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An analysis of the leading sanitary-ecological factors of the environment affecting the incidence rates among the population of the Republic of Karakalpakstan in 2009-2018 found. The results of identifying socioeconomic factors on the health of the population obtained annually and analyzed in dynamics for at least five years, are an integral part of the socio-hygienic monitoring of the information and analytical basis of a comprehensive health risk management system and ensuring sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population. It is also necessary to create prerequisites for further special scientific research to establish causal relationships "socio-economic factors-health status of the population" and assess the risk of the influence of these factors. One of the main factors influencing the health of the population is the provision of the population with drinking water. We have studied the dynamics of the chemical pollution of water in open reservoirs by districts and zones of the Republic of Karakalpakstan.
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European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine
ISSN 2515-8260 Volume 7, Issue 10, 2020
1790
INFLUENCE OF HARMFUL ECOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE
POPULATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KARAKALPAKSTAN
Izimbet Turdimambetov1, Eva Pauditsova2, Amet
Madreymov3,NilufarKomilova4Medetbay Oteuliev1, Nursultan Kayupov5, Kamila
Utarbaeva1Gulzar Eshimbetova6
1Karakalpak State University, Geography and Hydrometeorology Department, 230 112, Nukus,
Uzbekistan
2Comenius University in Bratislava, Landscape Ecology Department, 84215, Bratislava,
Slovakia
3Karakalpakstan Medical Institute, 230 100, Nukus, Uzbekistan
4National University of Uzbekistan, 100174, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
5Ministry of innovative development of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 100 002, Tashkent,
Uzbekistan
6Nukus State Pedagogical Institute, Methods Of Teaching Geography Department, 230 100,
Nukus, Uzbekistan
Abstract. An analysis of the leading sanitary-ecological factors of the environment affecting
the incidence rates among the population of the Republic of Karakalpakstan in 2009-2018
found. The results of identifying socio-economic factors on the health of the population,
obtained annually and analyzed in dynamics for at least five years, are an integral part of the
socio-hygienic monitoring of the information and analytical basis of a comprehensive health
risk management system and ensuring sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the
population.It is also necessary to create prerequisites for further special scientific research to
establish causal relationships "socio-economic factors - health status of the population" and
assess the risk of the influence of these factors. One of the main factors influencing the health
of the population is the provision of the population with drinking water. We have studied the
dynamics of the chemical pollution of water in open reservoirs by districts and zones of the
Republic of Karakalpakstan.
Key words: population, socio-economic, environmental, pollution, indicators, mortality
Introduction
It is known that in recent years, environmental pollution, ecological safety of the population
and territories have become one of the most important problems in the world. According to the
World Health Organization (WHO), about 24% of the world's population and 23% of deaths are
caused by the detrimental effects of preventable ecological factors.
Thus, considering and comparing the indicators of 2010, cancer mortality in Uzbekistan was
34.5, in Karakalpakstan - 43.0 per 100 000 people, therefore the number of cases in the Republic
of Karakalpakstan is 24.6% higher than the average for the country. And in 2018, cancer
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine
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1791
mortality in Uzbekistan was 41.1, in Karakalpakstan - 51.4 per 100000, which again indicates the
relevance (25%) of large cases in Karakalpakstan.
The above regional differences in the primary oncological incidence and the excess of the
incidence rate of Karakalpakstan over the indicators of Uzbekistan prompted us to disclose their
causes.
Given the uneven distribution of incidence by territory and by time, the territory of the
Republic of Karakalpakstan is conditionally divided into 4 zones: The Western zone (Muinak,
Kungrad, Kanlykul and Shumanai districts), the Northern zone (Takhtakupyr, Karauzyak,
Chimbay, Kegeyli districts), the Central zone (Nukus city, Khodjeyli, Takhiatash and Nukus
districts), and also the Southern zone (Amudarya, Beruni, Ellikkala and Turtkul districts) [5], [6],
[7].
In order to increase the visibility of the tendencies, the studied 10-year period is divided into 2
five-year periods: 2009-2013 and 2014-2018.
When studying the dynamics of the incidence of malignant neoplasms with a first established
diagnosis, in the second five-year period compared with the first, an increase in the incidence
rate was found in the western (by 1,5%), northern (by 1,8%), central (by 7,6%) and southern
(5,1%) zone (table 2) [2,4].
Materials and Data
The average for Republic of Karakalpakstan over the first five-year period (2009-2013) the
primary incidence rate of malignant neoplasms (65,8 per 100 000), high rates were observed
inMuinak (85,9), in Nukus (74,8), in Chimbay (72,6), in Kegeyli (71,6), in Kanlykul (71,4)
districts and the city of Nukus (73,8).
In the next five-year period, the regional (Republic of Karakalpakstan) average was 68,9 cases
per 100 000, relatively high primary incidence rates of malignant neoplasms were recorded in
Chimbay (82,0), Nukus (81.3), Takhtakupyr (78,3), Muynak (77,9), Khodjeyli (76,4), Kanlykul
(73,1) districts and in the city of Nukus (75,1) (Table 2). Relatively low primary incidence rates
of malignant neoplasms were detected in the first five-year plan in Shumanay (45,7) and
Ellikkala (45,4) districts.
