Annals of Contemporary Developments in Management & HR (ACDMHR)
Vol. 3, No. 1, 2021
Irene Samanta and Pavlou Eleni, “Talent Management to Improve Employee Competence: A Qualitative Study”, Annals of
Contemporary Developments in Management & HR (ACDMHR), Print ISSN: 2632-7686, Online ISSN: 2632-7694, pp. 1-10, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1st
February 2021, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/ACDMHR.2021.01.001,
Talent Management to Improve Employee
Competence: A Qualitative Study
Irene Samanta1,* and Pavlou Eleni2
1University of West Attica, Greece
2Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Greece
Received: 14th November 2020; Accepted: 19th January 2021; Published: 1st February 2021
Abstract: The research investigates two basic techniques in Talent Management, coaching and mentoring, in
training marketing employees and how these techniques contribute to the best use of their talents. The research
investigates how these skills can be utilized to developing the needed skills in the marketing employees. The study
has worked to outline the extent to which talent Management improves competitiveness and how easily it can be
taken up as a practice by the employees themselves. Qualitative method was employed to examine the mentors
across three European companies using depth interviews. The research indicated that the training is a more integral
entity and should be part of the training plan devised based on individual training needs assessment. Furthermore,
new employees can be introduced with greater ease into the workplace when a coach or a mentor is in place. Finally,
individuals who have themselves chosen their coach or mentor have a better professional outlook.
Keywords: Talent Management; Mentoring; Coaching; Employee Competence; Qualitative Study
Talent management is a process that attempts to select the right individuals, to match them with the
right position, and subsequently develop them to ensure they work their full potential for the organization.
The purpose of Talent Management is recruitment of “right” individuals (particularly upper-tier
executives); to attract and select the most ingenious, educated, and capable individuals whose work can
lead the company to success (Miner, 1973). The definition of what is talent varies from one organization to
another. The administration of talent management (TM) must examine each of the following factors in
detail: talent definition, talent strategy, talent framework, employee value position, and talent management
skills (Ingham, 2006).
Increased market demands have doubled requirements both by businesses and employees themselves.
Herein, the need to find high-performing individuals and the need of staff to adapt to organizational
requirements has led to the development of techniques for attracting and training personnel (Mihardjo et
al., 2020). TM is responsible for finding these employees and for maintaining an equilibrium between
employees and companies. According to Goffee and Jones (2007), one of the most important HR
department activities is to cultivate upper management and create future leaders. Businesses should
emphasize attracting talented individuals to their training as well as rewarding them. Companies can gain
a competitive advantage when they carefully study the requirements of each work position they offer and
understand what talents they require for each position. The study investigates the extent to which coaches
ACDMHR 2021, Vol. 3, No. 1 2
and mentors contribute to developing skills among marketing employees. Talent Management is examined
as a widespread technique utilized by businesses to improve their competitiveness.
2. Literature Review
According to the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development “talent rises from a person’s
individuality and positive diversity, which is displayed in their work”. According to the Human Capital
Institute and The Global Association for Strategic Talent Management, talent is an individual who brings
intelligence, knowledge, and creativity, enabling them to work confidently both individually as well as in
a group while adapting to evolving conditions. Generally, everyone defines talent as the individual
meeting their requirements (Ingham, 2006).
Importantly, how to attract personnel must be planned carefully and special importance must be
placed on financial (salaries, compensations); psychological (culture of collaboration, contribution to work,
good relations between co-workers, balance of work and personal life); operational (training, prospects for
personal development), and organizational factors (administration by leading managers, corporate
Management should also find ways to develop employees' skills who are observed to have greater
prospects and avoid distinctions between individuals offered greater support in the training process while
always extending respect to all employees (Ingham, 2006; Kucherov & Zavyalova, 2011). Alongside,
increased technology offers individuals the capacity to seek work throughout the world, and at the same
time, businesses can seek appropriate talents. According to Jackson and Sculer (2006), a robust business
plan helps to analyze business requirements to highlight the required talent needed for the job.
