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Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis (Link) C.K. Schneider is an evergreen shrub widely grown in Israel, the Middle East, South America, Africa, India and Australia used as an agricultural crop for commercial purposes and as a source of its non-edible natural wax. It is widely used in pharmaceutics and cosmetic formulation due to its unique structural characteristics and beneficial health effects. In addition, extensive work has been published on the plant’s health-promoting activities, ranging from antioxidant activities to the treatment of cancer. Being a rich source of natural liquid wax, the majority of research regarding jojoba focuses on its applications, as well as on the ability to exploit the residual plant materials obtained in its production. To date, several potent phytochemicals have been attributed to its medicinal properties, e.g. simmondsin and phenolic compounds. The current review emphasizes the evidence-based medicinal qualities of the wax and plant extracts and highlights the gaps of knowledge in these research areas and the importance of acquiring additional understanding of jojoba distinctive traits.
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Medicinal properties of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis)
Zipora Tietela, Shirin Kahremanyb, Guy Cohenb,c and Navit Ogen-Shternb,c
aDepartment of Food Science, Gilat Research Center, Agricultural Research Organization, MP Negev 8531100, Israel; bThe Skin Re-
search Institute, The Dead-Sea and Arava Science Center, Masada, 86910, Israel; cBen Gurion University of the Negev, Eilat Campus,
Eilat 8855630, Israel
Jojoba,Simmondsia chinensis (Link) C.K. Schneider is an evergreen shrub widely grown in Israel,
the Middle East, South America, Africa, India and Australia used as an agricultural crop for com-
mercial purposes and as a source of its non-edible natural wax. It is widely used in pharmaceutics
and cosmetic formulation due to its unique structural characteristics and benecial health eects.
In addition, extensive work has been published on the plant’s health-promoting activities, ranging
from antioxidant activities to the treatment of cancer. Being a rich source of natural liquid wax, the
majority of research regarding jojoba focuses on its applications, as well as on the ability to exploit
the residual plant materials obtained in its production. To date, several potent phytochemicals
have been attributed to its medicinal properties, e.g. simmondsin and phenolic compounds. The
current review emphasizes the evidence-based medicinal qualities of the wax and plant extracts
and highlights the gaps of knowledge in these research areas and the importance of acquiring
additional understanding of jojoba distinctive traits.
Introduction – Jojoba, the desert gold
Jojoba,Simmondsia chinensis (Link) C.K. Schneider (Fig.
1), is an ever-green dioecious shrub growing in arid and
semi-arid areas. This desert shrub can be grown in harsh,
low irrigation and high-temperature environment (Ash
et al. 2005), and it is tolerant to various environmental
conditions (Kumar et al. 2012; Arya & Khan 2016). Taxo-
nomically, it is the single member of the Simmondsia-
ceae family (Chase et al. 2016). The plant is native to Baja
California and the Sonoran Desert in north-central Mex-
ico and the southwestern United States. It was rst men-
tioned in the literature by the Mexican historian Clavi-
jero (1789) as a plant used by native-Americans in Baja
California for its medicinal properties and as currency for
the exchange of goods. A number of botanists, the rst
of whom was Link, presented initial descriptions of the
plant and granted it its scientic name and taxonomic
classication (Daugherty et al. 1958). Since the 1930s,
jojoba has been scientically studied. Research intensi-
ed during the 1950s, when jojoba wax was suggested
as a substitute for banned whale sperm oil, and com-
mercial interest in jojoba as a new agricultural industry
emerged (Benzioni 2010). Due to its similarity to whale
sperm oil, it was originally used mainly as a renewable
non-animal substitute for industrial needs (Gisser et al.
1975). First successes in domesticating jojoba occurred
in California and Arizona in the late 1960s and shortly
after also in Israel (Benzioni 2010).
Jojoba; medicinal properties;
antioxidant; dermatology;
bioactive molecules;
Simmondsia chinensis;
Received  August 
Accepted  December 
© Tietel et al., 2021
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC BY-NC 4.0 license../-bja
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Genetics and diversity
Being a dioecious plant, the genetic variability of jo-
joba is translated into hundreds of cultivated clones,
which hardens obtaining homogenous desired fea-
tures such as the quantity of seeds, and the quality
and yield of the liquid wax. Hence, the majority of cul-
tivation is performed using vegetative propagation of
mother plants, which reduces genetic variability but
paradoxically leads to genetic vulnerability (Al-Obaidi
et al. 2017). In light of this, it is especially important to
understand the genotypes responsible for the quality
of jojoba propagation and the content of jojoba seeds,
as well as additional compounds. Several studies were
published in this regard. Of these, few demonstrated
variability in the content and quality of jojoba oil, and
additional compounds, such as simmondsin (will be
later elaborated) content among dierent jojoba gen-
otypes (Benzioni et al. 2005; Al-Soqeer et al. 2012). In
parallel, several methods for detecting genetic poly-
morphism and providing genotypes with molecular
ngerprinting have been published and described in
more detail in (Al-Obaidi et al. 2017). Clearly, it is still
worthwhile to place great emphasis on understanding
the genetics of jojoba. In addition, the impact of cul-
tivation seems to play a key role in its variable yields
(Atteya et al. 2018; Khattab et al. 2019).