The highest incidence rates of malignant neoplasms were recorded in 2009, 2011 and 2013. in
Muynak district (84,2; 96,9 and 92,1 respectively), in Kanlykul in 2009 and 2012 (86,0; 106,5).
The lowest rates were observed in Ellikkala district in 2012 (21,2) and in Shumanay - in 2009
(32,0).
Table 1. Primary incidence rates of malignant neoplasms in the Republic of Karakalpakstanper
100,000 populations [7]
City,
districts
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
Muinak
84,2
77,5
96,9
79,0
92,1
87,8
83,3
78,2
74,0
Kungrad
67,7
67,2
48,5
64,4
63,7
59,6
66,0
66,7
55,6
Kanlykul
86,0
43,1
57,1
106,
5
64,4
57,2
50,1
97,2
74,0
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine
ISSN 2515-8260 Volume 7, Issue 10, 2020
1792
Shumanai
32,0
46,0
59,5
49,6
41,6
41,2
72,4
52,8
56,0
Western
zone
67,5
58,5
65,5
74,9
65,5
61,5
68,0
73,7
64,9
Takhtakup
yr
90,0
50,8
81,4
59,4
64,6
67,0
66,7
60,6
125,6
Karauzyak
48,8
57,3
80,4
65,4
56,7
54,0
75,1
79,3
72,8
Chimbay
69,1
82,8
74,9
70,3
65,9
67,0
82,5
92,7
74,2
Kegeyli
63,1
71,3
74,9
70,7
78,2
61,0
62,5
70,1
78,5
Northern
zone
67,8
65,6
77,9
66,5
66,4
62,3
71,7
75,7
87,8
Nukus city
73,3
79,7
75,7
59,7
80,4
74,9
81,7
80,9
70,6
Nukus
district
69,6
67,1
79,2
83,7
74,3
82,8
70,3
98,5
63,8
Khodjeyli
50,1
65,5
84,6
69,9
68,4
75,9
84,3
100
63,1
Takhiatash
64,7
60,9
65,7
78,2
х
х
х
79,7
62,2
Central
zone
64,4
68,3
76,3
72,9
74,4
77,9
78,8
89,8
64,9
Amudarya
58,5
71,7
60,6
55,3
62,9
41,0
46,7
56,3
67,7
Beruni
68,1
74,2
67,9
62,6
62,8
58,1
63,8
60,9
67,8
Ellikkala
41,5
59,5
43,2
21,2
61,8
45,8
66,9
74,0
57,0
Turtkul
65,0
52,6
53,1
45,9
85,4
76,1
64,7
84,5
59,5
Southern
zone
59,4
65,0
56,0
47,0
69,1
55,3
60,5
68,9
63,0
Karakalpa
kstan
Republic
63,7
67,3
68,5
59,8
69,9
63,6
69,6
76,1
67,2
Uzbekista
n Republic
68,4
71,0
65,9
64,5
66,2
65,7
67,7
70,2
71,0
Note: x-Takhiatash was included in the Khodjeyli district
The analysis of indicators of the primary incidence of the child population of the Republic of
Karakalpakstan for 2009-2018 in the context of districts and conventionally identified zones, its
dynamics by years and two five-year periods (Table 1) showed that the average level of primary
incidence in children per 1000 child population for 2016-2018 was in the RUz - 585.9, in the
Republic of Karakalpakstan - 478.1 i.e. 22% lower than in Republic of Uzbekistan.
Table 2. Indicators of primary incidence in children under 14 years old per 100 000
City,
districts
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
Muynak
353.9
418.8
508.6
414.1
463.7
529.2
544.4
473.8
354.3
499.9
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine
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1793
Kungrad
533.9
469.6
487.4
458.0
427.5
400.6
347.2
449.2
1823.6
462.0
Kanlykul
508.4
341.4
623.5
457.4
402.1
476.7
550.8
430.7
190.7
451.0
Shumanay
270.7
331.4
574.8
458.5
456.5
463.5
459.0
962.4
948.6
834.3
Western
zone
416.7
390.7
548.6
447.0
437.5
467.5
475.4
579.0
829.3
561.8
Takhtakupyr
483.5
554.9
688.9
637.1
654.4
658.9
683.1
688.2
366.4
735.5
Karauzyak
670.7
587.6
771.5
994.3
657.5
689.2
593.5
412.4
548.1
398.4
Chimbay
208.2
270.6
237.7
208.6
168.7
174.4
194.4
421.7
892.3
477.8
Kegeyli
537.3
554.4
402.4
393.0
297.3
287.7
334.1
507.5
379.7
494.6
Northern
zone
474.9
491.9
525.1
558.3
444.5
452.6
451.3
507.5
546.6
526.6
Nukus city
292.7
299.9
281.5
280.3
303.0
411.4
393.8
283.5
283.7
289.5
Nukus
district
414.7
475.0
511.5
467.9
392.4
425.5
504.2
541.1
281.2
555.9
Khodjeyli
589.6
538.4
494.0
548.3
451.9
339.9
359.6
431.9
606.8
318.7
Takhiatash
542.1
470.0
600.0
568.6
х
х
х
х
122.3
396.5
Central zone
459.8
445.8
471.8
466.3
382.4
392.3
419.2
418.8
323.5
390.2
Amudarya
345.5
421.8
574.8
663.8
498.4
376.0
388.2
631.9
969.3
557.4
Beruni
512.0
579.5
641.0
669.3
700.1
694.4
735.4
482.9
617.1
459.1
Ellikkala
240.3
367.0
367.1
395.9
348.7
514.3
511.7
673.9
533.5
688.9
Turtkul
614.2
639.2
570.1
639.0
620.2
652.1
605.9
523.6
538.8
436.2
Southern
zone
428.0
501.9