According to the Asian Development Bank, emphasis on personnel demographics, organizational
framework, and talent requirement is necessary regardless of whether the talent is treated as a resource,
producing extra value for the company (Employee Value Proposition - EVP) or just to perform daily
activities. Accordingly, three stages that must draw the attention of organizations and particularly their
human resource management departments are:
a. The stage preceding recruitment: Seeking out talents can take place from within or outside the
business environment, and in many instances.
b. The stage of work action: A talent is an individual whose requirements go hand-in-hand with the
requirements of the business (Ingham, 2006; Cheesman, 2009). The organization should find a way
for these needs to be matched through training programmes (Cheesman, 2009).
c. The Departure Stage: During this stage, the organisation continues to contact the talent after their
departure. Talents must be developed even if that means that they must depart from the business.
The organization will do well to stay in contact with them and accept them back when they decide
to return (Ingham, 2006).
2.1. Training methods that support Talent Management
2.1.1. Job Rotation
Using this process, individuals broaden and develop their skills, and managers also can learn a lot
about their employees (Ortega, 2001). Job rotation offers the best possible understanding of the business.
Additionally, if an employee departs suddenly the business is immediately in a position to fill that position
Simulation is a reflection of a real-life process, usually using a computer or another technological
device to provide a realistic experience.
ACDMHR 2021, Vol. 3, No. 1 3
2.1.3. Participation in committees
The employee learns the procedure, gains experience, and becomes capable of solving problems by
participating in committees looking after different matters daily (Jorgensen, 2005). At the same time, they
can assist in designing and revising company policies to meet market needs.
2.1.4. Seminar Attendance
A necessary prerequisite for the specific method's success is that the seminar matches the trainee’s
requirements. These seminars can either be distance-learning seminars using a digital platform or ones
requiring physical attendance (Jorgensen, 2005).
2.1.5. Case study
Case study is an in-depth study of a phenomenon in its natural environment with subsequent
submission of findings to deductive reasoning. This reinforces employees' critical and analytical abilities,
who, at the same time, gain practice in evaluating the business’s real problems and finding means to
improve working conditions (Stokoe, 2014).
2.1.6. Role Play
Encourages thought and creativity, allows employees to develop and practice new behavioural skills.
This method creates incentives so that it can be understood. participation is necessary for learning to take
place via discussion and analysis of the problems that exist in real life (Stokoe, 2014).
2.1.7. Management games
Every team selects and analyses data and comes to decisions, considering a variety of variables,
including expenses, sales, reserves, and production levels (Stokoe, 2014).
2.1.8. Active learning
Active learning aims to upgrade initial professional training and education of an intern by gaining
knowledge, skills, and abilities, which increase their active participation in work. The role of the trainer is
to co-ordinate and direct the trainee in order to develop their creativity so they can solve their problems by
themselves (Stone, 2002; Jones & Lockwood, 1998).
The learning process takes place through cutting-edge technologies, including computer programs
and advanced telecommunications systems (Rosenberg, 2001).
2.1.10. Sensitivity Training
Participants discuss how they see the other trainees, how they evaluate their behaviour, and the
feelings engendered by co-existing with the others as well as by the workplace itself (Rosenberg 2001).
2.1.11. Survival Training
An adventurous and risky excursion will increase an individual’s self-confidence but will also push
them to re-examine their priorities and re-evaluate their personal goals. It is important element to co-exist
with other individuals in order to appreciate the concept of mutual assistance and teamwork, as well as to
de-stress using the outdoors through personal risk as well as the common risk encountered and how that
is experienced (Wagner et al., 1991).
According to Renton (2009) “coaching is a tool which can help a person improve their skills and
manage their interpersonal and professional relationships”. Cox et al. (2014) claim that coaching “is a
process that develops a person’s skills through the interaction of specific and appropriate strategies and
tools to achieve the business’ development”. Coaching focuses on the coachee's individual needs, the needs
ACDMHR 2021, Vol. 3, No. 1 4
of the coach, the relationship between them and the framework within which these are formulated. In this
manner, the business collaborates with the coachee and helps them achieve a better result (Cox et al., 2014).