Market and usages
The uniqueness of the jojoba plant stems from the
unusual presence, amount, and chemical structure of
liquid wax in its seeds, which consists of approximate-
ly 50% of the seed weight (Al-Widyan & Al-Muhtaseb
2010). Jojoba wax, also termed jojoba oil, is com-
prised of long-chain esters. These can be exploited
in several industrial applications, most prominent are
pharmaceutics and cosmetics, due to the structural
resemblance with human skin sebum and structural
properties. Additional industrial uses that previously
utilized whale sperm oil take advantage of jojoba oil in
the production of plastics, detergents, renewable en-
ergy, and lubricants (Al-Widyan & Al-Muhtaseb 2010;
Sandouqa & Al-Hamamre 2019; Vaillant et al. 2019). As
a high yielding non-edible oil, its use as a raw mate-
rial for the creation of biodiesel has been considered
(Sandouqa & Al-Hamamre 2019). Of note, jojoba oil
global production is growing rapidly, and has already
exceeded 15,000 tons (2018) and is expected to reach
22,000 tons by 2022 (Worldwide analysis on the jojoba
oil market; Bilin et al. 2018). This tremendous growth
may be due to market demands, or alternatively, sug-
gests an uncontrolled increase that will result in conse-
quent over-supply, emphasizing the need to develop
novel jojoba-based products and usages.
Aside from the oil, other parts of the jojoba plant
possess properties that may become valuable (Wis-
niak 1994), e.g. jojoba meal and leaves were found to
have various other potential uses. The meal is rich in
proteins and bers, and as such, has the potential to
be used as food or staple feed. However, it contains an-
ti-nutritional factors, a problem that still has to be in-
dustrially overcome (Reddy & Chikara 2010). The meal
was also suggested as an anti-rodent agent (Al-Obaidi
et al. 2017). In addition, leaves were found to possess
potential medicinal properties, as further described in
detail below. From an ecological perspective, the plant
can also contribute to combat desertication due to
its ability to grow in arid areas (Al-Obaidi et al. 2017).
Like its usages, jojoba-based analyses can be roughly
divided into two main sections: evaluation of its liquid
Figure 1. Jojoba, grown in kibbutz Hatzerim, Israel. Pictures by Yair Arazi.
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wax and identication of phytochemicals in other
plant parts, including the jojoba meal obtained follow-
ing the extraction process.
Oil extraction methods and concomitant
As mentioned earlier, jojoba wax is comprised of ap-
proximately 50% seed weight. However, to obtain pure
oil, several steps are required. After the initial harvest,
jojoba seeds are rst cleaned to remove rough de-
bris, such as dust and leaves, and are then typically
left to dry and dehull (Arya & Khan 2016). To obtain a
high yield, a combination of mechanical pressure and
chemical extraction using hexane (or other organic
solvents) is necessary (Wisniak 1994). The downside of
this process is the environmental impact and econom-
ic price of the organic solvent. Usage of other solvents,
such as chloroform and isopropanol has been tested
and found to be less ecient and occasionally with
leftover traces in the oil (Wisniak 1994; Abu-Arabi et al.
2000). Supercritical CO2, which is a solvent-free meth-
od, showed similar or higher oil yield, however, typi-
cally its initial establishment price is high. In addition
to its pre-mentioned disadvantages, solvent extrac-
tion also results in lower quality wax. Thus, jojoba oil is
currently mechanically extracted by cold-press meth-
od, at low heat, to conserve its quality characteristics,
e.g. tocopherol contents (El-Mallah & El-Shami 2009).
Naturally, the oil yield of this method is relatively low,
as some oil is retained in the meal (Kibbutz Hazerim,
personal communication), but the resulting wax is of
high quality.
Jojoba oil is a mixture of long-chain (C36-C46) es-
ters of fatty acid and fatty alcohol, distinguishing it
from other vegetable oils, which are triglyceride-based
(Figure 2) (Mokhtari et al. 2019). This gold-yellow odor-
less oxidation-resistant wax is liquid at room tempera-
ture, which is another unique characteristic dierenti-
ating it from other natural waxes used in cosmetics (Le
Dréau et al. 2009; Zięba et al. 2015).
Meticulous analysis demonstrated that the main
fatty chains composing the wax are C20:1 and C22:1
of both acids and alcohols, with changes of the ex-
act percentage linked to both genetic and environ-
mental factors (Busson-Breysse et al. 1994; Agarwal
et al. 2018). Trace elements have also been reported
in the wax (Agarwal et al. 2018). Free fatty acids, also
present in the wax, are negatively correlated with
wax quality (El-Mallah & El-Shami 2009). Tocopherols
and phytosterols, two other groups of bioactive me-
dicinal molecules, have also been observed in jojoba
oil. Tocopherols are common in oil crops, serving as
lipophilic antioxidants and oil stabilizers that also
possess health-promoting properties. In jojoba oil,
they were reported at relatively high concentrations
of 417 ppm, with gamma-tocopherol as the main
form (79.2%), and alpha, beta and delta-tocopherol
at lower concentrations (El-Mallah & El-Shami 2009).
Phytosterols are another group of characteristic com-
pounds of oil, with structural resemblance to choles-
terol. Thus, their consumption is recommended as
cholesterol-lowering treatment. In jojoba, various
types were recorded, including sitosterol, campes-
terol and stigmasterol (Busson-Breysse et al. 1994;
Ogbe et al. 2015)
Chemical parameters for wax quality analysis have
not been established yet, although such parameters
are very common in other oil crops, e.g. olive oil. Qual-
ity grading might allow growers to receive better com-
pensations for their high-quality wax.
Jojoba meal and other plant part
The remaining cake after oil extraction process (jo-
joba meal) is rich in dietary bers and proteins.
Figure 2. Jojoba oil (wax) structure.
