BookPDF Available




Management as an art and science.
Management: Science, Theory and
Practice (For Hospitals and
Hospital Administrators)
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
(For Hospitals and Hospital Administrators)
Mohd Sarwar Mir Ghulam Hassan Yatoo
Abas Khan Sunil Kumar
2 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
My Parents
My Younger brother Er. Nasar Khan
My Wife Dr.Monica
Sarah and Nyasha
My Family
My Students
Ghulam Hassan Yatoo
3 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Hospitals are complex matrix organizations. The hospital
area/sections are dependent on each other. On one side, we have
highly qualied and specially trained Neurosurgeons/Cardiac
surgeons while on the hand we have almost illiterate sanitary
workers but both are vital in the functioning of the hospital. So
managing hospitals is a complex a&air and is totally di&erent from
other organizations.
When a doctor assumes charge of an administrator of a hospital
or a health set up, it is a totally di&erent world to which he is
exposed. Patients, Clinics and Operation theatres are suddenly
replaced by les, hospital rounds and meetings where he nds
himself lost. Nor medical Schools teach, hospital management nor
during specialization they have any exposure which further adds
to the problem.
With this in mind, a need was felt to present facts of management
in a simple way. The results of sustained e&orts has lead to this
The book has been divided in to eight chapters starting with
introduction to management and followed by simple description of
functions of management.
Hope you enjoy reading and give feedback both positive and
negative so that we can improve the book in next editions.
4 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Mohd Sarwar Mir Ghulam Hassan Yatoo
Abas Khan Sunil Kumar
Writing a book is harder than I thought and more rewarding
than I could have ever imagined. None of this would have
been possible without my best friend and Wife Dr.Ruksana
Hamid. She stood with me during toughest of times and was
5 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
there for me whenever I needed her support. Thank you so
much dear
Love to my dear daughters Hibbat and Haniya .
I’m eternally grateful to my teacher Dr.G.H Yatoo who
happens to be co-author. He taught me discipline, manners,
respect, and so much more that has helped me succeed in
To my family, So thankful to have you all in my life.
To all those friends who have been a part of my getting here:
Thank You.
Finally Thanks to everyone in my publishing Team.
Mohd Sarwar Mir
Table of Contents
Chapter Page No
1. Introduction to Management…………………………………………….9
2. Principles of Management………………………………………………18
3. Functions of Management………………………………………………31
4. Planning………………………………………………………………….38
5. Organizing……………………………………………………………….46
6 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
6. Staffing…………………………………………………………………..60
7. Directing…………………………………………………………………71
8. Controlling……………………………………………………………….96
7 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Chapter 1: Introduction to Management
Keywords: Management, Art, Science, History
Brief History
8 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
In tracing the history of management, one comes across various schools of thought
that have outlined principles to guide management practices. These schools of
thought may be divided into 6 distinctive phases:
1. Early Perspectives.
2. Classical Management Theory.
3. Neo Classical Theory — Human Relations Approach.
4. Behavioral Science Approach — Organizational Humanism.
5. Management Science/Operational Research.
6. Modern Management.
Early Perspectives
The first known management ideas were recorded in 3000-4000 B.C. One
Pyramid built by Egyptian ruler Cheops required work to be done by 100,000 men
for over twenty years in 2900 B.C. It covered 13 acres of land and measured 481
meters in height. The stone slabs had to be moved thousands of kilometers of
9 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
distance. As folklore goes, even the sound of a hammer was not heard in the
villages in the vicinity of the site of these pyramids. Such monumental work could
not be completed without adherence to principles of sound management.
Classical Management Theory
Rational economic view, scientific management, administrative principles, and
bureaucratic organization characterize this phase. While the rational economic
view assumed that people are motivated by economic gains primarily; scientific
management of F.W. Taylor and others emphasized on best way of production etc;
administrative theorists personified by Henri Fayol etc looked at the best way to
combine jobs and people into an efficient organization; bureaucratic organization
theorists led by Max Weber looked at ways to eliminate managerial inconsistencies
due to abuse of power which contributed to ineffectiveness. This was the era of the
industrial revolution and factory system of production. Large scale production
would not have been possible without adherence to the principles governing
organizing production based on division of labor and specialization, relationship
between man and the machine, managing people and so on.
Neo Classical Theory — Human Relations Approach
This school of thought developed between 1920s to 1950s felt that employees
simply do not respond rationally to rules, chains of authority and economic
incentives alone but are also guided by social needs, drives and attitudes.
Hawthorne Studies at GEC etc., were conducted then. It was quite natural that in
the early phases of the industrial revolution, the emphasis was on development of
techniques and technology. The attention to the human factor was the salient aspect
10 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
of this school of thought. This attention was to serve as a precursor to the
development of behavioral sciences.
Behavioral Science Approach— Organizational Humanism
Organizational behaviorists like Chris Argyris; Douglas McGregor, Abraham
Maslow and Fredrick Herzberg used the knowledge of psychology, sociology and
anthropology to develop this approach. The underlying philosophy of
organizational humanism is that individuals need to use all of their capacities and
creative skills at work as well as at home.
Management Science/Operational Research
It emphasizes research on operations and use of quantitative techniques to aid
managers to take decisions.
Modern Management
It sees modern organizations as complex systems and underlies contingency
approach and use of modern techniques to solve organizational and human
Definition of Management
Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which
individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims.
It is also defined as the art of getting things done through and with the people in
formally organized groups.
However the basic definition needs to be expanded:
11 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
1. As manager people carry out the managerial functions of planning, organizing,
staffing, leading and controlling.
2. Management applies to all types of organizations.
3. The ultimate aim of managers is the same-to create a surplus.
4. Managing is concerned with productivity, which implies effectiveness and
Characteristics of Management:
Management is a distinct process.
Management is an organized activity
Management aims at the accomplishment of predetermined objectives.
Management is both a science and an art.
Management is a group activity
Management principles are universal in nature
Management integrates human and other resources.
Management as an Art
Art is the skillful and personal application of existing knowledge to achieve
desired results. It can be acquired through study, observation and experience. Since
art is concerned with personal application of knowledge some kind of ingenuity
and creativity is required to practice the basic principles learnt.
12 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
The basic features of an art are as follows:
(i) Existence of theoretical knowledge: Art presupposes the existence of
certain theoretical knowledge. Experts in their respective areas have
derived certain basic principles which are applicable to a particular form
of art.
(ii) Personalized application: The use of this basic knowledge varies from
individual to individual. Art, therefore, is a very personalized concept.
(iii) Based on practice and creativity: All art is practical. Art involves the
creative practice of existing theoretical knowledge.
Management can be said to be an art since it satisfies the following criteria:
(i) A successful manager practices the art of management in the day-to-day
job of managing an enterprise based on study, observation and
experience. There is a lot of literature available in various areas of
management like marketing, finance and human resources which the
manager has to specialize in. There is existence of theoretical knowledge.
(ii) There are various theories of management, as propounded by many
management thinkers, which prescribe certain universal principles. A
manager applies these scientific methods and body of knowledge to a
given situation, an issue or a problem, in his own unique manner. A good
manager works through a combination of practice, creativity,
imagination, initiative and innovation. A manager achieves perfection
after long practice. Students of management also apply these principles
differently depending on how creative they are.
13 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
(iii) A manager applies this acquired knowledge in a personalized and
skillful manner in the light of the realities of a given situation. He is
involved in the activities of the organization, studies critical situations
and formulates his own theories for use in a given situation. This gives
rise to different styles of management The best managers are committed
and dedicated individuals; highly trained and educated, with personal
qualities such as ambition, self motivation, creativity and imagination, a
desire for development of the self and the organization they belong to. All
management practices are based on the same set of principles; what
distinguishes a successful manager from a less successful one is the
ability to put these principles into practice.
Management as a Science
Science is a systematized body of knowledge that explains certain general truths or
the operation of general laws. The basic features of science are as follows:
(i) Systematized body of knowledge: Science is a systematic body of knowledge.
Its principles are based on a cause and effect relationship,
(ii) Principles based on experimentation: Scientific principles are first developed
through observation and then tested through repeated experimentation under
controlled conditions.
(iii) Universal validity: Scientific principles have universal validity and
Based on the above features, we can say that management has some characteristics
of science.
14 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
(i) Management has a systematized body of knowledge. It has its own theory
and principles that have developed over a period of time, but it also draws
on other disciplines such as Economics, Sociology, Psychology and
Mathematics. Like all other organized activity, management has its own
vocabulary of terms and concepts.
(ii) The principles of management have evolved over a period of time based on
repeated experimentation and observation in different types of
organizations. However, since management deals with human beings and
human behavior, the outcomes of these experiments are not capable of being
accurately predicted or replicated. Therefore, management can be called an
inexact science. Despite these limitations, management scholars have been
able to identify general principles of management. For example, scientific
management principles by F.W. Taylor and Functional Management
principles by Henri Fayol which you will study in the next chapter.
(iii) Since the principles of management are not as exact as the principles of
science, their application and use is not universal. They have to be modified
according to a given situation. However, they provide managers with certain
standardized techniques that can be used in different situations. These
principles are also used for training and development of managers.
The practice of management is an art. However, managers can work better if their
practice is based on the principles of management. These principles constitute the
science of management. Management as an art and a science are therefore not
mutually exclusive, but complement each other.
1. Principles of Management. Harold Koontz.
15 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
2. The Practice of Management. Peter F. Drucker (1954)
3. Out of the Crisis. W. Edwards Deming
4. The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor (1960)
5. In Search Of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best-Run Companies.
Thomas J. Peters.
6. Diffusion of Innovations. Everett M. Rogers, Nancy Singer Olaguera
7. The Social Psychology of Organizing. Karl E. Weic k
8. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors.
Michael E. Porter
9. Emotional Intelligence (1995). Daniel Goleman
10. The Essential Drucker (2001), by Peter Drucker
11. On Becoming a Leader (1989), by Warren Bennis
12. The One Minute Manager (1982), by Kenneth Blanchard and Spencer Johnson
13. Who Moved My Cheese? (1998), by Spencer Johnson
14. Leading Change (1996), by John P. Kotter
15. The Innovator's Dilemma (1997), by Clayton Christensen
16. The Age of Unreason (1989), by Charles Handy
16 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Chapter 2: Principles of Management
Key words: Principles, Fayol, Taylor, Management
17 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Principles of Management: The Concept
A managerial principle is a broad and general guideline for decision making and
behavior One may distinguish principles of management from those of pure
science. Management principles are not as rigid as principles of pure science. They
deal with human behavior and, thus, are to be applied creatively given the demands
of the situation.
In developing an understanding of the meaning of principles of management, it is
also useful to know what these are not. The principles of management should be
distinguished from techniques of management. Techniques are procedures or
methods, which involve a series of steps to be taken to accomplish desired goals.
Principles are guidelines to take decisions or actions while practicing techniques.
Nature of Principles of Management
By nature is meant qualities and characteristics of anything. Principles are general
propositions, which are applicable when certain conditions are present. These have
been developed on the basis of observation and experimentation as well as
personal experiences of the managers. Depending upon how they are derived and
18 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
how effective they are in explaining and predicting managerial behavior, they
contribute towards the development of management both as a science and as an art.