2.2.1. Process of Coaching
The process of coaching includes three phases:
a. The Contract: An informal contract between the two parties i.e. coach and coachee, setting goals,
timeline, confidentiality, and financial obligation.
b. Data Collection: Data is collected through a procedure known as 360 feedback. In certain instances,
people from outside the immediate environment collect the data (Waldman et al., 1998; Goldsmith
et al., 2000).
c. Data Analysis: The coach can help the coachee develop as a professional (Thach, 2002). A good
coach can also recognize the needs of the coachee (Dalton & Hollenbed, 2001).
2.3. Types of Coaching
2.3.1. Executive coaching
The aim is to improve performance at an executive level. Focus on learning self-awareness for the
success of the individual and the organization (Joo, 2005).
2.3.2. Team Coaching
An effort made to comprehend how the behavior of the individual affects their work. Then individuals
attempt to comprehend how they impede or promote their team’s smooth collaboration (Schein, 1988).
2.3.3. Life Coaching
After learning to prioritize their goals, individuals are motivated to succeed (Williams & Thomas,
2004). This form of coaching is utilized by individuals who seek to achieve personal and professional goals
(Grant & Greene, 2001). According to Kyriazopoulos and Samanta (2011), the difficulties associated with
coaching in general fall into four categories: a) Existing company culture; b) The nature of an individual’s
work; c) Business priorities (coaching does not fall under these); d) Problem behaviour by the coach or the
Mentoring is a learning process through which an individual with professional experience “teaches” a
person who is at an earlier stage of their career. The mentor's role is only supportive, as individuals are
responsible for their own actions (Bjorklund & Bee, 2015). Kram (1985) views mentoring as being divisible
into career functions and psycho-social functions. In the first category, the mentor trains the protégé using
various techniques to improve their professional skills, while the second category includes acceptance,
affirmation, counseling, and friendship.
2.5. Phases of Mentoring
According to Kram (1985), there are four phases to mentoring, which include initiation, cultivation,
and structural and psychological separation. Initiation Forming establishes the mentoring relationship that
may even take up six to ten months, even in some cases. The cultivation phase is where the mentor attempts
to develop the skills of their protégés, which concerns to work, decision-making, and general development
of an individual, and this may take two to five years. Accordingly, structural and psychological separation
is where the protégé gains greater independence, roughly taking six to twelve months, and lastly,
redefinition caters to establishing new foundations to set for the relationship and can further develop into
friendship (Kram, 1985).
ACDMHR 2021, Vol. 3, No. 1 5
There are several benefits, both for the business and for the employee when it comes to mentoring.
The business commits to only a minimum expenditure for training the employee, while the employee
avoids major pitfalls. Individuals who select a mentor usually seek to rise professionally (Bozionelos, 2006;
Swap et al., 2001). However, in many instances, the mentoring relationship may be viewed with suspicion,
particularly where individuals are of different gender (Clark, 1995; McDonald, 2003). Furthermore, even
if the manager pressures for faster results, the mentor must remain focused on the goals set. Finally, the
mentor must not view the professional rise of the protégé as a threat as this may create a significant issue
in the relationship between them (Murray 2001; McDonald, 2003). Individuals who support a coach or
mentor can deal with greater ease with work demands, while the individuals who have a coach or mentor,
who has been designated by the business and have a better development. Newly hired individuals
acclimate with greater ease in a business when there is a coach or mentor's support.
2.6. Managing talents` Marketing Competencies
Employees’ Marketing competencies contribute to organization’s marketing goals and objectives
(Jackson et al., 1995). Creating flexible teams is vital for building up new competencies in marketing staff
(Probst et al., 2000). Mentoring and coaching build knowledge and skills of marketing employees so that
they are well prepared to take on new responsibilities and challenges. This includes making people acquire
new capabilities and increase creative problem-solving abilities. Thus competence development will
produce people who have adequate knowledge, skills, and behaviour required for superior performance
in marketing jobs and contribute effectively to marketing goals.