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However, the presence of simmondsin, a unique jo-
joba secondary metabolite and a principal bioactive
component of jojoba, and its derivatives, prevents its
use as food or animal feed purposes. Simmondsin,
2-(cyanomethylene)-3-hydroxy-4,5- dimethoxycyclo-
hexyl-beta-D-glucoside (Figure 3) is present in seeds,
hulls, leaves, twigs and roots of jojoba. Approximately
5% of jojoba meal is simmondsin with additional 0.5–
1% of derivatives, of which the 2’-ferulate is the main
one. Isolated and characterized by Elliger et al. almost
thirty years ago, this unique molecule is toxic at high
concentrations and has an anorexic action at lower
levels (Elliger et al. 1973). Due to its cyano group, it is
listed as an antinutritional compound and thorough
removal of its content is required prior to usage as
animal feed. Thus, several methodologies have been
investigated for the neutralization/removal of this
agent prior to usage as feed supplements, including
chemical and enzymatic approaches (Verbiscar et al.
1981; Bouali et al. 2008; Elsanhoty et al. 2017). How-
ever, usage of simmondsin at low and at non-toxic
range may be harnessed as a health-promoting agent
as specied below. Unlike its well-characterized oil,
other parts of jojoba plant are yet to be fully explored
for their phytochemical composition. So far, research
was mainly performed on simmondsin and deriva-
tives, and on selected bioactive polyphenolic com-
pounds (described below). To date, comprehensive
in-depth metabolomic evaluation of the leaf, roots,
twigs and meal is still lacking and therefore other
unique compounds may be discovered in the near
Medicinal properties
Antioxidant capacity
When evaluating the medicinal properties of a plant,
one of the most basic and simple characterizations re-
lies on the evaluation of its antioxidant capacity and
total phenolic content. Indeed, several studies have
evaluated jojoba antioxidant activity with various
methods and extraction methodologies.
Kara has evaluated the scavenging capacity of
methanolic and ethanolic extract of both the seed and
leaf of jojoba by the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl
(DPPH) method (Kara 2017). This colorimetric method
uses a stable free radical, which becomes discolored
in the presence of an anti-oxidant, either transferring
an electron or donating hydrogen (Brand-Williams et
al. 1995).In this system, all jojoba extracts were found
to possess similar scavenging ecacy (approximately
40% at 500 µg/ml). However, when determined by lin-
oleic acid bleaching assay, the antioxidant activity of
the methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts was twice
as much as those measured for the seeds (45 nmol/g).
These conicting results may be due to the inherent dif-
ference between the methods and the favor of lipophilic
moieties in the second system. An interesting study by
Wagdy et al. investigated the possible usage of the seed
hull extract and found a considerable scavenging eect
in similar methodologies described above (Wagdy &
Taha 2012). This approach is of high interest, as typically
the hulls are a waste product of jojoba wax production,
while these authors showed that the hulls may provide
additional value in the industry. The impact of cultiva-
Figure 3. Simmondsin and derivatives.
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tion conditions on the antioxidant properties has also
been investigated, and it was reported that jojoba anti-
oxidant activity of the methanolic leaf extract could be
increased by 50% in enriched cultivation conditions (ad-
dition of putrescine and Moringa extract) in comparison
to control conditions (Taha et al. 2015).
Abdel-Wahhab at al. investigated the hepatopro-
tective impact of jojoba ethanolic seed extract in vivo.
Both low and high dosage (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, respec-
tively) attenuated liver oxidative stress in mycotoxin-
induced damage model. Malondialdehyde (mda ) levels,
an important r os-derived lipid peroxidation product of
polyunsaturated fatty acids, was doubled in the myco-
toxin group but dropped upon jojoba treatment. Con-
comitantly, the liver levels of the anti-oxidant enzyme
superoxide dismutase (sod) were raised to those of the
control group (Abdel-Wahhab et al. 2015). However,
these impressive results may not be exclusively attrib-
uted to direct jojoba antioxidant capacity, and can re-
sult from secondary action of jojoba extract, as it also
reduced inammation and hepatocellular necrosis in
that model (Abdel-Wahhab et al. 2015).
The majority of studies regarding jojoba do not
pinpoint the active compound assigned for the anti-
oxidant capacity of the above-mentioned extracts. In-
depth chemical analysis is still required in order to gain
insight into the active molecule or molecules. A com-
prehensive work was performed by Abdel-Mageed et
al, identifying avonoid aglycones from the ethanolic
leaf extract of jojoba (Abdel-Mageed et al. 2014). Quer-
cetin 3-methyl ether (isorhamnetin), quercetin 3,3-di-
methylether, and quercetin showed strong antioxidant
activity and lipoxygenase inhibition (Fig. 4). In a recent
study conducted in hyperglycemia-induced oxidative
stress model, it was found that simmondsin, one of the
principal bioactive components in jojoba mentioned
above, is sucient to reduce pancreatic beta-cell dam-
age, which may explain the protective antioxidant
properties of jojoba extract. The contribution of to-
copherol on the antioxidant capacity of the oil should
also be evaluated. The collective results demonstrate
that mainly leaf and hull extracts of jojoba, may pos-
sess strong antioxidant properties that can be used
as a remedy for oxidative stress-related pathologies.
However, it should be noted that the safety of such
extracts should be clinically validated for both their
safety and ecacy prior to usage as food supplements
or other health-promoting products.
Anti-fungal and anti-microbial properties
New antimicrobial agents are of constant need due to
the rise in antibiotic-resistant germs. The hypothesis
that jojoba may present such properties has been in-
vestigated by several research groups. Jojoba extracts
derived from hulls (extracted in 80% methanol, ethanol,
Figure 4. Bioactive flavonoids isolated from jojoba leaf (adapted from Abdel-Mageed et al. ).
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acetone, isopropanol and ethyl acetate) showed sig-
nicant anti-bacterial properties (Wagdy & Taha 2012);
Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus,
Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium
growth was inhibited in various degrees of ecacy.
