it harvested during the month of October and November. According to DSHB in 2014-
15, Barabazar block has the highest production (77.583thousand tons) and Neturia block shows the lowest
production (14.24tons) in case of aman rice cultivation, where the present study area has moderate amount
of aman rice production (36.136thousand tons).
Maize:Maize is another important kharif crops in Purulia district. Maize, otherwise called as corn. It
was domesticated for first time in South-Mexico by a group of indigenous people. This particular crop shows
during the month of May to June and it does grow within the months of July to September and harvesting
time is October to November. In Purulia maize crop has been cultivated in an area of 6317 thousand hectors.
The highest production of maize crop has been seen on Balarampur block and lowest have been seen at
Neturia in Purulia. From the above discussion the study area has the highest production during 2014-15
reference to DSHB.
Khesari: Another Kharif crop of Purulia district is khesari crop. The sowing time of khesari crop is the
month of May to June. This crop grows on during the month of July to September and plough up during the
month of October to November. This crop cultivated in an area 146 thousand hectors in Purulia. The highest
amont (0.069thousand tons) of khesari crop has been produced in the block of Baghmundi block, where the
study area has no significance production of khesari crop.
RABI CROP/SEASON
The word ‘Rabi’ has its origin in Arabic literature. The crop which cultivated in winter season is called
Rabi crop. The main characteristics of Rabi crop is that it’s sustain in dry condition. Rabi crop has been
cultivated in an area of 16333 thousand hectors in Purulia District. Arsha block has the highest production
(2829.759 thousand hectors) of Rabi crop among the other blocks of Purulia district and Neturia block has
the lowest production (0.098thousand tons). In the case of our study area, it has Significance contribution in
Rabi crop production amount of 587.23thousand tons has been produced with reference of District
Statistical Hand Book in 2014-2015 years.
Wheat: Wheat is the dominant crop among Rabi crop in India. Wheat has been plough during the
month of November to December. Growing season of this crop is January to February and lastly it harvested
during the month of March and April. Wheat crop has been cultivated in an area of 1622 thousand hectors in
Purulia districts and it produced 4 tons. The highest amount (1.215 thousand tons) has been produced in
Barabazar block and lowest production in Kashipur block (0.002 thousand tons). The amount of wheat
production in our study area is 0.011 thousand tons.
Mustard: Mustard oil has been prepared from Mustard and it also use as Spice. Thus Mustard is an
important Rabi crop. The sowing season of mustard crop has been started from October to November and
Growing season is spread throughout the whole December and January month. Lastly the crop is harvested
during February and March. The mustard crop has been cultivated in an area 1885 thousand hectors in
Purulia district. According to DSHB the highest amount (0.10 thousand tons) of mustard has been produced
in Purulia block. In the study area in Balarampur has been produced in an amount 0.08 thousand quintal.
Tomato: Tomato, one of the important vegetables of Purulia district. This vegetable has also
cultivated commercially. Farmers earn money by exporting this vegetable outside of the district. The sowing
time is winter season; the months are Oct- Nov. The most important characteristics of this crop are that, this
plant cannot tolerate frost and high humidity. The plant is highly affected by diverse weather condition. It
requires different climatic condition for sowing, Growing and harvesting. In Purulia tomato crop has been
cultivated intensively in different blocks like as Balarampur, Bundwan and Jhalda block.
Potato: Potato is one of the importantcropsamong Rabi crops. It has also an important crop in
Northern India. Its sowing time in Purulia is October to November and harvesting time is January to
February, though it varies from one place to another place. In Purulia district the potato has been cultivated
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within 477 thousand hectors areas and according to DSHB in 2014-2015 total production of potato in Purulia
is 9974 thousand quintals. In Arsha block maximum tomato has been produced according to DSHB in 2014-
2015. In our study area it has been produced 587 thousand quintals.
ZAID CROP/SEASON
Ladies Finger: Ladies finger is a common vegetable in India. Its have different names in different
parts of India like as ‘Dhenras’ in Bengali. It is sown during the period of February to March. The exact month
of sowing is depending upon climatic condition. It has been grown well between the range of temperatures
240c to 270c (Wikipedia). This crop has also sown in rainy season. But in Purulia, it is mainly seen in winter
season. It’s not grown in Alkaline and saline soil.