Talent Management needs to focus on the needs of each individual. The process described in the
research carried out by Rakesh Sharma & Jyotsna Bhatnagar (2009), concerning the individual development
from the TM standpoint is as follows:
a) Detailed analysis of the position.
b) Use of psychometric tools (Sharma & Bhatnagar, 2009; Cheesman, 2009).
c) Face-to-face interview with a senior executive and comparing the views with candidate’s skills
(Sharma & Bhatnagar, 2009; Cheesman, 2009).
d) Checking all the individual qualifications and previous work experience.
e) Plan for checking the progress of the work (Sharma & Bhatnagar, 2009; Cheesman, 2009).
Jantan (2009) studied the classification method of data collection as regards TM. This particular
method creates motives to which a talent can be matched. This makes it more achievable to provide suitable
marketing training for each individual. Furthermore, companies may train an individual by creating
applications and websites that allow for training and simultaneously comprehend their workers’ needs
For this study, a qualitative investigation was carried out through doing in-depth interviews of three
mentors. Each interview roughly went for one and a half hour. The mentors were selected from different
countries. The first mentor interviewed for the present study was 28-year-old Greek employed in the
marketing department by a telecommunications company in Greece. The second was a 32 year dol Swedish
serving business in Sweden, whose goal was to integrate the children of immigrants into Swedish culture
(RAPATAC). The third mentor interviewed was the 33 years old from New Zealand working in a catering
company's marketing department in England. It is interesting that, despite the fact they came from different
employment countries, they had common approaches regarding training and the significance of mentoring
for the workforce. The semi-structured questions pose to them were open in format and concerned the
mentoring relationship and its significance on the development of the marketing employees and,
consequently, the company itself. There was a need to comprehend from both sides regarding the extent to
ACDMHR 2021, Vol. 3, No. 1 6
which mentoring can contribute to making the best possible use of abilities and through the study of both
sides can provide an integrated understanding of whether companies should adopt TM techniques. The
questions posed were the following:
1. How did you start working as a mentor?
2. How can a mentoring relationship help an employee improve their work?
3. Do you consider the existence of a mentor to be necessary for new recruits?
4. Is a mentor equally necessary also for individuals who have the potential to rise in the company
even if they are not new hires for the business?
5. Should a company that seeks to be competitive provide resources for training its employees
according to their individual requirements, or is that excessive?
6. How do you deal with any difficulties that arise in your relationship with a trainee? What
techniques do you use?
7. Can you tell us three features a good mentor requires?
8. If an individual needs your help after the mentoring relationship has drawn to a close, are you
willing to help them?
9. Do you believe that it is better for the employee to choose their mentor, or should the mentor be
chosen by the business?
10. Do you believe that technology helps communication with the trainee and also their training?
4.1. Interview One
The interviewee was chosen as a mentor because his ability was recognized in the nature of his work
and his ability to transfer his knowledge to new recruits. According to the interview, the mentor's existence
helps an individual feel secure and develop faster in the workplace, whether they are a new recruit or not.
The company set aside funds to train employees as that is an investment in its own future. Technology is a
medium that can assist training to a certain extent, as the protégé can contact the mentor at any time. The
basic traits of a mentor are patience, offering assistance and politeness. The technique a mentor utilizes are
feedback, so an individual can know what they have done and reward, when they have achieved a positive
result. The relationship may potentially have better results when the protégé has already chosen their
mentor, as the relationship will be more natural and will bring about the desired results. A good mentor
displays patience, helps where needed, and civility.
4.2. Interview Two
During the second interview, the interviewee expressed that mentoring can help an individual
considerably to develop but, in their experience, it is equally essential that the individual be able to help
themselves through that relationship in order to develop; despite this, the existence of a mentor for an
employee whether or not they are new recruits can be a significant help. Companies should set aside
resources for training their personnel, but this is not always easy to do. Collaboration is the best solution,
even in those instances where the company does not have resources to set aside. The technique mentioned
in this particular interview was communication, listening, understanding the problem and finding a correct
solution. Furthermore, seeking a second opinion from the mentor, supervisor, or colleague is a method that
can be helpful as this particular interviewee admitted. The final interview also supports the view that the
trainee should choose their mentor, leading with greater ease to the desired results.