The authors suggested that this phenomenon is in cor-
relation with ethnobotanical knowledge. However, the
active molecule(s) or mechanism of action (moa) were
not elucidated in this preliminary evaluation. Abu-
Salem and Ibrahim have also shown high ecacy on
both bacteria and fungi of root extract and latex of the
plant (Abu-Salem & Ibrahim 2014). In separate works,
antibacterial and antifungal activities were also found
for jojoba oil (Pooja Umaiyal et al. 2016; Al-Ghamdi et
al. 2019). Thus, it seems that the active agent(s) are not
restricted to a specic part of the plant. However, it is
important to mention that several other reports evalu-
ating similar extracts found no noticeable antimicrobial
activity. This discrepancy may be due to the bacterial
strains used, as well as the cultivating and genetic dif-
ferences between the plants (Elnimiri & Nimir 2011; Al-
Qizwini et al. 2014). In addition, although all researchers
used routine evaluation systems (agar diusion assay,
disc diusion assay and minimal inhibitory concentra-
tion (mic)), these models may be dierent between lab-
oratories and any modication may aect the obtained
results signicantly (Balouiri et al. 2016).
In a very interesting examination, the two gluco-
sides, simmondsin and simmondsin 2-ferulate have
been isolated form jojoba, and tested for their bioac-
tivity (Abbassy et al. 2007). In that study, both agents
showed high ecacy with moderated potency (Half
maximal eective concentration (EC50) of approxi-
mately 150 mg/l) against plant pathogenic fungi. Simi-
lar studies are required in order to attribute the antimi-
crobial properties to simmondsin, its derivatives, and
other compounds.
Dermatology and skin care
The skin is a vital homeostatic organ that acts as a
physical, chemical, and biological barrier (Gvirtz et al.
2020; Kahremany et al. 2020). As chronically exposed
to deleterious actions of the environment, its appear-
ance may be aected and extrinsic aging of the skin
may become visible (Choi 2019; Ogen-Shtern et al.
2020). Jojoba oil has long been used in dermo-cos-
metic products. Amongst its main functions, jojoba is
a key component of the oil phase in numerous topical
formulations (Di Berardino et al. 2006). In addition to
its structural importance to the formulation stability,
jojoba oil also serves as a carrier and enhancer of the
active compounds (Nasr et al. 2016). In addition, the an-
tioxidant and tocopherol content of jojoba mentioned
above may be used to reduce skin-related oxidative
stress (Kahremany et al. 2019). However, it should be
noted that jojoba can also exert contact dermatitis
(Wantke et al. 1996; Di Berardino et al. 2006) and may
be absorbed systemically if high topical amounts are
applied (Yaron et al. 1980; Matsumoto et al. 2019).
Numerous dermo-cosmetic products use jojoba as
part of their formulation and to date, almost 200 In-
ternational Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients
(INCI) entries are listed with jojoba and derivatives.
However, its benecial potential as an active agent
in skin care has not been thoroughly investigated, in-
cluding the lack of large control trial supporting its ef-
fectiveness while used in massage, a key end-usage in
the current jojoba oil market.
Several clinical cosmetic trials have investigated the
properties of jojoba dermal applications. For instance,
it was reported that the addition of jojoba hydrolyzed
ester to lotions can enhance skin hydration by reduction
of trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) (Meyer et al. 2008).
In a separate study, increasing concentrations of jojoba
oil in cream formulations enhanced their moisturizing
properties (Zięba et al. 2015). Nevertheless, it is exceed-
ingly dicult to elucidate the impact of jojoba in this
setup, separating its impact from the rest of the formula.
Thus, to evaluate whether this liquid wax has direct ac-
tion on epidermal and dermal layers, a more direct ap-
proach is of need. To address this, Ranzato et al. have
used the scratch assay, in which a wound is inicted by a
tip on dermal keratinocytes and broblast cell monolay-
ers (Ranzato et al. 2011). Their data demonstrated that
jojoba wax is safe at a wide range of concentrations and
may enhance wound closure in both keratinocytes and
broblasts cultures. They also have shown that jojoba
treatment triggers collagen synthesis in broblasts. Ca+
dependent mechanism that requires the involvement
of the PI3K–Akt–mTOR pathway and of the p38 and
ERK1/2 was suggested by the authors.
Interestingly, the benecial impact of jojoba oil on
psoriasis has also been suggested (Pazyar & Yaghoobi
2016). This chronic inammatory skin disease is typi-
cally displayed as plaques, covered with thick, silvery,
shiny scales that hampers the quality of life of the pa-
tients (Rendon & Schäkel 2019). El Mogy suggested
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that jojoba oil without or with 2% salicylic acid can
improve psoriatic skin (El Mogy 2005). In two clini-
cal trials, jojoba oil-based microemulsion was used
as a platform for enhancing the action of commercial
drugs (Nasr et al. 2016; Ramez et al. 2018). Further in vi-
tro and clinical studies are required to understand the
potential use of jojoba in psoriasis.
Acne-prone, lesioned skin is the result of combined
excessive sebum production, bacterial settlement, and
inammation. Results of a study by Meier et al. show that
treatment with jojoba oil clay facial masks can reduce
pustules, papules, cysts and comedones (Meier et al.
2012). Importantly, the study demonstrated the impact
of dermatological conditions on quality of life at a cost-
eective treatment regime. Other animal-studies experi-
ments, demonstrating anti-inammatory action of jojoba
oil (see below) may also be relevant to the eect on acne.
Metabolic syndrome and metabolism
The metabolic syndrome is a set of metabolic abnormal-
ities such as insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver
disease, glucose intolerance, obesity and type 2 diabe-
tes. A recent study by Belhadj et al. demonstrated that
incorporation of jojoba seed in the diet of rats might
reduce the deleterious eects of a high-fat diet and
high fructose diet (Belhadj et al. 2020). In their study, a
marked reduction was observed in insulin resistance, fat
mass and renal complications in the treatment group.