Derivation of these principles may be said to be a matter of science and their
creative application may be regarded as an art.
The following points summarize the nature of principles of management.
1. Universal applicability.
2. General guidelines.
3. Formed by practice and experimentation.
4. Flexible.
5. Mainly behavioral.
6. Cause and effect relationships Contingent.
7. Significance of Principles of Management.
8. Providing managers with useful insights into reality.
9. Optimum utilization of resources and effective administration.
10.Scientific decisions.
11.Meeting changing environment requirements.
12.Fulfilling social responsibility.
13.Management training, education and research.
Taylor’s Scientific Management Scientific management
It refers to an important stream of one of the earlier schools of thought of
management referred to as the ‘Classical’ school. The other two streams belonging
to the classical school are Fayol’s Administrative Theory and Max Weber’s
Bureaucracy. Fredrick Winslow Taylor (March 20,1856 – March 21, 1915) was an
American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. In
1874, he became an apprentice mechanist, learning factory conditions at the grass
roots level. He earned a degree in mechanical engineering. He was one of the
19 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
intellectual leaders of the efficiency movement and was highly influential in
reshaping the factory system of production.
In the words of Taylor, “Scientific management means knowing exactly what you
want men to do and seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way. The
Bethlehem Steel company where Taylor himself worked achieved three-fold
increase in productivity by application of scientific management principles.
Therefore, it would be in order to discuss these principles.
(i) Science not Rule of Thumb: Taylor pioneered the introduction of the
method of scientific inquiry into the domain of management practice. We
have already referred to the limitations of the rule of thumb approach of
management. As different managers would follow their indigenous rules of
thumb, it is but a statement of the obvious that all would not be equally
effective. Taylor believed that there was only one best method to maximize
efficiency. This method can be developed through study and analysis. The
method so developed should substitute Rule of Thumb’ throughout the
organization. Scientific method involved investigation of traditional
methods through work-study, unifying the best practices and developing a
standard method, which would be followed throughout the organization.
The more sophisticated the processes, greater would be the savings. In the
present context, the use of internet has brought about dramatic
improvements in internal efficiencies and customer satisfaction.
(ii) Harmony, Not Discord: Factory system of production implied that
managers served as a link between the owners and the workers. Since as
managers they had the mandate to ‘get work done’ from the workers, it
should not be difficult for you to appreciate that there always existed the
possibility of a kind of class-conflict, the mangers versus workers. Taylor
20 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
recognized that this conflict helped none, the workers, the managers or the
factory owners. He emphasized that there should be complete harmony
between the management and workers. Both should realize that each one is
important. To achieve this state, Taylor called for complete mental
revolution on the part of both management and workers. It means that
management and workers should transform their thinking. In such a
situation even trade unions will not think of going on strike etc.
Management should share the gains of the company, if any, with the
workers. At the same time workers should work hard and be willing to
embrace change for the good of the company. Both should be part of the
family. According to Taylor, ‘Scientific management has for its foundation
the firm conviction that the true interests of the two are one and the same;
that prosperity for the employer cannot exist for a long time unless it is
accompanied by prosperity for the employees and vice versa’. Japanese
work culture is a classic example of such a situation. In Japanese
companies, paternalistic style of management is in practice. There is
complete openness between the management and workers. If at all workers
go to strike they wear a black badge but work more than normal working
hours to gain the sympathy of the management.
(iii) Cooperation, Not Individualism: There should be complete cooperation
between the labor and the management instead of individualism. This
principle is an extension of principle of ‘Harmony not discord’. Competition
should be replaced by cooperation. Both should realize that they need each
other. For this, management should not close its ears to any constructive
suggestions made by the employees. They should be rewarded for their
suggestions which results in substantial reduction in costs. They should be
21 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
part of management and, if any important decisions are taken, workers
should be taken into confidence. At the same time workers should desist
from going on strike and making unreasonable demands on the
management. In fact when there will be open communication system and
goodwill there will be no need for even a trade union. Paternalistic style of
management, whereby the employer takes care of the needs of employees,
would prevail as in the case of Japanese companies. According to Taylor,
there should be an almost equal division of work and responsibility between
workers and management. All the day long the management should work
almost side by side with the workers helping, encouraging and smoothing
the way for them.
(iv) Development of Each and Every Person to His or Her Greatest
Efficiency and Prosperity: Industrial efficiency depends to a large extent
on personnel competencies. As such, scientific management also stood for
worker development. Worker training was essential also to learn the ‘best
method’ developed as a consequence of the scientific approach. Taylor was
of the view that the concern for efficiency could be built in right from the
process of employee selection. Each person should be scientifically
selected. Then work assigned should suit her/his physical, mental and
intellectual capabilities. To increase efficiency, they should be given the
required training. Efficient employees would produce more and earn more.
This will ensure their greatest efficiency and prosperity for both company
and workers. From the foregoing discussion it is clear that Taylor was an
ardent supporter of use of scientific method of production in business.
22 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Fayol’s Principles of Management
In the development of classical school of management thought, Fayol’s
administrative theory provides an important link. While Taylor succeeded in
revolutionizing the working of factory shop-floor in terms of devising the best
method, fair day’s work, differential piece-rate system and functional foremanship;
Henri Fayol explained what amounts to a manager’s work and what principles
should be followed in doing this work. If workers’ efficiency mattered in the
factory system, so does the managerial efficiency. Fayol’s contribution must be
interpreted in terms of the impact that his writings had and continue to have
improvement in managerial efficiencies. Henri Fayol (1841-1925) was a French
management theorist whose theories concerning scientific organisation of labour
were widely influential in the beginning of twentieth century. He graduated from
the mining academy of St. Etienne in 1860 in mining engineering.
The fourteen principles of management propounded by him were discussed in
detail in his book published in 1917, ‘Administration industrielle et generale’. It
was published in English as ‘General and Industrial Management’ in 1949 and is
widely considered a foundational work in classical management theory. For his
contribution he is also known as the ‘Father of General Management’
The fourteen principles of management given by him are:
(i) Division of Work
Work is divided into small tasks/jobs. A trained specialist who is competent
is required to perform each job. Thus, division of work leads to
specialization. According to Fayol, “The intent of division of work is to
23 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
produce more and better work for the same effort. Specialization is the most
efficient way to use human effort.” In business work can be performed more
efficiently if it is divided into specialized tasks; each performed by a
specialist or trained employee. This results in efficient and effective output.
Thus, in a company we have separate departments for finance, marketing,
production and human resource development etc. All of them have
specialized persons. Collectively they achieve production and sales targets
of the company. Fayol applies this principle of division of work to all kinds
of work – technical as well as managerial. You can observe this principle at
work in any organisation like hospital or even a government office.
(ii) Authority and Responsibility
According to Fayol, “Authority is the right to give orders and obtain
obedience, and responsibility is the corollary of authority. The two types of
authority are official authority, which is the authority to command, and
personal authority which is the authority of the individual manager.”
Authority is both formal and informal. Managers require authority
commensurate with their responsibility. There should be a balance between
authority and responsibility. An organisation should build safeguards against
abuse of managerial power. At the same time a manager should have
necessary authority to carry out his responsibility.
(iii) Discipline
Discipline is the obedience to organizational rules and employment
agreement which are necessary for the working of the organisation.
According to Fayol, discipline requires good superiors at all levels, clear
and fair agreements and judicious application of penalties. In return the
24 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
management has promised to increase wages of the workers when this
mission is accomplished. Here discipline when applied would mean that the
workers and management both honour their commitments without any
prejudice towards one another.
(iv) Unity of Command
According to Fayol there should be one and only one boss for every
individual employee. If an employee gets orders from two superiors at the
same time the principle of unity of command is violated. The principle of
unity of command states that each participant in a formal organisation
should receive orders from and be responsible to only one superior. Fayol
gave a lot of importance to this principle. He felt that if this principle is
violated “authority is undermined, discipline is in jeopardy, order disturbed
and stability threatened”. The principle resembles military organisation.
Dual subordination should be avoided.
(v) Unity of Direction
All the units of an organisation should be moving towards the same
objectives through coordinated and focused efforts. Each group of activities
having the same objective must have one head and one plan. This ensures
unity of action and coordination. Each division should have its own
incharge, plans and execution resources. On no account should the working
of two divisions overlap. Now let us differentiate between the two
principles of unity of command and unity of direction.
(vi) Subordination of Individual Interest to General Interest
25 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
The interests of an organisation should take priority over the interests of
any one individual employee according to Fayol. Every worker has some
individual interest for working in a company. The company has got its own
objectives. On the other hand, an employee may want to get maximum
salary while working the least. In another situation an individual employee
may demand some concession, which is not admissible to any other
employee like working for less time. In all the situations the interests of the
group/company will supersede the interest of any one individual. This is so
because larger interests of the workers and stakeholders are more important
than the interest of any one person. A manager can ensure this by her/his
exemplary behavior.
(vii) Remuneration of Employees
The overall pay and compensation should be fair to both employees and
the organization. The employees should be paid fair wages, which should
give them at least a reasonable standard of living. At the same time it
should be within the paying capacity of the company. In other words,
remuneration should be just and equitable. This will ensure congenial
atmosphere and good relations between workers and management.
Consequently, the working of the company would be smooth.
(viii) Centralisation and Decentralisation
The concentration of decision-making authority is called centralization
whereas its dispersal among more than one person is known as
decentralization. According to Fayol, “There is a need to balance
26 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
subordinate involvement through decentralization with managers’
retention of final authority through centralization.” The degree of
centralization will depend upon the circumstances in which the company
is working. In general large organizations have more decentralization than
small organizations.
(ix) Scalar Chain
An organisation consists of superiors and subordinates. The formal lines of
authority from highest to lowest ranks are known as scalar chain. According to
Fayol, “Organizations should have a chain of authority and communication that
runs from top to bottom and should be followed by managers and the
subordinates.” According to Fayol, this chain should not be violated in the
normal course of formal communication.
(x) Order
According to Fayol, “People and materials must be in suitable places at
appropriate time for maximum efficiency.” The principle of order states that ‘A
place for everything (everyone) and everything (everyone) in its (her/his) place’.
Essentially it means orderliness. If there is a fixed place for everything and it is
present there, then there will be no hindrance in the activities of business/ factory.
This will lead to increased productivity and efficiency.
(xi) Equity
Good sense and experience are needed to ensure fairness to all employees, who
should be treated as fairly as possible,” according to Fayol. This principle
emphasizes kindliness and justice in the behavior of managers towards workers.
27 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
This will ensure loyalty and devotion. Fayol does not rule out use of force
sometimes. Rather he says that lazy personnel should be dealt with sternly to send
the message that everyone is equal in the eyes of the management. There should be
no discrimination against anyone on account of sex, religion, language, caste,
belief or nationality etc. In practice we can observe that now a days in
multinational corporations people of various nationalities work together in a
discrimination free environment.
(xii) Stability of Personnel
“Employee turnover should be minimized to maintain organizational efficiency”,
according to Fayol. Personnel should be selected and appointed after due and
rigorous procedure. But once selected they should be kept at their post/ position for
a minimum fixed tenure. They should have stability of tenure. They should be
given reasonable time to show results. Any adhocism in this regard will create
instability/insecurity among employees. They would tend to leave the organisation.