A mentor is also important even if an employee is not a new recruit, however, only after examining
the requirements of their position. The technique a mentor will use will be communication. Specifically,
the mentor ensures that both mentor and protégé grasp the problem and that the mentor provides the
ACDMHR 2021, Vol. 3, No. 1 7
requisite tools and techniques in order for the protégé to overcome the said problem. A troubled
relationship between a mentor and a protégé is overcome through communication and advice from a third
party, who may perhaps be able to spot a point of view that the mentor has not managed to perceive.
Mentoring is one of the techniques utilized by TM. As we can observe from our study employees, believe
that TM can help them develop in their work, and this also is in line with the mentors' view. Choosing a
mentor is often a delicate issue as in certain instances, the business may select a suitable individual to
mentor the employee, but in other instances, the employee may choose the suitable individual. As far as
the techniques utilized by mentors, these are rewards and listening to employees attentively. A good
mentor can propel an individual to work hard and try hard, and both are very well aware that this will be
achieved through their advice and by rewarding the end of each attempt. Finally, mentors consider
technology to be important and they utilize it to stay in contact with their protégés.
4.3. Interview Three
The interviewee was chosen as a mentor because his ability was recognized in the nature of his work
as well as his ability to transfer his marketing knowledge to new recruits. According to this particular
interview, a recruit feels secure in their work when they can collaborate with a mentor, improving their
day-to-day life. At the same time, a mentor's existence, even for individuals who are already in the business,
can be a significant help in the development of employees.
The company should set aside resources for training its employees to invest in its progress. The basic
features that a mentor should have are diplomacy, the ability to transmit knowledge, and patience. The
relationship built should be professional yet also human, and that can be understood by the fact that
whatever problem might arise either at work or in the relationship between the mentor and protégé should
be examined in-depth, and the best solution should be found without creating any further issues. It is
important that a mentor be there to listen to employees’ problems and also to reward whatever their
protégé has achieved, however minor. The company must examine the needs of each individual and then
offer the necessary training programme. Additionally, the company should let the trainee be free to choose
their own mentor, making the trainee feel more comfortable with their mentor. The technique that the
specific mentor utilizes is communication with the trainee. As mentioned in the interview, the mentor talks
with them and attempts to comprehend their needs, while rewards to the trainee are also considered an
effective technique. The relationship between mentor and protégé is particularly complex, as is every
human relationship. Through the interview, the mentor claimed that what plays a significant role in that
relationship's success is patience, diplomacy, and the ability to transmit knowledge. Naturally, the mentor
attempts to build a relationship of trust and communication, which can help the protégé at any time
needed, even after training is complete.
The current research focused explicitly on coaching and mentoring. These two methods have shown
that they do not play a definitive role by themselves, but that, in general, a training plan for the marketing
workforce, which is designed to meet each individual's requirements and potentially includes mentoring
or coaching, is effective. Furthermore, it has shown that individuals who have had a coach or mentor had
the right training to deal with what their job dealt them. Employees consider that what TM provides can
help them gain further knowledge of technical and theoretical content. The better they know the nature of
their work, the easier they find it to respond to the demands made upon them and to bring about the best
At the same time, it is observed that TM's training does not play a significant role in employees’
performance. This can be since businesses do not place particular importance on training or select incorrect
ways to provide it. Businesses must grasp that they must focus specifically on each individual's needs and
ACDMHR 2021, Vol. 3, No. 1 8
properly select the means and individuals to achieve this end. Furthermore, the research ascertained that
individuals who have chosen their own mentors could reach their potential better. This may occur because
from the start, these individuals feel a sense of trust towards their mentors, which results in a smoother
collaboration. It is important to underline that new recruits can adapt far more easily when there is a
training plan for each employee, as it allows them to adapt to their new environment, as the mentors who
were interviewed all agreed. Finally, where technology is concerned, it appears to play a major role, both
for trainees and for mentors. We live in an age where technology evolves daily around us, and as a result,
it becomes increasingly necessary to use, either on the communication front between mentors and
employees, or in how the latter can be trained.