CONCLUSION:
From the above discussion, it is seen that our study area has occupied a moderate position for crop
production in compare to other blocks of Purulia District. In our study area the maize crop has been
produced in highest amount. The area is situated in a peculiar plateau region and dry climatic region. This is
one of the main barriers for agricultural development in this region. The climatic, weather and soil condition
is suitable for pulses cultivation. Therefore it can be say thatgovernment should take necessary step for
agriculture growth in this region. In this area pulse crops are more suitable because these types of crops can
survive in high temperature, extremely dry condition and even in scarcity of water.
REFERENCE
Dhyani, P. G. (2004). Baranaaja: the traditional. Outlook on AGRICULTURE, 33(4), 261-266.
L.D.KASHID, D. A. (2011). CHANGES IN THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY OF SELECTED CROPS. International
Journal of Agriculture Sciences, 3(1), 45-53.
S. J.William, D. ,. (2010). Crop planting dates: an analysis of global patterns. A JOURNAL OF MACROECOLOGY,
19, 607-620.
Thakur, M. J. (2006). Ecology of Changing Cropping Pattern in Bharmaur. Journal of Human Ecology, 19(1),
13-20.
http://agron-www.agron.iastate.edu/courses/Agron541/classes/541/lesson03a/541L3.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/290086393_District_level_crop_weather_calendars_of_major_cr
ops_in_India
http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201301017139
Rupai Hembram
Research Scholar, Department of Geography, S.K.B University, Purulia, WB.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
With the fast increasing population, the land-man ratio is decreasing fast in Himachal Pradesh. Undoubtedly, land is the most prominent resource endowment in the agricultural economy of the tribal areas in the state. Bharmaur being a hilly region has lesser proportion of area available for cultivation. The present study is based on secondary data of sample villages spread across four Valleys of Bharmaur region. An attempt has been made to analyse the changes in cropping pattern of Bharmaur tribal area over the period 1974-77 to 1998-01. The study reveals that Gaddis have changed their traditional cropping pattern from cultivating local cultivars to the more remunerative crops. This change is more discernible in case of cereals and plantation crops. The apple (Pyrus mallus) cultivation has diffused along valley slopes during the recent study period. The area under this fruit in sample villages was merely 0.32 per cent of total cropped area in 1974-77 which increased to 4.29 per cent during 1998-01. Some of the traditional kharif crops namely kodra (Paspalum scrobiculatum), chinae (Panicum miliaceum) and bhrace (Fagopyrum esculentum) grown during mid 1970s have now been replaced by cash crops namely-rajmah (Phaseolus vulgaris) and urd (Phaseolus radiatus). In case of rabi crops, wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the staple food crop. But the cultivation of barley (Hordeum vulgare) has recorded a decline. The study shows that there are significant spatial variations in cropping pattern during both the periods under discussion.
Article
Aim  To assemble a data set of global crop planting and harvesting dates for 19 major crops, explore spatial relationships between planting date and climate for two of them, and compare our analysis with a review of the literature on factors that drive decisions on planting dates.Location  Global.Methods  We digitized and georeferenced existing data on crop planting and harvesting dates from six sources. We then examined relationships between planting dates and temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration using 30-year average climatologies from the Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia (CRU CL 2.0).Results  We present global planting date patterns for maize, spring wheat and winter wheat (our full, publicly available data set contains planting and harvesting dates for 19 major crops). Maize planting in the northern mid-latitudes generally occurs in April and May. Daily average air temperatures are usually c. 12–17 °C at the time of maize planting in these regions, although soil moisture often determines planting date more directly than does temperature. Maize planting dates vary more widely in tropical regions. Spring wheat is usually planted at cooler temperatures than maize, between c. 8 and 14 °C in temperate regions. Winter wheat is generally planted in September and October in the northern mid-latitudes.Main conclusions  In temperate regions, spatial patterns of maize and spring wheat planting dates can be predicted reasonably well by assuming a fixed temperature at planting. However, planting dates in lower latitudes and planting dates of winter wheat are more difficult to predict from climate alone. In part this is because planting dates may be chosen to ensure a favourable climate during a critical growth stage, such as flowering, rather than to ensure an optimal climate early in the crop's growth. The lack of predictability is also due to the pervasive influence of technological and socio-economic factors on planting dates.
Baranaaja: the traditional
  • P G Dhyani
Dhyani, P. G. (2004). Baranaaja: the traditional. Outlook on AGRICULTURE, 33(4), 261-266.
  • L D Kashid
L.D.KASHID, D. A. (2011). CHANGES IN THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY OF SELECTED CROPS. International Journal of Agriculture Sciences, 3(1), 45-53.