Recruitment, selection and training cost will be high. So stability in tenure of
personnel is good for the business.
(xiii) Initative
Workers should be encouraged to develop and carry out their plans for
improvements according to Fayol. Initiative means taking the first step with self-
motivation. It is thinking out and executing the plan. It is one of the traits of an
intelligent person. Initiative should be encouraged. But it does not mean going
against the established practices of the company for the sake of being different. A
good company should have an employee suggestion system whereby initiative/
suggestions which result in substantial cost/time reduction should be rewarded.
(xiv) Espirit De Corps:
28 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Management should promote a team spirit of unity and harmony among
employees, according to Fayol. Management should promote teamwork especially
in large organizations because otherwise objectives would be difficult to realize. It
will also result in a loss of coordination. A manager should replace ‘I’ with ‘We’ in
all his conversations with workers to foster team spirit. This will give rise to a
spirit of mutual trust and belongingness among team members. It will also
minimize the need for using penalties.
From the foregoing discussion it is clear that Fayol’s fourteen principles of
management are widely applicable to managerial problems and have cast a
profound impact on management thinking today. But with the change of
environment in which business is done, the interpretation of these principles has
changed. For example, authority and responsibility meant empowering of
managers but now it means empowerment of employees because of flat
organizational structures that are gaining ground.
1. Principles of Management. Harold Koontz.
2. The Practice of Management. Peter F. Drucker (1954)
3. Out of the Crisis. W. Edwards Deming
4. The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor (1960)
5. Diffusion of Innovations. Everett M. Rogers, Nancy Singer Olaguera
6. The Social Psychology of Organizing. Karl E. Weic k
7. Emotional Intelligence (1995). Daniel Goleman
29 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
8. The Essential Drucker (2001), by Peter Drucker
Chapter 3: Functions of Management
Key words: Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Controlling,
30 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Functions of Management
Management is described as the process of planning, organizing, staffing
directing and controlling the efforts of organizational members and of using
organizational resources to achieve specific goals.
1. Planning
It is the function of determining in advance what is to be done and who is to do it.
This implies setting goals in advance and developing a way of achieving them
efficiently and effectively. Planning cannot prevent problems, but it can predict
them and prepare contingency plans to deal with them if and when they occur.
2. Organizing
It is the management function of assigning duties, grouping tasks, establishing
authority and allocating resources required to carry out a specific plan. Once a
specific plan has been established for the accomplishment of an organizational
goal, the organizing function examines the activities and resources required to
implement the plan. It determines what activities and resources are required. It
decides who will do a particular task, where it will be done, and when it will be
done. Organizing involves the grouping of the required tasks into manageable
departments or work units and the establishment of authority and reporting
relationships within the organizational hierarchy. Proper organizational
techniques help in the accomplishment of work and promote both the efficiency
of operations and the effectiveness of results. Different kinds of business
require different structures according to the nature of work.
31 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
3. Staffing
It is finding the right people for the right job. A very important aspect of
management is to make sure that the right people with the right
qualifications are available at the right places and times to accomplish the
goals of the organization. This is also known as the human resource function
and it involves activities such as recruitment, selection, placement and
training of personnel.
4. Directing
It involves leading, influencing and motivating employees to perform the tasks
assigned to them. This requires establishing an atmosphere that encourages
employees to do their best. Motivation and leadership are two key components
of direction. Directing also involves communicating effectively as well as
supervising employees at work. Motivating workers means simply creating an
environment that makes them want to work. Leadership is influencing others to
do what the leader wants them to do. A good manager directs through praise and
criticism in such a way that it brings out the best in the employee.
5. Controlling
It is the management function of monitoring organizational performance towards
the attainment of organizational goals. The task of controlling involves establishing
standards of performance, measuring current performance, comparing this with
32 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
established standards and taking corrective action where any deviation is found.
Here management must determine what activities and outputs are critical to
success, how and where they can be measured and who should have the authority
to take corrective action.
The various functions of a manager are usually discussed in the order given
above, suggesting that a manager first plans, then organizes, puts staff in
position, then directs, and finally controls. In reality, managers are rarely
able to carry out these functions in isolation. The activities of a manager are
interrelated and it is often difficult to pinpoint where one ended and the other
Coordination — The Essence of Management
A manager has to perform five interrelated functions in the process of managing an
organization which is a system made up of different interlinked and interdependent
subsystems. A manager has to link these diverse groups towards the achievement
of a common goal. The process by which a manager synchronizes the activities of
different departments is known as coordination. Coordination is the force that
binds all the other functions of management. It is the common thread that runs
through all activities such as purchase, production, sales, and finance to ensure
continuity in the working of the organization. Coordination is sometimes
considered a separate function of management. It is however, the essence of
management, for achieving harmony among individual efforts towards the
accomplishment of group goals. Each managerial function is an exercise
contributing individually to coordination. Coordination is implicit and inherent in
all functions of an organization. The process of coordinating the activities of an
organization begins at the planning stage itself. Top management plans for the
33 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
entire organization. According to these plans the organizational structure is
developed and staffed. In order to ensure that these plans are executed according to
plans directing is required. Any discrepancies between actual and realized activities
are then taken care of at the stage of controlling. It is through the process of
coordination that a manager ensures the orderly arrangement of individual and
group efforts to ensure unity of action in the realization of common objectives.
Coordination therefore involves synchronization of the different actions or efforts
of the various units of an organization. This provides the requisite amount, quality,
timing and sequence of efforts which ensures that planned objectives are achieved
with a minimum of conflict.
Levels of Management
Management is a universal term used for certain functions performed by
individuals in an enterprise who are bound together in a hierarchy of relationships.
Every individual in the hierarchy is responsible for successful completion of a
particular task. To be able to fulfill that responsibility he is assigned a certain
amount of authority or the right to take a decision. This authority-responsibility
relationship binds individuals as superiors and subordinates and gives rise to
different levels in an organisation.
Generally speaking there are three levels in the hierarchy of an organisation.
(i) Top Management: They consist of the senior-most executives of the
organization by whatever name they are called. They are usually referred
to as the chairman, the chief executive officer, chief operating officer,
president and vice-president. Top management is a team consisting of
34 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
managers from different functional levels, heading finance, marketing
etc. Their basic task is to integrate diverse elements and coordinate the
activities of different departments according to the overall objectives of
the organization. These top level managers are responsible for the welfare
and survival of the organization. They analyze the business environment
and its implications for the survival of the firm. They formulate overall
organizational goals and strategies for their achievement. They are
responsible for all the activities of the business and for its impact on
society. The job of the top manager is complex and stressful, demanding
long hours and commitment to the organization.
(ii) Middle Management: It is the link between top and lower level
managers. They are subordinate to top managers and superior to the first
line managers. They are usually known as division heads, for example
production manager. Middle management is responsible for
implementing and controlling plans and strategies developed by top
management. At the same time they are responsible for all the activities
of first line managers. Their main task is to carry out the plans formulated
by the top managers. For this they need to: (i) interpret the policies
framed by top management, (ii) ensure that their department has the
necessary personnel, (iii) assign necessary duties and responsibilities to
them, (iv) motivate them to achieve desired objectives, and (v) cooperate
with other departments for smooth functioning of the organization. At the
same time they are responsible for all the activities of first line managers.
(iii) Supervisory or Operational Management: Foremen and supervisors
comprise the lower level in the hierarchy of the organization. Supervisors
directly oversee the efforts of the workforce. Their authority and
responsibility is limited according to the plans drawn by the top
35 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
management. Supervisory management plays a very important role in the
organization since they interact with the actual work force and pass on
instructions of the middle management to the workers. Through their
efforts quality of output is maintained, wastage of materials is minimized
and safety standards are maintained. The quality of workmanship and the
quantity of output depends on the hard work, discipline and loyalty of the
1. Principles of Management. Harold Koontz.
2. The Practice of Management. Peter F. Drucker (1954)
3. Out of the Crisis. W. Edwards Deming
4. The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor (1960)
5. In Search Of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best-Run Companies.
Thomas J. Peters.
6. Diffusion of Innovations. Everett M. Rogers, Nancy Singer Olaguera
7. The Social Psychology of Organizing. Karl E. Weic k
36 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Chapter 4: Planning
Key words: Planning, Objectives, Planning cycle
Concept of Planning
Planning is deciding in advance what to do and how to do. It is one of the basic
managerial functions. Before doing something, the manager must formulate an
idea of how to work on a particular task. Thus, planning is closely connected with
creativity and innovation. But the manager would first have to set objectives, only
37 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
then will a manager know where he has to go. Planning seeks to bridge the gap
between where we are and where we want to go. Planning is what managers at all
levels do. It requires taking decisions since it involves making a choice from
alternative courses of action.
Planning, thus, involves setting objectives and developing appropriate courses of
action to achieve these objectives. Objectives provide direction for all managerial
decisions and actions. Planning provides a rational approach for achieving
predetermined objectives. All members, therefore, need to work towards achieving
organizational goals. These goals set the targets which need to be achieved and
against which actual performance is measured. Therefore, planning means setting
objectives and targets and formulating an action plan to achieve them. It is
concerned with both ends and means i.e., what is to be done and how it is to be
The plan that is developed has to have a given time frame but time is a limited
resource. It needs to be utilized judiciously. If time factor is not taken into
consideration, conditions in the environment may change and all business plans
may go waste. Planning will be a futile exercise if it is not acted upon or
Importance of Planning
(i) Planning provides directions.
(ii) Planning reduces the risks of uncertainty.
(iii)Planning reduces overlapping and wasteful activities.
(iv) Planning promotes innovative ideas.
38 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
(v)Planning facilitates decision making.
(vi) Planning establishes standards for controlling.
Features of Planning
The planning function of the management has certain special features. These
features throw light on its nature and scope.
(i) Planning focuses on achieving objectives.
(ii) Planning is a primary function of management.
(iii) Planning is pervasive.
(iv) Planning is continuous.
(v) Planning is futuristic.
(vii) Planning is a mental exercise.
(viii) Planning involves decision making:
Limitations of Planning
(i) Planning leads to rigidity.
(ii) Planning may not work in a dynamic environment:
(iii) Planning reduces creativity
(iv) Planning involves huge costs:
(v) Planning is a time-consuming process
(vi) Planning does not guarantee success:
39 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Planning Process
Planning, as we all know is deciding in advance what to do and how to do. It is a
process of decision making. Since planning is an activity there are certain logical
steps for every manager to follow.
(i) Setting Objectives: The first and foremost step is setting objectives. Every
organisation must have certain objectives. Objectives may be set for the entire
organisation and each department or unit within the organisation. Objectives or
goals specify what the organisation wants to achieve. It could mean an increase in
sales by 20% which could be objective of the entire organisation. How all
departments would contribute to the organizational goals is the plan that is to be
drawn up. Objectives should be stated clearly for all departments, units and
employees. They give direction to all departments. Departments/ units then need to
set their own objectives within the broad framework of the organization’s
philosophy. Objectives have to percolate down to each unit and employees at all
levels. At the same time, managers must contribute ideas and participate in the
objective setting process. They must also understand how their actions contribute
to achieving objectives. If the end result is clear it becomes easier to work towards
the goal.