These ndings were accompanied by reduction in the
rat body mass, and thus the author concluded that this
anorexic impact is the main cause of the jojoba regi-
men. Their results are also in line with previous studies
demonstrating that jojoba leaf extract may reduce body
weight in rats (Makpoul et al. 2017). Interestingly, sim-
mondsin, present in both jojoba oil and leaf extracts,
has already been shown to reduce food intake in rats,
suggesting that the impact of jojoba on appetite is me-
diated by this unique molecule (Cokelaere et al. 1995).
In addition, a direct eect of simmondsin was observed
in pancreatic beta-cells, suggesting a multi-site action
of the molecule (Belhadj et al. 2018).
Additional medicinal values and the future of
jojoba research
Other scattered reports have shown additional health
benecial impacts of jojoba oil and extracts. For
instance, jojoba has been reported to possess anti-
inammatory properties, both in vitro and in vivo (Ha-
bashy et al. 2005). This may be linked to the ability of
the plant extract and simmondsinto inhibit with high
potency both lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase
(COX), key enzymes in the inammation cascade. LOX
and COX are responsible mainly for the metabolism of
arachidonic acid, generating its downstream signaling
and inammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins,
leukotrienes and lipid peroxidation by products (Co-
hen et al. 2013; Abdel-Mageed et al. 2014, 2016). Fur-
thermore, jojoba leaf extracts at as low as EC50 2 µg/ml
have been reported to present an anti-viral eect on
herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2) and
varicella-zoster virus (Yarmolinsky et al. 2010). Anti-
cancer cytotoxicity was also demonstrated in human
melanoma (MV 3), breast (MCF 7), and colorectal (HCT
116) tumor cell lines as well as inhibition of angiogen-
esis, required for tumor growth (D’oosterlynck & Raes
2008; Al-Qizwini et al. 2014; Al-Obaidi 2019).
Generally, jojoba usage may be separated roughly
into two branches: the use of its unique oil, and the
use of extracts obtained from other parts of the plant.
Currently, the jojoba liquid wax is mainly used as a
substrate for the formulation or as an ingredient with
an active role. However, as it was demonstrated, the
whole plant, including leaves, roots and hulls can be
used as a source of bioactive molecules and this direc-
tion should also be developed. A thorough investiga-
tion using metabolomic tools may reveal more unique
active compounds. Another diculty in jojoba re-
search is the current scarcity of commercially available
simmondsin and derivatives, thus more sources are of
need in order to understand the entire pharmaceutical
This study was supported by “Nitzan” industrial col-
laboration grant from the ministry of Agriculture and
Rural Development (Israel, grant no 20-06-0072) and
Jojoba Desert (kibbutz Hazerim). G.C, N.O.S. (Regional
R&D Center, 580458776) and SK (Scholarship number
3-16752) are partially supported by the Israeli ministry
of science and technology. The authors would like to
thank Dr. Sarit Melamed and Dr. Arnon Dag for their
vital perspective intertwined in this review.
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... In parallel to increased business development, the scientific literature has seen a marked growth in investigations into how the varied composition of a plethora of natural oils including SAO, EPO and JJO behave, especially, in terms of (bio-)chemistry, toxicity and health benefits [4][5][6][7][8]. Moreover, the importance of extraction methods is also being highlighted [9][10][11][12][13][14], as well as the effects of climate, genetics and farming methods [14][15][16][17][18]. Many natural oils possess species specific compounds exhibiting a wide variety of biochemical activity such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic properties [18,19], thus making them an attractive and complementary treatment for xerotic and inflammatory dermatoses, particularly associated with epidermal barrier disruption and dysfunction [20][21][22][23][24]. ...
... Moreover, the importance of extraction methods is also being highlighted [9][10][11][12][13][14], as well as the effects of climate, genetics and farming methods [14][15][16][17][18]. Many natural oils possess species specific compounds exhibiting a wide variety of biochemical activity such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic properties [18,19], thus making them an attractive and complementary treatment for xerotic and inflammatory dermatoses, particularly associated with epidermal barrier disruption and dysfunction [20][21][22][23][24]. ...
Full-text available
Renewed consumer and industry interest in natural ingredients has led to a large growth of natural cosmetics. This has put pressure on formulation skills and product claims when it comes to using natural compounds. Taking a strategic and comprehensive approach in viewing natural ingredients, including natural oils, as ‘active’ ingredients rather than just providing for so-called ‘natural’ claims, aids both innovation and development. Given the ever-increasing consumer demand for natural ingredients, and more importantly the demand for effective natural ingredients including plant oils, it is important for the cosmetic industry to re-evaluate them in this context. The objectives of this review are to provide an update of three popular cosmetic plant oils - Sweet Almond, Evening Primrose, and Jojoba - in terms of their cosmetic applications as ‘active’ ingredients. This review highlights the activity of these oils, in the management of dry skin, ageing skin, juvenile skin, atopic dermatitis, scalp conditions, and their wider potential. Attention is given to formulation considerations where the content of these oils impacts product oxidation, skin penetration and stratum corneum homeostasis. Benefits of these oils have been well documented both pre-clinically and clinically. Historically, they have been used for hundreds if not thousands of years for their management and treatment of various skin and other ailments. Given the discrepancies in some clinical data presented for a variety of dermatoses, the importance of the choice of oil and how to formulate with them within the context of the epidermal barrier function, skin penetration, and toxicity, cannot be underestimated. Care should be taken in terms of the quality and stability of theses oils, as well as ensuring best formulation type, if the reported activities of these oils are to be achieved with consistency. Despite discrepancies in the literature and questionable study designs, it is clear, that Sweet Almond, Evening Primrose and Jojoba oils, do have skin care benefits for both adult and juvenile applications. They are effective ingredients for skin care preparations to strengthen stratum corneum integrity, recovery, and lipid ratio. Nevertheless, further experimental data are required concerning the impact on stratum corneum physiology and structure.