As far as the mentors' interviews are concerned, they consider that mentoring can help employees
significantly. The mentors themselves were ready to assist a protégé even when the time of their
collaboration had passed. They were chosen as mentors because the business considered that their
knowledge enabled them to transmit their existing knowledge to other personnel. The employee can feel
secure with the help of a mentor, particularly when they are new recruits. Furthermore, they claim that a
mentor's existence, even for individuals who are not new to the company, is very significant. A mentor can
help an individual see incentives that they may have overlooked, to see ways to work they may potentially
not believe would help or which they may not have known.
Businesses should dedicate a portion of the resources at their disposal to train personnel and choose
suitable individuals as mentors if a choice is not offered or if it is not possible for the employee to choose a
mentor. Any friction and problems are something that the mentors themselves but also the employees will
have to avoid to improve their collaboration and have the best results. As far as mentors' techniques, the
reward is the main one, as it makes the individual feel that they managed to achieve the goal they were set
and create a feeling of wanting to continue their efforts. Furthermore, it is important to listen to employees
attentively, in order to comprehend their needs but also for personnel to feel that their mentors appreciate
them and do not underestimate them.
5.1 Managerial Implications
Talent Management is quite complex to implement, but despite this, when companies contrive to
attract talents, they need and develop them to meet their potential, they can benefit a lot. Companies need
to make funds available to attract talents and develop them. Training should be individualized for each
employee, just as every personality is unique, as companies can focus on each employee's weaknesses to
provide them with the right training adapted to their needs. It would be good if a mentor could be selected
by the employee themself. However, if the company selects a mentor for an employee, there should be a
capacity for the employee to be able to choose after a certain amount of time whether they should continue
their training with this specific mentor or whether they require somebody who is better suited to their
personality and more able to assist them. Accordingly, communication is one of the most significant factors
affecting the outcome, so trainees should choose to help themselves through a mentor they can understand.
It is crucial to note that the mentor has experience and knowledge in the subject so as to guide and
trains the employees but should also be able to transmit that knowledge so that the trainee can understand
their training and display ingenuity in order to attempt to find various methods for the needs of every
trainee. In conclusion, it is important that the mentor comprehend how significant their position is and to
be certain to have the time required to train a protégé available, as in many instances, mentors do not have
the time to train an individual, which results in that individual not receiving proper or even any training.
ACDMHR 2021, Vol. 3, No. 1 9
Bjorklund, B. R., & Bee, H. L. (2015). The journey of adulthood. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Bozionelos, N. (2006). Mentoring and expressive network resources: Their relationship with career success and
emotional exhaustion among Hellenes employees involved in emotion work. The International Journal of Human
Resource Management, 17(2), 362-378.
Cheesman, E. A., McGuire, J. M., Shankweiler, D., & Coyne, M. (2009). First-year teacher knowledge of phonemic
awareness and its instruction. Teacher Education and Special Education, 32(3), 270-289.
Clark, E. (1995). Mentoring: A case example and guidelines for its effective use. Youth Studies Australia, 14(2), 37.
Clutterbuck, D. (2014). Everyone needs a mentor. Kogan Page Publishers.
Cox, E., Bachkirova, T., & Clutterbuck, D. A. (Eds.). (2014). The complete handbook of coaching. Sage.
Crawford, A., Zucker, T., Van Horne, B., & Landry, S. (2017). Integrating professional development content and
formative assessment with the coaching process: The Texas school ready model. Theory Into Practice, 56(1), 56-65.
Dalton, M. A., & Hollenbeck, G. P. (2001). After feedback: How to facilitate change in behavior. The handbook of
multisource feedback, 352-367.