(ii) Developing Premises: Planning is concerned with the future which is
uncertain and every planner is using conjecture about what might happen in future.
required to make certain assumptions about the future. These assumptions are
called premises. Assumptions are the base material upon which plans are to be
drawn. The base material may be in the form of forecasts, existing plans or any
past information about policies. The premises or assumptions must be the same for
all and there should be total agreement on them. All managers involved in planning
40 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
should be familiar with and use the same assumptions. For example, forecasting is
important in developing premises as it is a technique of gathering information.
Forecasts can be made about the demand for a particular product, policy change,
interest rates, prices of capital goods, tax rates etc. Accurate forecasts, therefore
become essential for successful plans.
(iii)Identifying alternative courses of action: Once objectives are set,
assumptions are made. Then the next step would be to act upon them. There may
be many ways to act and achieve objectives. All the alternative courses of action
should be identified. The course of action which may be taken could be either
routine or innovative. An innovative course may be adopted by involving more
people and sharing their ideas. If the project is important, then more alternatives
should be generated and thoroughly discussed amongst the members of the
(iv) Evaluating alternative courses: The next step is to weigh the pros and cons
of each alternative. Each course will have many variables which have to be
weighed against each other. The positive and negative aspects of each proposal
need to be evaluated in the light of the objective to be achieved. In financial plans,
for example, the risk-return trade-off is very common. The more risky the
investment, the higher the returns it is likely to give. To evaluate such proposals
detailed calculations of earnings, earnings per share, interest, taxes, dividends are
made and decisions taken. Accurate forecasts in conditions of certainty/uncertainty
then become vital assumptions for these proposals. Alternatives are evaluated in
the light of their feasibility and consequences.
41 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
(v) Selecting an alternative: This is the real point of decision making. The best
plan has to be adopted and implemented. The ideal plan, of course, would be the
most feasible, profitable and with least negative consequences. Most plans may not
always be subjected to a mathematical analysis. Sometimes, a combination of plans
may be selected instead of one best course. The manager will have to apply
permutations and combinations and select the best possible course of action.
(vi) Implementing the plan: This is the step where other managerial functions
also come into the picture. The step is concerned with putting the plan into action,
i.e., doing what is required. For example, if there is a plan to increase production
then more labor, more machinery will be required. This step would also involve
organizing for labor and purchase of machinery.
vii) Follow-up action: To see whether plans are being implemented and activities
are performed according to schedule is also part of the planning process.
Monitoring the plans is equally important to ensure that objectives are achieve
Types of Plans
Single-use and standing plans
An organisation has to prepare a plan before making any decision related to
business operation, or undertaking any project. Plans can be classified into several
types depending on the use and the length of the planning period.
Single-use Plan: A single-use plan is developed for a one-time event or project.
Such a course of action is not likely to be repeated in future, i.e., they are for non-
recurring situations. The duration of this plan may depend upon the type of the
project. It may span a week or a month. A project may sometimes be of only one
42 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
day, such as, organizing an event or a seminar or conference. These plans include
budgets, programmes and projects. They consist of details, including the names of
employees who are responsible for doing the work and contributing to the single-
use plan.
Standing Plan: A standing plan is used for activities that occur regularly over a
period of time. It is designed to ensure that internal operations of an organisation
run smoothly. Such a plan greatly enhances efficiency in routine decision-making.
It is usually developed once but is modified from time to time to meet business
needs as required. Standing plans include policies, procedures, methods and rules.
Important terms used in planning
Objectives :The first step in planning is setting objectives. Objectives, therefore,
can be said to be the desired future position that the management would like to
reach. Objectives are very basic to the organisation and they are defined as ends
which the management seeks to achieve by its operations
Strategy : A strategy provides the broad contours of an organization’s business. It
will also refer to future decisions defining the organizations direction and scope in
the long run.
Policy: Policies are general statements that guide thinking or channelize energies
towards a particular direction. Policies provide a basis for interpreting strategy
which is usually stated in general terms.
Method : Methods provide the prescribed ways or manner in which a task has to
be performed considering the objective. It deals with a task comprising one step of
a procedure and specifies how this step is to be performed.
43 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Rule : Rules are specific statements that inform what is to be done. They do not
allow for any flexibility or discretion. It reflects a managerial decision that a
certain action must or must not be taken. They are usually the simplest type of
plans because there is no compromise or change unless a policy decision is taken.
Programme : Programmes are detailed statements about a project which outlines
the objectives, policies, procedures, rules, tasks, human and physical resources
required and the budget to implement any course of action.
Budget: A budget is a statement of expected results expressed in numerical terms.
It is a plan which quantifies future facts and figures.
1. Principles of management. Harold Koontz.
2. The Practice of Management. Peter F. Drucker (1954)
3. Emotional Intelligence (1995). Daniel Goleman
4. The Essential Drucker (2001), by Peter Drucker
5. On Becoming a Leader (1989), by Warren Bennis
6. The One Minute Manager (1982), by Kenneth Blanchard and Spencer Johnson
7. Who Moved My Cheese? (1998), by Spencer Johnson
8. Leading Change (1996), by John P. Kotter
9. The Innovator's Dilemma (1997), by Clayton Christensen
44 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Chapter 5:Organizing
Key words: Organizing , Delegation, centralization , Decentralization
Definition of Organizing
Organizing can be defined as a process that initiates implementation of plans by
clarifying jobs and working relationships and effectively deploying resources for
attainment of identified and desired results (goals).
Organizing essentially implies a process which coordinates human efforts,
assembles resources and integrates both into a unified whole to be utilized for
achieving specified objectives.
45 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Steps in the Process of Organizing
(i) Identification and division of work
(ii) Departmentalization
(iii)Establishing reporting relationships
(iv)Assignment of duties
Importance of Organizing
The significance of the organizing function mainly arises from the fact that it helps
in the survival and growth of an enterprise and equips it to meet various
challenges. In order for any business enterprise to perform tasks and successfully
meet goals, the organizing function must be properly performed.
The importance of Organizing is as under:
(i) Benefits of specialization
(ii) Clarity in working relationships
(iii) Optimum utilization of resources
(iv) Adaptation to change
(v) Effective administration
(vi) Development of personnel
(vii) Expansion and growth
Organization Structure
Organisation structure is the outcome of the organizing process. An effective
structure will result in increased profitability of the enterprise. The need for an
adequate organisation structure is felt by an enterprise whenever it grows in size or
46 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Peter Drucker emphasizes on the importance of having an appropriate organisation
structure when he says, “organisation structure is an indispensable means; and the
wrong structure will seriously impair business performance and even destroy it.”
The organisation structure can be defined as the framework within which
managerial and operating tasks are performed. It specifies the relationships
between people, work and resources.
The span of management, to a large extent gives shape to the organizational
structure. Span of management refers to the number of subordinates that can be
effectively managed by a superior. This determines the levels of management in the
A proper organisation structure is essential to ensure a smooth flow of
communication and better control over the operations of a business enterprise. An
organisation structure provides the framework which enables the enterprise to
function as an integrated unit by regulating and coordinating the responsibilities of
individuals and departments. The type of structure adopted by an organisation will
vary with the nature and types of activities performed by an organisation.
The organizational structure can be classified under two categories which are as
follows: (i) Functional structure and (ii) Divisional structure
Functional Structure
Grouping of jobs of similar nature under functional and organizing these major
functions as separate departments creates a functional structure. All departments
report to a coordinating head. These departments may be further divided into
sections. Thus, a functional structure is an organizational design that groups similar
or related jobs together.
47 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Advantages: The functional structure has many advantages to offer. Important
among them are as follows:
(a) A functional structure leads to occupational specialization since emphasis is
placed on specific functions. This promotes efficiency in utilization of manpower
as employees perform similar tasks within a department and are able to improve
(b) It promotes control and coordination within a department because of similarity
in the tasks being performed.
(c) It helps in increasing managerial and operational efficiency and this results in
increased profit.
(d) It leads to minimal duplication of effort which results in economies of scale and
this lowers cost.
(e) It makes training of employees easier as the focus is only on a limited range of
(f) It ensures that different functions get due attention.
Disadvantages : The functional structure has certain disadvantages which an
organisation must take into consideration before it adopts it. Some of them are as
(a) A functional structure places less emphasis on overall enterprise objectives than
the objectives pursued by a functional head. Such practices may lead to functional
empires wherein the importance of a particular function may be overemphasized.
Pursuing departmental interests at the cost of organizational interests can also
hinder the interaction between two or more departments.
48 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
(b) It may lead to problems in coordination as information has to be exchanged
across functionally differentiated departments.
(c) A conflict of interests may arise when the interests of two or more departments
are not compatible. Inter-departmental conflicts can also arise in the absence of
clear separation of responsibility.
(d) It may lead to inflexibility as people with same skills and knowledge base may
develop a narrow perspective and thus, have difficulty in appreciating any other
point of view.
Suitability: It is most suitable when the size of the organisation is large, has a
diversified activities and operations require a high degree of specialization.
Divisional Structure
In a divisional structure, the organisation structure comprises of separate business
units or divisions. Each unit has a divisional manager responsible for performance
and who has authority over the unit. Generally, manpower is grouped on the basis
of different products manufactured. Each division is multifunctional because
within each division functions like production, marketing, finance, purchase etc,
are performed together to achieve a common goal. Each division is self-contained
as it develops expertise in all functions related to a product line. In order words,
within each division, the functional structure tends to be adopted. However,
functions may vary across divisions in accordance with a division works as a profit
center where the divisional head is responsible for the profit or loss of his division.
Advantages:The divisional structure offers many benefits. Prominent among these
are as follows:
49 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
(a) Product specialization helps in the development of varied skills in a divisional
head and this prepares him for higher positions. This is because he gains
experience in all functions related to a particular product.
(b) Divisional heads are accountable for profits, as revenues and costs related to
different departments can be easily identified and assigned to them. This provides a
proper basis for performance measurement. It also helps in fixation of
responsibility in cases of poor performance of the division and appropriate
remedial action can be taken.
(c) It promotes flexibility and initiative because each division functions as an
autonomous unit which leads to faster decision making.
(d) It facilitates expansion and growth as new divisions can be added without
interrupting the existing operations by merely adding another divisional head and
staff for the new product line.
Disadvantages: The divisional structure has certain disadvantages. Some of them
are as follows:
(a) Conflict may arise among different divisions with reference to allocation of
funds and further a particular division may seek to maximize its profits at the cost
of other divisions.
(b) It may lead to increase in costs since there may be a duplication of activities
across products.Providing each division with separate set of similar functions
increases expenditure.
(c) It provides managers with the authority to supervise all activities related to a
particular division. In course of time, such a manager may gain power and in a bid
to assert his independence may ignore organizational interests.
50 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Suitability: Divisional structure is suitable for those business enterprises where a
large variety of products are manufactured using different productive resources.