... Jojoba oil has been popularly used for many years in skin and hair care applications and has been shown more recently to have skin benefits including wound healing, emollient, hydrating, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial benefits, among others. [4][5][6][7] The linear wax esters that comprise jojoba oil share a very profound similarity to wax esters known to exist in human sebum. 8 This compatibility with human sebaceous lipids is likely one reason jojoba oil has been so popularly used in topical skin preparations. ...
Introduction: Retinol is known to have positive benefits on the skin including enhancements in barrier function, increased epidermal thickness, reductions in fine lines and wrinkles and reductions in hyperpigmentation. Improved methods to enhance the penetration of retinol are desirable. Methods: A study was conducted to examine if addition of natural jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) oil might help passively enhance the penetration of retinol through the skin's lipid barrier. The model used to examine the passive penetration of the retinol is the skin parallel artificial membrane permeation assay (Skin-PAMPA). In this study, three formulations were examined. The formulations included two control blends: a moisturizing emulsion without retinol and the same product containing 1.0% retinol without jojoba oil. The remaining formulation contained similar concentrations of retinol with 10% jojoba oil. The studies were conducted by applying the products to the Skin-PAMPA models at 37°C/5% CO2 for 16 hours and then extraction of the acceptor reservoir with cyclohexane (ratio 1:5 acceptor fluid to cyclohexane). The resulting acceptor reservoir cyclohexane solutions were analyzed for retinol by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results: The formulations without retinol showed no indications of retinol penetration by HPLC. The control formulation with 1.0% retinol demonstrated that retinol had permeated the membrane in the 16-hour timeframe with a measured Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 7 units. Analysis of the formulation containing 1.0% retinol and 10% jojoba oil indicated retinol had permeated with a AUC of 285 units, a nearly 40-fold increase in active retinol permeation. Discussion: The ability for jojoba oil to directly act to help skin permeation of a key skin care active like retinol has not been previously demonstrated. This potential for jojoba oil to enhance passive skin penetration of critical skin actives, like retinol, can help to improve the performance of skin care products employing active topical ingredients.
... Jojoba is famous for its seed oil (liquid wax ester), consisting mainly of straight-chain monoesters in the C40-C44 range. Jojoba oil is used in skincare products, especially as moisturizers, hair conditioners, lubricants [3], antiherpes simplex 1 [4], and also as plasticizers [5]. After extracting the oil, jojoba seed residue (JSR) is still rich in protein 29-30%, cyanogenic glycosides (cyanomethylene cyclohexyl glycosides), simmondsin, and its derivatives [6]. ...
Full-text available
Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) (Link) C.K. is a shrub plant widely used in cosmetics, especially jojoba oil. The residue will remain when producing jojoba oil and become waste. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial activity of Jojoba seed residue (JSR) and its possible active antibacterial compounds. JSR was collected from Sudan and extracted by maceration with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and 70% ethanol. The antibacterial activity was determined with the microdilution method against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The 70% ethanol extract showed the value of MIC and MBC against E. coli, which was 7.8 mg/ml; meanwhile, against S. aureus was 3.9 mg/mL and 7.8 mg/mL, respectively. Fractionation of 70% ethanol extract using silica gel column chromatography with gradient elution produced ten fractions. Fraction 3 showed the MIC and MBC values in E. coli which were 3.1 mg/mL and 12 mg/ml, and in S. aureus, which were 3.1 mg/mL and 6.2 mg/mL. The fractionation continued to Fraction 3 using preparative thin layer chromatography to collect subfraction 3.2 at an Rf value of 0.76, actively based on contact autobiography against E. coli and S. aureus. Embelin was detected in Subfraction 3.2 using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) and suggested as the active antibacterial component in JSR.
... However, in the current work, we were unable to detect the presence of these compounds. Simmondsin is one of the principal active compounds in Jojoba and was suggested to mediate several of its medicinal properties [38,39]. Typically, its level in the wax is low, since it is retained in the remaining cake (Jojoba meal) following the wax extraction process. ...
Full-text available
Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) wax is used for various dermatological and pharmaceutical applications. Several reports have previously shown beneficial properties of Jojoba wax and extracts, including antimicrobial activity. The current research aimed to elucidate the impact of Jojoba wax on skin residential bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis), fungal (Malassezia furfur), and virus infection (herpes simplex 1; HSV-1). First, the capacity of four commercial wax preparations to attenuate their growth was evaluated. The results suggest that the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Malassezia furfur was unaffected by Jojoba in pharmacologically relevant concentrations. However, the wax significantly attenuated HSV-1 plaque formation. Next, a complete dose-response analysis of four different Jojoba varieties (Benzioni, Shiloah, Hatzerim, and Sheva) revealed a similar anti-viral effect with high potency (EC50 of 0.96 ± 0.4 µg/mL) that blocked HSV-1 plaque formation. The antiviral activity of the wax was also confirmed by real-time PCR, as well as viral protein expression by immunohistochemical staining. Chemical characterization of the fatty acid and fatty alcohol composition was performed, showing high similarity between the wax of the investigated varieties. Lastly, our results demonstrate that the observed effects are independent of simmondsin, repeatedly associated with the medicinal impact of Jojoba wax, and that Jojoba wax presence is required to gain protection against HSV-1 infection. Collectively, our results support the use of Jojoba wax against HSV-1 skin infections.