Garvey, R., Strokes, P., & Megginson, D. (2010). Coaching and mentoring: Theory and practice. Sage
Goldsmiths, R., Lafferty, B., & Newell, S. (2000). The impact of corporate credibility and celebrity on consumer reaction
to advertisements and hands. Journal of Advertising, 29(3), 43-54.
Grant, A., & Greene, J. (2004). Coach yourself: Make real changes in your life. Momentum.
Hawes, J. M., Jackson Jr, D. W., Schlacter, J. L., & Wolfe, W. G. (1995). Selling and Sales Management in Action
Examining the Bases Utilized for Evaluating Salespeoples' Performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales
Management, 15(4), 57-65.
Ingham, M., & Ingham, H. (2006). The year of workers’ mobility. Industrial Relations Journal, 37(6), 667-686.
Jantan, H., Hamdan, A. R., & Othman, Z. A. (2009). Knowledge discovery techniques for talent forecasting in human
resource application. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 50, 775-783.
Jones, P., & Lockwood, A. (1998). Operations management research in the hospitality industry. International Journal of
Hospitality Management, 17(2), 183-202.
Joo, B. K. (2005). Executive coaching: A conceptual framework from an integrative review of practice and
research. Human Resource Development Review, 4(4), 462-488.
Khalid, N., Pahi, M. H., & Ahmed, U. (2016). Loosing your best talent: Can leadership retain employees? The dilemma
of the banking sector of Hyderabad Sindh, Pakistan: A mediation investigation. International Review of Management
and Marketing, 6(3), 608-616.
Kram, K. E. (1985). Improving the mentoring process. Training & Development Journal. 39(4), 40-43.
Kucherov, D., & Zavyalova, E. (2012). HRD practices and talent management in the companies with the employer
brand. European Journal of training and Development. 36(1), 86-104.
Li, C., Sun, L. Y., & Dong, Y. (2018). Innovating via building absorptive capacity: Interactive effects of top management
support of learning, employee learning orientation and decentralization structure. Creativity and Innovation
Management, 27(4), 431-443.
Mihardjo, L. W., Jermsittiparsert, K., Ahmed, U., Chankoson, T., & Hussain, H. I. (2020). Impact of key HR practices
(human capital, training and rewards) on service recovery performance with mediating role of employee
commitment of the Takaful industry of the Southeast Asian region. Education+ Training. 63(1), 1-21.
Miner, J. B. (1973). The management consulting firm as a source of high-level managerial talent. Academy of Management
Journal, 16(2), 253-264.
Murray, M. (2002). Beyond the myths and magic of mentoring: How to facilitate an effective mentoring process. John Wiley &
Renton, J. (2009). Coaching and Mentoring: what they are and how to make the most of them (Vol. 21). John Wiley & Sons.
Rosenberg, M. J., & Foshay, R. (2002). E‐learning: Strategies for delivering knowledge in the digital age. McGraw-Hill, New
Schein, E. H. (1988) “Organisational Psychology” 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Schuler, R. S., & Jackson, S. C. (1998). Managing human resources. South-Western College Pub..
Sharma, R., & Bhatnagar, J. (2009). Talent management–competency development: key to global leadership. Industrial
and Commercial training. 41(3), 118-132.
ACDMHR 2021, Vol. 3, No. 1 10
Stokoe, E. (2014). The Conversation Analytic Role-play Method (CARM): A method for training communication skills
as an alternative to simulated role-play. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 47(3), 255-265.
Swap, W., Leonard, D., Shields, M., & Abrams, L. (2001). Using mentoring and storytelling to transfer knowledge in
the workplace. Journal of management information systems, 18(1), 95-114.
Thach, E. C. (2002). The impact of executive coaching and 360 feedback on leadership effectiveness. Leadership &
Organization Development Journal. 23(4), 205-214.
Whalen, M. R., & Zimmerman, D. H. (1990). Describing trouble: Practical epistemology in citizen calls to the
police. Language in society, 47, 465-492.
© 2021 by the author(s). Published by Annals of Contemporary Developments in Management &
HR (ACDMHR), under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
license which can be accessed at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0.