Formal and Informal Organization
In all organizations, employees are guided by rules and procedures. To enable
smooth functioning of the enterprise, job description and rules and procedures
related to work processes have to be laid down. This is done through the formal
Formal organization refers to the organization structure which is designed by the
management to accomplish a particular task. It specifies clearly the boundaries of
authority and responsibility and there is a systematic coordination among the
various activities to achieve organizational goals. The structure in a formal
organisation can be functional or divisional. The formal organisation can be better
understood by a study of its features which are as follows:
(a) It specifies the relationships among various job positions and the nature of their
interrelationship. This clarifies who has to report to whom.
(b) It is a means to achieve the objectives specified in the plans, as it lays down
rules and procedures essential for their achievement.
(c) Efforts of various departments are coordinated, interlinked and integrated
through the formal organisation.
(d) It is deliberately designed by the top management to facilitate the smooth
functioning of the organisation.
51 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
(e) It places more emphasis on work to be performed than interpersonal
relationships among the employees.
Advantages: Formal organisation offers many advantages. Some of the important
ones are:
(a) It is easier to fix responsibility since mutual relationships are clearly defined.
(b) There is no ambiguity in the role that each member has to play as duties are
specified. This also helps in avoiding duplication of effort.
(c) Unity of command is maintained through an established chain of command.
(d) It leads to effective accomplishment of goals by providing a framework for the
operations to be performed and ensuring that each employee knows the role he has
to play.
(e) It provides stability to the organisation. This is because behavior of employees
can be fairly predicted since there are specific rules to guide them.
Limitations: The formal organisation suffers from the following limitations The
formal communication may lead to procedural delays as the established chain of
command has to be followed which increases the time taken for decision making.
(b) Poor organisation practices may not provide adequate recognition to creative
talent, since it does not allow any deviations from rigidly laid down polices.
(c) It is difficult to understand all human relationships in an enterprise as it places
more emphasis on structure and work. Hence, the formal organisation does not
provide a complete picture of how an organisation works.
Informal Organisation: Interaction among people at work gives rise to a ‘network
of social relationships among employees’ called the informal organisation.
52 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Informal organisation emerges from within the formal organisation when people
interact beyond their officially defined roles. When people have frequent contacts
they cannot be forced into a rigid formal structure. Rather, based on their
interaction and friendship they tend to form groups which show conformity in
terms of interest.
Advantages: The informal organisation offers many benefits. Important among
them are given below:
(a) Prescribed lines of communication are not followed. Thus, the informal
organisation leads to faster spread of information as well as quick feedback.
(b) It helps to fulfill the social needs of the members and allows them to find like
minded people. This enhances their job satisfaction since it gives them a sense of
belongingness in the organisation.
(c) It contributes towards fulfillment of organizational objectives by compensating
for inadequacies in the formal organisation.
Disadvantages: The informal organisation has certain disadvantages. Some of
them are as follows:
(a) Informal organisation may become a disruptive force when it spreads
rumors. This may work against the interest of the formal organisation.
(b) The management may not be successful in implementing changes if the
informal organisation opposes them. Such resistance to change may delay or
restrict growth.
(c) It pressurizes members to conform to group expectations. This can be harmful
to the organisation if the norms set by the group are against organizational
53 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
interests. Informal organisation cannot be altogether eliminated. Thus, it would be
in the best interest of the organisation if the existence of such groups is recognized
and the roles that their members play are identified. The knowledge of such groups
can be used to gather their support and consequently lead to improved
organizational performance. Such groups can also provide useful communication
channels. Instead of confronting them, the management should skillfully take
advantage of both the formal and informal organisation so that work continues
Delegation refers to the downward transfer of authority from a superior to a
subordinate. It is a pre-requisite to the efficient functioning of an organisation
because it enables a manager to use his time on high priority activities. It also
satisfies the subordinate’s need for recognition and provides them with
opportunities to develop and exercise initiative.
Elements of Delegation
(i) Authority: Authority refers to the right of an individual to command his
subordinates and to take action within the scope of his position. The concept of
authority arises from the established scalar chain which links the various job
positions and levels of an organisation. Authority also refers to the right to take
decisions inherent in a managerial position to tell people what to do and expect
them to do it. In the formal organisation authority originates by virtue of an
individual’s position and the extent of authority is highest at the top management
levels and reduces successively as we go down the corporate ladder. Thus,
54 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
authority flows from top to bottom, i.e., the superior has authority over the
(ii) Responsibility: Responsibility is the obligation of a subordinate to properly
perform the assigned duty. It arises from a superior–subordinate relationship
because the subordinate is bound to perform the duty assigned to him by his
superior. Thus, responsibility flows upwards i.e., a subordinate will always be
responsible to his superior.
(iii) Accountability: Delegation of authority undoubtedly empowers an employee to
act for his superior but the superior would still be accountable for the outcome:
Accountability implies being answerable for the final outcome. Once authority has
been delegated and responsibility accepted, one cannot deny accountability. It
cannot be delegated and flows upwards i.e., a subordinate will be accountable to a
superior for satisfactory performance of work. It indicates that the manager has to
ensure the proper discharge of duties by his subordinates. It is generally enforced
through regular feedback on the extent of work accomplished. The subordinate
will be expected to explain the consequences of his actions or omissions.
In conclusion, it can be stated that while authority is delegated, responsibility is
assumed, accountability is imposed. Responsibility is derived from authority and
accountability is derived from responsibility
Importance of Delegation
55 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Delegation ensures that the subordinates perform tasks on behalf of the manager
thereby reducing his workload and providing him with more time to concentrate
on important matters. Effective delegation leads to the following benefits:
(i) Effective management
(ii) Employee development
(iii) Motivation of employees
(iv) Facilitation of growth
(v) Basis of management hierarchy
(vi) Better coordination:
In many organizations the top management plays an active role in taking all
decisions while there are others in which this power is given to even the lower
levels of management. Those organizations in which decision making authority lies
with the top management are termed as centralized organizations whereas those in
which such authority is shared with lower levels are decentralized organizations.
Decentralization explains the manner in which decision making responsibilities are
divided among hierarchical levels. Put simply, decentralization refers to delegation
of authority throughout all the levels of the organisation. Decision making
authority is shared with lower levels and is consequently placed nearest to the
points of action. In other words decision making authority is pushed down the
chain of command. When decisions taken by the lower levels are numerous as well
as important an organisation can be regarded as greatly decentralized.
Centralization and Decentralization
Centralization and decentralization are relative terms, as seen from the existing
status of various business enterprises. An organisation is centralized when
decision-making authority is retained by higher management levels whereas it is
56 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
decentralized when such authority is delegated. Complete centralization would
imply concentration of all decision making functions at the apex of the
management hierarchy. Such a scenario would obviate the need for a management
hierarchy. On the other hand, the delegation of all decision making functions to the
lower level of the hierarchy and this would obviate the need for higher managerial
positions. Both the scenarios are unrealistic. An organisation can never be
completely centralized or decentralized. As it grows in size and complexity , there
is a tendency to move towards decentralized decision making. This is because in
large organizations those employees who are directly and closely involved with
certain operations tend to have more knowledge about them than the top
management which may only be indirectly associated with individual operations.
Hence, there is a need for a balance between these co-existing forces. Thus, it can
be said that every organisation will be characterized by both centralization and
Importance of Decentralization
Decentralization is much more than a mere transfer of authority to the lower levels
of management hierarchy. It is a philosophy that implies selective dispersal of
authority because it propagates the belief that people are competent, capable and
resourceful. They can assume the responsibility for the effective implementation of
their decisions .Thus this philosophy recognizes the decision maker’s need for
autonomy. The management, however, needs to carefully select those decisions
which will be pushed down to lower levels and those that will be retained for
higher levels.
Decentralization is a fundamental step and its importance can be understood from
the following points:
57 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
(i) Develops initiative among subordinates
(ii) Develops managerial talent for the future
(iii)Quick decision making
(iv) Relief to top management
(v) Facilitates growth
(vi) Better control
1. Principles of management. Harold Koontz.
2. The Practice of Management. Peter F. Drucker (1954)
3. Out of the Crisis. W. Edwards Deming
4. The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor (1960)
5. The Social Psychology of Organizing. Karl E. Weic k
6. The Age of Unreason (1989), by Charles Handy
Chapter 6: Staffing
Key words: Human resource, Recruitment, Selection, Performance Appraisal
58 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Staffing has been described as the managerial function of filling and keeping filled
the positions in the organisation structure. This is achieved by, first of all,
identifying requirement of work force, followed by recruitment, selection,
59 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
placement, promotion, appraisal and development of personnel, to fill the roles
designed into the organisation structure.
After planning and selection of the organisation structure, the next step in the
management process is to fill the various posts provided in the organisation. This is
termed as the management of staffing function. In the simplest terms, staffing is
‘putting people to jobs’. It begins with workforce planning and includes different
other function like recruitment, selection, training, development, promotion,
compensation and performance appraisal of work force. In other words, staffing is
that part of the process of management which is concerned with obtaining, utilizing
and maintaining a satisfactory and satisfied work force. Today, staffing may
involve any combination of employees including daily wagers, consultants and
contract employees.
Staffing recognizes the importance of every single person employed by an
organisation as it is the individual worker, who is the ultimate performer. Staffing
has been described as the managerial function of filling and keeping filled the
positions in the organisation structure. This is achieved by, first of all, identifying
requirement of work force, followed by recruitment, selection, placement,
promotion, appraisal and development of personnel, to fill the roles designed into
the organisation structure.
Importance of Staffing
In any organisation, there is a need for people to perform work. The staffing
function of management fulfills this requirement and finds the right people for the
60 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
right job. Basically, staffing fills the positions as shown in the organisation
The staffing function has assumed greater importance these days because of rapid
advancement of technology, increasing size of organisation and complicated
behaviour of human beings. Human resources are the most important asset of an
organisation. The ability of an organisation to achieve its goal depends upon the
quality of its human resources. Therefore, staffing is a very important managerial
Proper staffing ensures the following benefits to the organisation:
(i) helps in discovering and obtaining competent personnel for various jobs
(ii) makes for higher performance, by putting right person on the right job
(iii) ensures the continuous survival and growth of the enterprise through the
succession planning for managers;
(iv) helps to ensure optimum utilization of the human resources.
(v) improves job satisfaction and morale of employees through objective
assessment and fair reward for their contribution.
Staffing as part of Human Resource Management
It is a function which all managers need to perform. It is a separate and specialized
function and there are many aspects of human relations to be considered. It is the
job of managers to fill positions in their organisation and to make sure that they
remain occupied with qualified people. Staffing is closely linked to organizing
since after the structure and positions have been decided, people are required to
work in these positions. Subsequently, they need to be trained and motivated to
work in harmony with the goals of the organisation. Thus, staffing is seen as a
generic function of management.
61 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
The staffing function deals with the human element of management. Managing the
human component of an organisation is the most important task because the
performance of an organisation depends upon how well this function is performed.
Human Resource Management includes many specialized activities and duties
which the human resource personnel must perform. These duties are: Recruitment,
i.e., search for qualified people , analyzing jobs, collecting information about jobs
to prepare job description, developing compensation and incentive plans, training
and development of employees for efficient performance and career growth,
maintaining labor relations and union management relations, handling grievances
and complaints, providing for social security and welfare of employees and
defending the company in law suits and avoiding legal complications.