... In the first two decades, it was considered as a niche market crop, with a small cultivation area, but nowadays, due to increased world demand, the cultivated area has grown from about 730 hectares in 2012 to 2400 hectares in 2021, making Israel a leading jojoba producer [6]. The primary market for the odorless wax is the cosmetics industry, but it is a suitable, high-quality raw material for other sectors, such as biodiesel, pharmaceuticals, plastics, engine lubricants, and printing ink [4][5][6][7][8]. Jojoba seeds are one of the world's only known sustainable sources of liquid wax esters, and they are used as a substitute for the familiar oils that were once obtained from the sperm whale, which was hunted nearly to extinction [9]. ...
Full-text available
Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a wax crop cultivated mainly in arid and semi-arid regions. This crop has been described as an alternate-bearing plant, meaning that it has a high-yield year (“on-year”) followed by a low-yield year (“off-year”). We investigated the effect of fruit load on jojoba’s vegetative and reproductive development. For two consecutive years, we experimented with two high-yielding cultivars—Benzioni and Hazerim—which had opposite fruit loads, i.e., one was under an on-year load, while the other was under an off-year load simultaneously. We found that removing the developing fruit from the shoot during an off-year promotes further vegetative growth in the same year, whereas in an on-year, this action has no effect. Moreover, after fruit removal in an on-year, there was a delay in vegetative growth renewal in the consecutive year, suggesting that the beginning of the growing period is dependent on the previous year’s yield load. We found that seed development in the 2018 season started a month earlier than in the 2017 season in both cultivars, regardless of fruit load. This early development was associated with higher wax content in the seeds. Hence, the wax accumulation rate, as a percentage of dry weight, was affected by year and not by fruit load. However, on-year seeds stopped growing earlier than off-year seeds, resulting in smaller seeds and an overall lower amount of wax per seed.
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Background: Evaluation of the action of various traditional plants to treat metabolic syndrome are strongly studied. In our study, we investigated the effect of the Tunisian jojoba seed on a metabolic syndrome induced in rat by the High Fat diet and High Fructose (HFHF) and its renal and hepatic complications. Methods: The rats were fed with HFHF or Normal Diet (ND) for a period of 8 weeks. After that, a switch from HFHF to ND or Normal Diet Jojoba (NDJ),(jojoba diet approach) or High Fat and High Fructose and Jojoba diet (HFHFJ) (nutraceutical approach) has been done. Metabolic disorder was evaluated by measuring the fasting body weight, glycemia and C-peptide and leptin. Oxidative stress parameters like ThioBarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAOC) were analyzed in the plasma and renal and hepatic function were determined by the measure of creatinine and alanine transferase (ALT) respectively. Histological analysis was performed on the liver, kidney and pancreas. Results: HFHF diet exhibited characteristics of metabolic syndrome presented by insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, fat mass with hepatic steatosis and renal disorder. HFHF diet was associated with oxidative stress (OS) presented by an increase in TBARS and a decrease in TAOC. Adding jojoba seeds to HFHF rat group diet induced a decrease in body weight, fat mass (58 and 41%), insulin resistance (59 and 56%), oxidative stress (60 and 41%), liver steatosis (from a score = 3 to a score = 0) and renal complications (25 and 42%). This effect was emphasized with diet approach. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the beneficial effect of jojoba against metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress, suggesting that jojoba could be used in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. Graphical abstract:
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Several in vitro models that mimic different aspects of local skin inflammation exist. The use of ex vivo human skin organ culture (HSOC) has been reported previously. However, comprehensive evaluation of the cytokine secretory capacity of the system and its kinetics has not been performed. Objective: the aim of the current study was to investigate the levels and secretion pattern of key cytokine from human skin tissue upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. HSOC maintained in an air–liquid interface was used. Epidermal and tissue viability was monitored by MTT and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay, respectively. Cytokine levels were examined by ELISA and multiplex array. HSOCs were treated without or with three different LPS subtypes and the impact on IL-6 and IL-8 secretion was evaluated. The compounds enhanced the secreted levels of both cytokines. However, differences were observed in their efficacy and potency. Next, a kinetic multiplex analysis was performed on LPS-stimulated explants taken from three different donors to evaluate the cytokine secretion pattern during 0-72 h post-induction. The results revealed that the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNFα and IL-1β were up-regulated by LPS stimuli. IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was also induced by LPS, but exhibited a different secretion pattern, peak time and maximal stimulation values. IL-1α and IL-15 showed donor-specific changes. Lastly, dexamethasone attenuated cytokine secretion in five independent repetitions, supporting the ability of the system to be used for drug screening. The collective results demonstrate that several cytokines can be used as valid inflammatory markers, regardless of changes in the secretion levels due to donor’s specific alterations.
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This experiment was conducted to study jojoba response (Simmondsia chinensis) evergreen dioecious shrub to zinc sulphate plus gibberellic acid foliar application on vegetative, flowering, seed yield and seed chemical composition at private farm during two successive seasons of 2015 and 2016 in the Egypt. An experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. In this study, jojoba plants were sprayed with all combination treatments of zinc sulphate (0, 25, 50 and 75ppm) plus gibberellic acid (0, 50, 100 and 150ppm) thrice in the beginning of December, March and May. There results revealed that all combination treatments showed a significant improvement in all examined parameters with an increase in ZnSO4 / GA3 levels in comparison with untreated trees. Therefore, the maximum significant branch length (99.36 and 103.46 cm), secondary branches length (55.82 and 58.36 cm) obtained by application of 75ppm ZnSO4 plus 150ppm GA3 treatment, so this combination recorded the highest percentage of flowering %, final fruit set (95.01, 95.24%), total chlorophyll, mineral% content, seed yield per feedan (2200, 2145 kg) and seed lipid content(57.6%, 58.55%) at first and second terms respectively. The application of 75ppm ZnSO4 plus 150ppm GA3 treatment is recommended to improve jojoba traits which lead to raise its economic value as a promising tree which potentially useful as a biofuel with multi chemical and pharmaceuticals industries uses.