Staffing Process
It involves following steps:
1. Estimating the Manpower Requirements
2. Recruitment
3. Selection
4. Placement and Orientation
5. Training and Development
6. Performance Appraisal
7. Promotion and career planning
8. Compensation
Aspects of Staffing
There are three aspects of staffing: recruitment, selection and training.
62 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Recruitment refers to the process of finding possible candidates for a job or a
function. It has been defined as the process of searching for prospective employees
and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organisation.
Advertising is commonly part of the recruitment process, and can occur through
several means, through newspapers, using newspaper dedicated to job
advertisement, through professional publication, using advertisements placed in
windows, through a job center, through campus interviews, etc.
Sources of Recruitment
The object of recruitment is to attract potential employees with the necessary
characteristics or qualification, in the adequate number for the jobs available. It
locates available people for the job and invites them to apply for the job in the
organisation. The process of recruitment precedes the process of selection of a right
candidate for the given positions in the organisation. Recruitment seeks to attract
suitable applicants to apply for available jobs.
The various activities involved with the process of recruitment includes
(a) Identification of the different sources of labour supply,
(b) Assessment of their validity
(c) Choosing the most suitable source or sources,
and (d) inviting applications from the prospective candidates, for the vacancies.
The requisite positions may be filled up from within the organisation or from
outside. Thus, there are two sources of recruitment – Internal and External.
63 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Internal Sources: There are two important sources of internal recruitment
1. Transfers
2. Promotions.
External Sources: External recruitment provides wide choice and brings new
blood in the organisation. The commonly used external sources of recruitment are
discussed below:
1. Direct Recruitment
2. Casual Callers
3. Advertisement
4. Employment Exchange
5. Placement Agencies and Management Consultants
6. Campus Recruitment
7. Recommendations of Employees
8. Advertising on Television:
9. Web Publishing:
10. Labour Contractors:
Selection is the process of identifying and choosing the best person out of a
number of prospective candidates for a job.
Process of Selection
The important steps in the process of selection are as follows:
(i) Preliminary Screening
(ii) Selection Tests: Important Tests Used for Selection of Employees:
64 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
(a) Intelligence Tests
(b) Aptitude Test
(c) Personality Tests: Personality tests
(d) Trade Test
(e) Interest Tests
(iii) Employment Interview
(iv) Reference and Background Checks
(v)Selection Decision
(vi) Medical Examination
(vii)Job Offer
(viii)Contract of Employment
Training and Development
Training is any process by which the aptitudes, skills and abilities of employees to
perform specific jobs are increased. It is a process of learning new skills and
application of knowledge. It attempts to improve their performance on the current
job or prepare them for any intended job.
Education is the process of increasing the knowledge and understanding of
employees. It is the understanding and interpretation of knowledge. It does not
provide definite answers, but rather develops a logical and rational mind that can
determine relationships among pertinent variables and thereby understand a
65 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow.
It covers not only those activities which improve job performance but also those
which bring about growth of the personality, help individuals in the progress
towards maturity and actualization of their potential
Training Methods
On the Job Methods
(i) Apprenticeship Programmes
(ii) Coaching
(iii) Internship Training
(iv) Job Rotation
Off the Job Methods
i) Class Room Lectures/Conferences
ii) Films
iii) Case Study
iv) Computer Modeling
v) Vestibule Training
vi) Programmed Instruction
Performance Appraisal
Performance appraisal is a regular review of an employee's job performance and
overall contribution to a company. Also known as an annual review, performance
review or evaluation, or employee appraisal, a performance appraisal evaluates an
employee’s skills, achievements, and growth--or lack thereof. Companies use
performance appraisals to give employees big-picture feedback on their work and
66 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
to justify pay increases and bonuses, as well as termination decisions. They can be
conducted at any given time but tend to be annual, semi-annual, or quarterly.
How Performance Appraisals Work
Because companies have a limited pool of funds from which to award raises and
bonuses, performance appraisals help determine how to allocate those funds. They
provide a way for companies to determine which employees have contributed the
most to the company’s growth so companies can reward their top-performing
employees accordingly.
Performance appraisals also help employees and their managers create a plan for
employee development through additional training and increased responsibilities,
as well as to identify shortcomings the employee could work to resolve.
Ideally, the performance appraisal is not the only time during the year that
managers and employees communicate about the employee’s contributions. More
frequent conversations help keep everyone on the same page, develop stronger
relationships between employees and managers, and make annual reviews less
Performance Appraisal Types
Most performance appraisals are top-down, meaning supervisors evaluate their
staff with no input from the subject. But there are other types:
Self-assessment: Individuals rate their job performance and behavior.
Peer assessment: An individual's work group rates his performance.
360-degree feedback assessment: Includes input from an individual,
her supervisor, and her peers.
Negotiated appraisal: A newer trend that utilizes a mediator and attempts to
moderate the adversarial nature of performance evaluations by allowing the
subject to present first. Also focuses on what the individual is doing right
before any criticism is given. This structure tends to be useful during
conflicts between subordinates and supervisors.
Performance Appraisal Criticism
67 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
An issue with performance appraisals is that differentiating individual and
organizational performance can be difficult. If the evaluation's construction doesn't
reflect the culture of a company or organization, it can be detrimental.
Employees report general dissatisfaction with their performance appraisal
processes. Other potential issues include:
Distrust of the appraisal can lead to issues between subordinates and
supervisors or a situation in which employees merely tailor their input to
please their employer.
Performance appraisals can lead to the adoption of unreasonable goals that
demoralize workers or incentivize them to engage in unethical practices.
Some labor experts believe that use of performance appraisals has led to
lower use of merit.
Performance appraisals may lead to unfair evaluations in which employees
are judged not by their accomplishments but by their likability. They can
also lead to managers giving underperforming staff a good evaluation to
avoid souring their relationship.
Unreliable raters can introduce a number of biases that skew appraisal
results toward preferred characteristics or ones that reflect the rater's
Performance appraisals that work well in one culture or job function may not
be useful in another.
1. Principles of management. Harold Koontz.
2. The Essential Drucker (2001), by Peter Drucker
3. On Becoming a Leader (1989), by Warren Bennis
68 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
4. The One Minute Manager (1982), by Kenneth Blanchard and Spencer Johnson
5. Who Moved My Cheese? (1998), by Spencer Johnson
Chapter 7: Directing
Key words: Directing ,Supervision, Motives, Motivation, Incentives,
Leadership, Communication
69 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Directing refers to the process of instructing, guiding, counseling, motivating and
leading people in the organisation to achieve its objectives. Directing is not a mere
issue of communication but encompasses many elements like supervision,
motivation and leadership. It is one of the key managerial functions performed by
every manager. Directing is a managerial process which takes place throughout the
life of an organisation.
The main characteristics of directing are discussed below:
(i) Directing initiates action.
(ii) Directing takes place at every level of management
(iii) Directing is a continuous process
(iv) Directing flows from top to bottom
Importance of Directing
The points which emphasize the importance of directing are presented as follows:
(i) Directing helps to initiate action by people in the organisation towards
attainment of desired objectives. For example, if a supervisor guides his
70 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
subordinates and clarifies their doubts in performing a task, it will help the worker
to achieve work targets given to him.
(ii) Directing integrates employees efforts in the organisation in such a way that
every individual effort contributes to the organizational performance. Thus, it
ensures that the individuals work for organizational goals. For example, a manager
with good leadership abilities will be in a position to convince the employees
working under him that individual efforts and team effort will lead to achievement
of organizational goals.
(iii) Directing guides employees to fully realize their potential and capabilities by
motivating and providing effective leadership. A good leader can always identify
the potential of his employees and motivate them to extract work up to their full
(iv) Directing facilitates introduction of needed changes in the organisation.
Generally, people have a tendency to resist changes in the organisation. Effective
directing through motivation, communication and leadership helps to reduce such
resistance and develop required cooperation in introducing changes in the
organisation. For example, if a manager wants to introduce new system of
accounting, there may be initial resistance from accounting staff. But, if manager
explains the purpose, provides training and motivates with additional rewards, the
employees may accept change and cooperate with manager.
(v) Effective directing helps to bring stability and balance in the organisation since
it fosters cooperation and commitment
Principles of Directing
71 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Providing good and effective directing is a challenging task as it involves many
complexities. A manager has to deal with people with diverse background, and
expectations. This complicates the directing process. Certain guiding principles of
directing may help in directing process. These principles are briefly explained
(i) Maximum individual contribution
(ii) Harmony of objectives
(iii) Unity of Command
(iv) Appropriateness of direction technique
(v) Managerial communication
(vi) Use of informal organisation
(vii) Leadership
(viii) Follow through
Elements of Direction
The process of directing involves guiding, coaching, instructing, motivating,
leading the people in an organisation to achieve organizational objectives.
The elements of directing are:
(i) Supervision
(ii) Motivation
(iii) Leadership
(iv) Communication
The term supervision can be understood in two ways. Firstly, it can be understood
as an element of directing and secondly, as a function performed by supervisors in
the organizational hierarchy.
Supervision being an element of directing, every manager in the organisation
supervises his/her subordinates. In this sense, supervision can be understood as the
72 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
process of guiding the efforts of employees and other resources to accomplish the
desired objectives. It means overseeing what is being done by subordinates and
giving instructions to ensure optimum utilization of resources and achievement of
work targets.
Secondly, supervision can be understood as the function to be performed by
supervisor, a managerial position in the organisation hierarchy at the operative
level i.e., immediately above the worker. The functions and performance of the
supervisor are vital to any organisation because he is directly related with workers
whereas other managers have no direct touch with bottom level workers.
Importance of Supervision
The importance of supervision can be understood from multiple roles performed by
a supervisor. These are explained below:
(i) Supervisor maintains day-to-day contact and maintains friendly relations
with workers. A good supervisor acts as a guide, friend and philosopher to
the workers.
(ii) Supervisor acts as a link between workers and management. This role
played by supervisor helps to avoid misunderstandings and conflicts
between management and workers/employees.
(iii) Supervisor plays a key role in maintaining group unity among workers
placed under his control. He sorts out internal differences and maintains
harmony among workers.
(iv) Supervisor ensures performance of work according to the targets set.
(v) Supervisor provides good on the-job training to the workers and employees.
A skilled and knowledgeable supervisor can build efficient team of workers.
(vi) Supervisory leadership plays a key role in influencing the workers in the
organisation. A supervisor with good leadership qualities can build up high
morale among workers.
73 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
(vii) A good supervisor analyses the work performed and gives feedback to the
Motivation means incitement or inducement to act or move. In the context of an
organisation, it means the process of making subordinates to act in a desired
manner to achieve certain organizational goals.
(i) Motive: A motive is an inner state that energizes, activates or moves
and directs behavior towards goals.
(ii) Motivation: Motivation is the process of stimulating people to
action to accomplish desired goals. Motivation depends upon
satisfying needs of people.
(iii) Motivators: Motivator is the technique used to motivate people in
an organisation.
Features of Motivation:
The analysis of various definitions and viewpoints on motivation reveals the
following features of motivation.
1. Motivation is an internal feeling.
2. Motivation produces goal directed behavior.
3. Motivation can be either positive or negative.
4. Motivation is a complex process as the individuals are heterogeneous in
their expectations, perceptions and reactions.
74 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Importance of Motivation: Motivation is considered important because it helps to
identify and satisfy the needs of human resources in the organisation and thereby
helps in improving their performance.
The importance of motivation can be pointed out by the following benefits:
(i) Motivation helps to improve performance levels of employees as well as
the organisation
(ii) Motivation helps to change negative or indifferent attitudes of employee
to positive attitudes so as to achieve organizational goals.
(iii) Motivation helps to reduce employee turnover and thereby saves the cost
of new recruitment and training
(iv) Motivation helps to reduce absenteeism in the organisation
(v) Motivation helps managers to introduce changes smoothly without much
resistance from people.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory of Motivation
Abraham Maslow, a well-known Psychologist in a classic paper published in 1943,
outlined the elements of an overall theory of motivation. His theory was based on
human needs. He felt that within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of
five needs. These are:
(i) Basic Physiological Needs: These needs are most basic in the hierarchy
and corresponds to primary needs. Hunger, thirst, shelter, sleep and sex
are some examples of these needs. In the organizational context, basic
salary helps to satisfy these needs.
75 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
(ii) Safety/Security Needs: These needs provide security and protection
from physical and emotional harm. Examples: job security, stability of
income, Pension plans etc.,
(iii) Affiliation/Belonging Needs: These needs refer to affection, sense of
belongingness, acceptance and friendship.
(iv) Esteem Needs: These include factors such as self-respect, autonomy
status, recognition and attention.
(v) Self Actualization Needs: It is the highest level of need in the hierarchy.
It refers to the drive to become what one is capable of becoming.
Maslow’s theory is based on the following assumptions:
(i) People’s behaviour is based on their needs. Satisfaction of such needs
influences their behavior.
(ii) People’s needs are in hierarchical order, starting from basic needs to other
higher level needs.
(iii) A satisfied need can no longer motivate a person; only next higher level
need can motivate him.
(iv) A person moves to the next higher level of the hierarchy only when the
lower need is satisfied.
Maslow’s Theory focuses on the needs as the basis for motivation. This
theory is widely recognized and appreciated. However, some of his
propositions are questioned on his classification of needs and hierarchy of
needs. But, despite such criticism, the theory is still relevant because needs,
no matter how they are classified, are important to understand the behavior.
It helps managers to realize that need level of employee should be identified
to provide motivation to them.
76 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory and dual-factor theory
The two-factor theory (also known as Herzberg's motivation-hygiene
theory and dual-factor theory) states that there are certain factors in the workplace
that cause job satisfaction while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction, all
of which act independently of each other.
Two-factor theory distinguishes between:
Motivators (e.g. challenging work, recognition for one's achievement,
responsibility, opportunity to do something meaningful, involvement in
decision making, and sense of importance to an organization) that give positive
satisfaction, arising from intrinsic conditions of the job itself, such as
recognition, achievement, or personal growth.
Hygiene factors (e.g. status, salary, work conditions, good pay, paid
insurance, vacations) that do not give positive satisfaction or lead to higher
motivation, though dissatisfaction results from their absence. The term
"hygiene" is used in the sense that these are maintenance factors. These are
extrinsic to the work itself, and include aspects such as company policies,
supervisory practices, or wages/salary.
Herzberg often referred to hygiene factors as "KITA" factors, which is an
acronym for "kick in the ass", the process of providing incentives or threat of
punishment to make someone do something.
According to the Two-Factor Theory, there are four possible combinations:
1. High Hygiene + High Motivation: The ideal situation where employees are
highly motivated and have few complaints.
2. High Hygiene + Low Motivation: Employees have few complaints but are
not highly motivated. The job is viewed as a paycheck.
77 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
3. Low Hygiene + High Motivation: Employees are motivated but have a lot
of complaints. A situation where the job is exciting and challenging but
salaries and work conditions are not up to par.
4. Low Hygiene + Low Motivation: This is the worst situation where
employees are not motivated and have many complaints.
Financial and Non-Financial Incentives
Incentive means all measures which are used to motivate people to improve
performance. These incentives may be broadly classified as financial and non-
Financial Incentives: Financial incentives refer to incentives which are in direct
monetary form or measurable in monetary term and serve to motivate people for
better performance. These incentives may be provided on individual or group
basis. The financial incentives generally used in organizations are listed below:
(i) Pay and allowances:
(ii) Productivity linked wage incentives
(iii) Bonus:
(iv) Profit Sharing
(v) Co-partnership/ Stock option
(vi) Retirement Benefits:
(vii) Perquisites:
78 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Non-Financial Incentives: Psychological, social and emotional factors also play
important role in providing motivation. Nonfinancial incentives mainly focus on
these needs.
Some of the important non-financial incentives are discussed below:
(i) Status
(ii) Organizational Climate
(iii) Career Advancement Opportunity
(iv) Job Enrichment
(v) Employee Recognition programmes
(vi) Job security
(vii) Employee participation
(viii) Employee Empowerment
1. Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group
objectives. (George Terry).
2. Leadership is the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive
willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of group goals.
(Harold Koontz and Heinz Weihrich).
3. Leadership is a set of interpersonal behaviors designed to influence
employees to cooperate in the achievement of objectives. (Glueck).
4. Leadership is both a process and property. The process of leadership is the
use of noncoercive influence to direct and coordinate the activities of the
members of an organized group towards the accomplishment of group
objectivities. As a property, leadership is the set of qualities or characteristics
attributed to those who are perceived to successfully employ such influence.
(Gay and Strake).
79 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Features of leadership
An examination of the above definition reveals the following important features of
(i) Leadership indicates ability of an individual to influence others.
(ii) Leadership tries to bring change in the behavior of others.
(iii) Leadership indicates interpersonal relations between leaders and followers.
(iv) Leadership is exercised to achieve common goals of the organisation.
(v) Leadership is a continuous process.
Importance of Leadership:
Leadership is a key factor in making any organisation successful. History reveals
that, many times, difference between success and failure of an organisation is
leadership. The importance of leadership can be discussed from the following
benefits to the organisation:
(i) Leadership influences the behavior of people and makes them to
positively contribute their energies for the benefit of the organisation.
Good leaders always produce goods results through their followers.
(ii) A leader maintains personal relations and helps followers in fulfilling
their needs. He provides needed confidence, support and encouragement
and thereby creates congenial work environment.
(iii) Leader plays a key role in introducing required changes in the
organisation. He persuades, clarifies and inspires people to accept
80 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
changes whole-heartedly. Thus, he overcomes the problem of resistance
to change and introduces it with minimum discontentment.
(iv) A leader handles conflicts effectively and does not allow adverse effects
resulting from the conflicts. A good leader always allows his followers to
ventilate their feelings and disagreement but persuades them by giving
suitable clarifications.
(v) Leader provides training to their subordinates. A good leader always
builds up his successor and helps in smooth succession process.
Qualities of Good Leader:
One approach to leadership emphasizes that a person should possess certain
qualities or traits to become a successful leader. It assumes that leaders can be
distinguished from non-leaders by certain unique traits possessed by them. Some
of these qualities are listed below:
(i) Physical features:
(ii) Knowledge
(iii) Integrity
(iv) Initiative.
(v) Communication skills
(vi) Motivation skills
(vii) Self Confidence
(viii) Decisiveness
(ix) Social skills
Leadership Style
There are many theories of leadership behavior and styles. Research studies have
revealed certain traits and qualities which a leader might possess. However, these
are not conclusive since many people may possess these qualities but may not be
81 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
leaders. There are several bases for classifying leadership styles. The most popular
classification of leadership styles is based on the use of authority.
Depending on the use of authority, there are three basic styles of leadership:
(i) Autocratic (ii) Democratic, and (iii) Laissez-faire
(i) Autocratic or Authoritarian leader: An autocratic leader gives orders and
expects his subordinates to obey those orders. If a manager is following this style,
then communication is only one-way with the subordinate only acting according to
the command given by the manager. This leader is dogmatic i.e., does not change
or wish to be contradicted. His following is based on the assumption that reward or
punishment both can be given depending upon the result. This leadership style is
effective in getting productivity in many situations like in a factory where the
supervisor is responsible for production on time and has to ensure labour
productivity. Quick decision-making is also facilitated. But there are variations
also, they may listen to everyone’s opinion, consider subordinates ideas and
concerns but the decision will be their own.
(ii) Democratic or Participative leader: A democratic leader will develop action
plans and makes decisions in consultation with his subordinates. He will encourage
them to participate in decision making. This kind of leadership style is more
common now-a days, since leaders also recognize that people perform best if they
have set their own objectives. They also need to respect the other’s opinion and
support subordinates also perform their duties and accomplish organizational
objectives. They exercise more control by using forces within the group.
(iii) Laissez faire or Free-rein leader: Such a leader does not believe in the use
of power unless it is absolutely essential. The followers are given a high degree of
independence to formulate their own objectives and ways to achieve them. The
82 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
group members work on their own tasks resolving issues themselves. The manager
is there only to support them and supply them the required information to complete
the task assigned. At the same time, the subordinate assumes responsibility for the
work to be performed. Depending upon the situation a leader may choose to
exercise a combination of these styles when required. Even a laissez faire leader
would have certain rules to be followed while doing work and a democratic leader
may have to take his own decision in an emergency situation.
Communication plays key role in the success of a manager. Directing abilities of a
manager mainly depend upon his communication skills. That is why organisation
always emphasizes on improving communication skills of managers as well as
employees. The word communication has been derived from the Latin word
‘communis’ which means ‘common’ which consequently implies common
understanding. Communication is defined in different ways. Generally, it is
understood as a process of exchange of ideas, views, facts, feelings etc., between
or among people to create common understanding.
Elements of Communication
Communication has been defined as a process. This process involves elements like
source, encoding, media/channel, receiver, decoding, noise and feedback.
The elements involved in communication process are explained below:
(i) Sender: Sender means person who conveys his thoughts or ideas to the
receiver. The sender represents source of communication.
83 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
(ii) Message: It is the content of ideas, feelings, suggestions, order etc.,
intended to be communicated.
(iii) Encoding: It is the process of converting the message into
communication symbols such as words, pictures, gestures etc.,
(iv) Media: It is the path through which encoded message is transmitted to
receiver. The channel may be in written form, face to face, phone call,
internet etc.,
(v) Decoding: It is the process of converting encoded symbols of the sender.
(vi) Receiver: The person who receives communication of the sender.
(vii) Feedback: It includes all those actions of receiver indicating that he has
received and understood message of sender.
(viii) Noise: Noise means some obstruction or hindrance to communication.
This hindrance may be caused to sender, message or receiver. Some
examples of noise are:
(a) Ambiguous symbols that lead to faulty encoding.
(b) A poor telephone connection.
(c) An inattentive receiver.
(d) Faulty decoding (attaching wrong meanings to message).
(e) Prejudices obstructing the poor understanding of message.
(f ) Gestures and postures that may distort the message.
Importance of Communication
Communication is one of the most central aspects of managerial activities. It has
been estimated that a manager spends 90 percent of his time in communicating-
reading, writing, listening, guiding, instructing, approving, reprimanding, etc.
Effectiveness of a manager depends significantly on his ability to communicate
effectively with his superiors, subordinates and external agencies such as bankers,
suppliers, union and government.