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Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is an oil yielding desert shrub popularly known as desert gold. Jojoba based industries, mainly works in two sectors: lubricant and cosmetics. The high cost of jojoba products could be lowered down by selecting the best raw material. So, we made our hypothesis to select the best raw material separately for cosmetics and lubricant industries. The purpose of the study was the comprehensive comparative phytochemical characterization of fifteen different accessions of jojoba oil using Spectrophotometer, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS). GC and MS identified 10 fatty acids (myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, arachidic, 11-eicosenoic, heneicosanoic, tricosanoic and nervonic acids). Differences were found in most of the parameters and correlation analysis was done to compare all biochemical traits with respect to oil yield. Accessions Q-104 was found to be the best for cosmetics, as it shows a high concentration of fatty acids (linoleic, oleic, arachidic, 11-eicosenoic and palmitic acids) together with good oil yield. Accessions Clone-64 was found to be the best for the lubricant purpose as it showed the good oil yield, lower elements, and phosphorus content. We concluded that accession Q-104 and Clone-64 could be used commercially for cosmetic and lubricant industry, respectively. Further, these accessions could be used for the genetic breeding program.
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Psoriasis is a commonly encountered chronic dermatological disease, presenting with inflammatory symptoms in patients. Systemic treatment of psoriasis is associated with several adverse effects, therefore the development of a customized topical treatment modality for psoriasis would be an interesting alternative to systemic delivery. The therapeutic modality explored in this article was the comparative treatment of psoriatic patients using nanoparticulated methotrexate in the form of jojoba oil-based microemulsion with or without fractional erbium YAG laser. Assessment parameters included follow-up photography for up to 8 weeks of treatment, estimation of the psoriasis severity [TES (thickness, erythema, scales)] score, and histopathological skin evaluation. The prepared methotrexate microemulsion was clinically beneficial and safe in treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. The concomitant use of the fractional laser provided improvement in the psoriatic plaques within shorter time duration (3 weeks compared to 8 weeks of treatment), presenting an alternative topical treatment modality for psoriasis vulgaris.
Jojoba oil (JO) as natural plasticizer for EPDM rubber was studied and compared with paraffin oil (PO) at 5, 10 and 20 phr, using sulfur and peroxide crosslinking systems. Vulcanization curves for sulfur systems had the lowest torque value for JO, 26 dNm, whereas for PO was 60 dNm. For peroxide systems, the lowest torque value was for PO compounds, 18 dNm, whereas for JO was 21 dNm. Stress values for sulfur systems were 12-18 MPa, and for peroxide systems, 14-23 MPa; 23 MPa was for JO compounds . Highest crosslink density values were for sulfur systems with PO, >1000 mol/m3. TGA indicated volatilization of PO, 250-280 °C and for JO at 400 °C, evidencing better EPDM thermal stability with JO. Results showed greater plasticizing effect of JO when using sulfur as cross-linking agent, and its possible use as renewable plasticizer for EPDM, reducing the concentration of plasticizer in formulations.
Aim: To evaluate the anti- microbial activity of jojoba oil against selected microbes. Objective: The study is to determine the anti-microbial activity of jojoba oil against selected microbes. Background: Jojoba oil is the liquid produced in the seed of the Simmondsia chinensis. It is used as a replacement for whale oil and its derivatives, such as cetyl alcohol. It is found as an additive in many cosmetic products, especially those marketed as being made from natural ingredients. In particular, such products commonly containing jojoba are lotions and moisturizers, hair shampoos and conditioner. Effect of jojoba oil on E. coli, pseudomonas species, klebsiella species and Staphylococcus aureus is determined. Reason: This study is to evaluate the anti microbial activity of jojoba oil against E, coli, pseudomonas species, klebsiella species and Staphylococcus aureus. This may help in the development of other products with jojoba oil as its constituent. Result: The investigation of anti microbial activity of jojoba oil on selected positive and negative bacilli was done by agar well diffusion technique and its zone of inhibition was evaluated.
Simmondsia chinensis, a multipurpose, drought resistant, perennial plant belonging to Simmondsiaceae family has started to gain a lot of importance because of unusual oil which is actually a liquid wax i.e., an ester of long chain fatty acids and alcohols. Jojoba was introduced to India near the year 1965 and since then it has been a major source of income for both local farmers (having cultivations in locations like Sriganganagar, Sikar, Jhunjhunu, Churu and Jodhpur) and those who are working in jojoba oil trade. Jojoba oil has many usages depending on the site where the modification is being done. Virtually no traces of glycerine makes it a very unique plant based oil along with the fact that it can be modified via hydrogenation, sulfurization, halogenation, sulfurhalogenation, phosphosulfurization, ozonization, hydrolysis, amidation and many other techniques. With uses in industries like cosmetic, pharmaceutical, lubricant and petrochemicals, the importance of jojoba oil in the market is high. Before exploiting any plant for industrial application, it is imperative to have complete information about its biology, chemistry and all other applications so that potential of plant could be utilized maximally. Overall this paper introduces the shrub in its botanical totality, informs about its growth requirements and its local distribution in India. The purpose of this paper is to review the available propagation techniques, inform about its oil and seed meal processing and give detailed physico-chemical description of jojoba oil and cake. Moreover it also informs about the importance of jojoba oil and its applications.