The importance of communication in management can be judged from the
84 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
(i) Acts as basis of coordination.
(ii) Helps in smooth working of an enterprise.
(iii) Acts as basis of decision making.
(iv) Increases managerial efficiency.
(v) Promotes cooperation and industrial peace.
(vi) Establishes effective leadership.
(vii) Boosts morale and provides motivation.
Formal and Informal Communication
Communication taking place within an organisation may be broadly classified as
formal and informal communication.
Formal Communication
Formal communication flows through official channels designed in the
organisation chart. This communication may take place between a superior and
subordinate, a subordinate and superior or among same cadre employees or
managers. The communications may be oral or written but generally recorded and
filed in the office. Formal communication may be further classified as Vertical
and Horizontal. Vertical communication flows vertically i.e., upwards or
downwards through formal channels. Upward communications refer to flow of
communication from subordinate to superior whereas downward communication
indicates communication from a superior to subordinate. The examples of upward
communication are – application for grant of leave, submission of progress report,
request for grants etc. Similarly, the examples of downward communication
include – sending notice to employees to attend a meeting, ordering subordinates to
complete an assigned work, passing on guidelines framed by top management to
85 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
the subordinates etc. Horizontal or lateral communication takes place between one
division and another.
The pattern through which communication flows within the organisation is
generally indicated through communication network. Different types of
communication networks may operate in formal organisation
(i) Single chain: This network exists between a supervisor and his
subordinates. Since many levels exist in an organisation structure,
communication flows from every superior to his subordinate through
single chain.
(ii) Wheel: In wheel network, all subordinates under one superior
communicate through him only as he acts as a hub of the wheel. The
subordinates are not allowed to talk among themselves.
(iii) Circular: In circular network, the communication moves in a circle. Each
person can communicate with his adjoining two persons. In this network,
communication flow is slow.
(iv) Free flow: In this network, each person can communicate with others
freely. The flow of communication is fast in this network.
(v) Inverted V: In this network, a subordinate is allowed to communicate with his
immediate superior as well as his superior’s superior.
Informal Communication
Communication that takes place without following the formal lines of
communication is said to be informal communication. Informal system of
communication is generally referred to as the ‘grapevine’ because it spreads
throughout the organisation with its branches going out in all directions in utter
disregard to the levels of authority. The informal communication arises out of
86 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
needs of employees to exchange their views, which cannot be done through formal
channels. Workers chit chating in a canteen about the behaviour of the superior,
discussing about rumours that some employees are likely to be transferred are
some examples of informal communications. The grapevine/ informal
communication spreads rapidly and sometimes gets distorted. It is very difficult to
detect the source of such communication. It also leads to generate rumours which
are not authentic. People’s behavior is affected by rumours and informal
discussions and sometimes may hamper work environment. Sometimes, grapevine
channels may be helpful as they carry information rapidly and, therefore, may be
useful to the manager at times. Informal channels are used by the managers to
transmit information so as to know the reactions of his/her subordinates. An
intelligent manager should make use of positive aspects of informal channels and
minimize negative aspects of this channel of communication.
Barriers to Communication
It is generally observed that managers face several problems due to communication
breakdowns or barriers. These barriers may prevent a communication or filter part
87 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
of it or carry incorrect meaning due to which misunderstandings may be created.
Therefore, it is important for a manager to identity such barriers and take measures
to overcome them. The barriers to communication in the organizations can be
broadly grouped as: semantic barriers, psychological barriers, organizational
barriers, and personal barriers.
These are briefly discussed below:
Semantic barriers
Semantics is the branch of linguistics dealing with the meaning of words and
sentences. Semantic barriers are concerned with problems and obstructions in the
process of encoding and decoding of message into words or impressions.
Normally, such barriers result on account of use of wrong words, faulty
translations, different interpretations etc. These are discussed below:
(i) Badly expressed message
(ii) Symbols with different meanings:
(iii) Faulty translations
(iv) Unclarified assumptions
(v) Technical jargon
(vi) Body language and gesture decoding
Psychological barriers
Emotional or psychological factors acts as barriers to communicators. For
example, a worried person cannot communicate properly and an angry receiver
cannot understand the real meaning of message. The state of mind of both sender
and receiver of communication reflects in the effective communication. Some of
the psychological barriers are:
88 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
(i) Premature evaluation: Sometimes people evaluate the meaning of message
before the sender completes his message. Such premature evaluation may be due
to pre-conceived notions or prejudices against the communication.
(ii) Lack of attention: The preoccupied mind of receiver and the resultant non-
listening of message acts as a major psychological barrier. For instance, an
employee explains about his problems to the boss who is pre-occupied with an
important file before him. The boss does not grasp the message and the employee
is disappointed.
(iii)Loss by transmission and poor retention: When communication passes
through various levels, successive transmissions of the message results in loss of,
or transmission of inaccurate information. This is more so in case of oral
communication. Poor retention is another problem. Usually people cannot retain
the information for a long time if they are inattentive or not interested.
(iv)Distrust between communicator and communicate acts as a barrier. If the
parties do not believe each other, they cannot understand each others message in
its original sense.
Organizational barriers:
The factors related to organisation structure, authority relationships, rules and
regulations may, sometimes, act as barriers to effective communication.
Some of these barriers are:
89 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
(i) Organizational policy: If the organizational policy, explicit or
implicit, is not supportive to free flow of communication, it may
hamper effectiveness of communications. For example, in an
organisation with highly centralized pattern, people may not be
encouraged to have free communication.
(ii) Rules and regulations: Rigid rules and cumbersome procedures may
be a hurdle to communication. Similarly, communications through
prescribed channel may result in delays.
(iii) Status: Status of superior may create psychological distance between
him and his subordinates. A status conscious manager also may not
allow his subordinates to express their feelings freely.
(iv) Complexity in organisation structure: In an organisation where
there are number of managerial levels, communication gets delayed
and distorted as number of filtering points are more.
(v) Organizational facilities: If facilities for smooth, clear and timely
communications are not provided communications may be hampered.
Facilities like frequent meetings, suggestion box, complaint box,
social and cultural gathering, transparency in operations etc., will
encourage free flow of communication. Lack of these facilities may
create communication problems.
Personal barriers: The personal factors of both sender and receiver may exert influence
on effective communication. Some of the personal barriers of superiors and subordinates
are mentioned below:
(i) Fear of challenge to authority
(ii) Lack of confidence of superior on his subordinates
(iii) Unwillingness to communicate
(iv) Lack of proper incentives
90 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Improving Communication Effectiveness
The barriers to effective communication exists in all organizations to a greater or
lesser degree. Organizations keen on developing effective communication should
adopt suitable measures to overcome the barriers and improve communication
effectiveness. Some such measures are indicated below:
(i) Clarify the ideas before communication: The problem to be
communicated to subordinates should be clear in all its perspective to the
executive himself. The entire problem should be studied in depth,
analyzed and stated in such a manner that is clearly conveyed to
(ii) Communicate according to the needs of receiver: The level of
understanding of receiver should be crystal clear to the communicator.
Manager should adjust his communication according to the education and
understanding levels of subordinates.
(iii) Consult others before communicating: Before actually
communicating the message, it is better to involve others in developing a
plan for communication. Participation and involvement of subordinates
may help to gain ready acceptance and willing cooperation of
(iv) Be aware of languages, tone and content of message: The contents of
the message, tone, language used, manner in which the message is to be
communicated are the important aspects of effective communication. The
language used should be understandable to the receiver and should not
91 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
offend the sentiments of listeners. The message should be stimulating to
evoke response from the listeners.
(v) Convey things of help and value to listeners: While conveying
message to others, it is better to know the interests and needs of the
people with whom you are communicating. If the message relates
directly or indirectly to such interests and needs it certainly evokes
response from communicate.
(vi) Ensure proper feedback: The communicator may ensure the success of
communication by asking questions regarding the message conveyed.
The receiver of communication may also be encouraged to respond to
communication. The communication process may be improved by the
feedback received to make it more responsive.
(vii) Communicate for present as well as future: Generally, communication
is needed to meet the existing commitments to maintain consistency, the
communication should aim at future goals of the enterprise also.
(viii) Follow up communications: There should be regular follow up and
review on the instructions given to subordinates. Such follow up
measures help in removing hurdles if any in implementing the
instructions. (ix) Be a good listener: Manager should be a good listener.
Patient and attentive listening solves half of the problems. Managers
should also give indications of their interest in listening to their
92 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
1. Principles of management. Harold Koontz.
2. The Practice of Management. Peter F. Drucker (1954)
3. Out of the Crisis. W. Edwards Deming
4. The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor (1960)
5. Emotional Intelligence (1995). Daniel Goleman
6. The Essential Drucker (2001), by Peter Drucker
7. On Becoming a Leader (1989), by Warren Bennis
8. The One Minute Manager (1982), by Kenneth Blanchard and Spencer Johnson
9. Leading Change (1996), by John P. Kotter
Chapter 8: Controlling
Key words: Controlling, Coordinating, Management, Performance,
93 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
Definition: Controlling involves comparison of actual performance with the
planned performance. If there is any difference or deviation, then finding the
reasons for such difference and taking corrective measures or action to stop those
reasons so that they don‘t re-occur in future and that organizational objectives are
fulfilled efficiently.
Importance of Controlling
1. Controlling helps in achieving organizational goals: The controlling function
measures progress towards the organizational goals and brings to light/indicates
corrective action.
2. For Evaluating/Judging accuracy of standards: A good control system
enables management to verify whether the standards set are accurate or not by
careful check on the changes taking place in the organizational environment.
3. Making efficient use of resources: By the process of control, a manager seeks
to reduce wastage of resources.
94 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
4. Improves employees motivation: A good control system ensures that
employees know well in advance what they are expected to do & also the
standard of performance. It thus motivates & helps them to give better
5. Facilitating Coordination in action: In controlling each department and
employee is governed by predetermined standards which are well coordinated
with one another. Control provides unity of direction.
6. Ensuring order and discipline: Controlling creates an atmosphere of order
and discipline in the organization by keeping a close check on the activities of
its employees.
Nature of Controlling/Features of Controlling
1. Goal oriented: Controlling is directed towards accomplishment of
organizational goals in the best possible manner.
2. Pervasive: Controlling is an essential function of every manager and exercised
at all levels of management.
3. Continuous: It is not an activity to be pursued in the end only; it has to be done
on a continuous basis.
4. Controlling is looking back: Controlling involves measurement of actual
performance and its comparison with the desired performance. It is the process of
checking and verification.
5. Controlling is forward looking: It is related to future because it seeks to
improve future results on the basis of experience gained in the past.
6. Depends on planning: It pre supposes existence of planning because without
planning no control is possible.
7. Action oriented*: Control has no meaning if no corrective action is taken; So
timely action should be taken to prevent deviations.
95 | P a g e
Management: Science, Theory and Practice
8. Primary Function of Management– controlling is performed at all levels and in
all types of organizations.
9. Brings back management cycle back to planning:* Control should not be viewed
as the last function. In fact it links back to planning. Controlling involves
Relationship between Planning and Controlling
Planning and controlling are interrelated and in fact reinforce each