544.3
599.2
541.9
559.2
560.3
578.1
664.7
535.4
Karakalpaks
tan Republic
430.9
450.5
478.4
493.8
446.4
461.6
460.2
490.1
470.3
473.9
Note: x-Takhiatash was included in the Khodjeyli district
Results and Discussion
Thus, the results of identifying socio-economic factors on the health of the population,
obtained annually and analyzed in dynamics for at least five years, are an integral part of the
socio-hygienic monitoring of the information and analytical basis of a comprehensive health risk
management system and ensuring sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population.It is
also necessary to create prerequisites for further special scientific research to establish causal
relationships "socio-economic factors - health status of the population" and assess the risk of the
influence of these factors. One of the main factors influencing the health of the population is the
provision of the population with drinking water. At present, the provision of the population of
the Republic of Karakalpakstan with centralized water supply is about 60%, the rest of the
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine
ISSN 2515-8260 Volume 7, Issue 10, 2020
1794
population uses water from open reservoirs and well water, mainly in the winter months. One
third of the wells has a mineralization of up to 3 mg/l, another third - from 3 to 6 mg/l (suitable
for economic purposes) and the remaining one third - over 6 mg/l - unsuitable for drinking and
household purposes. Well mineralization depends on proximity to freshwater open water.
We have studied the dynamics of the chemical pollution of water in open reservoirs by
districts and zones of the Republic of Karakalpakstan for 2009-2018, for the subsequent
determination of its impact on the primary incidence of children (Table 3) [1].
The level of chemical pollution of water in open reservoirs is increasing over the years,
especially in the northern and southern zones of the Republic of Karakalpakstan.
Comparison of the dynamics of indicators of primary incidence in children under 14 years old
(inclusive) of the Republic of Karakalpakstan for 2009-2018 with indicators of chemical
pollution of water in open reservoirs showed the following results.
Table 3. Percentage of water samples from open reservoirs that do not meet hygienic
requirements in terms of chemical indicators for 2009-2018
City,
districts
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
Muynak
60,8
24,3
19,4
8,3
16,7
36,9
29,9
17,0
18,2
10,6
Kungrad
25,4
30,1
37,3
48,8
41,3
7,6
0,9
28,3
20,2
32,0
Kanlykul
73,5
100
100
100
100
100
96,4
100
100
100
Shumanay
29,4
30,8
36,9
33,3
36,2
28,2
31,3
31,7
30,1
45,8
Western
zone
47,3
46,3
48,4
47,6
48,6
43,2
39,6
44,3
42,1
47,1
Takhtakupyr
100
72,5
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
Karauzyak
46,0
42,9
31,0
35,8
31,2
23,3
36,8
22,5
26,0
27,3
Chimbay
4,8
15,3
13,6
6,3
1,5
9,6
19,8
18,8
12,6
15,5
Kegeyli
11,1
20,0
0,0
0,0
26,3
36,4
71,4
75,0
94,0
76,6
Northern
zone
40,5
37,7
36,2
35,5
39,8
42,3
57,0
54,1
58,2
54,9
Nukus city
23,1
12,2
37,5
27,3
31,4
24,7
41,9
40,8
45,1
41,4
Nukus
district
75,0
50,0
77,8
52,2
100
77,8
13,0
95,0
100
84,3
Khodjeyli
20,7
28,9
12,9
10,3
14,3
21,9
30,2
31,5
49,5
51,4
Takhiatash
16,3
0,0
43,3
36,4
х
х
х
х
75,0
21,0
Central zone
33,8
22,8
42,9
31,6
48,6
41,5
28,4
55,8
67,4
49,5
Amudarya
72,2
89,9
97,3
5,8
30,6
78,0
81,1
77,5
73,6
63,5
Beruni
69,0
51,0
82,0
83,6
90,3
59,1
63,3
78,0
26,7
69,0
Ellikkala
20,0
83,3
95,8
0,0
85,7
25,7
40,9
37,8
100
100
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine
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1795
Turtkul
100
82,9
100
100
100
91,7
70,0
87,0
100
100
Southern
zone
65,3
76,8
93,8
47,4
76,7
63,6
63,8
70,1
75,1
83,1
Karakalpaks
tan Republic
41,9
39,4
43,5
31,3
38,3
48,7
45,4
55,8
47,9
49,9
Conclusions
The solution to the problem of the consumption of contaminated water by the population for
drinking purposes is to maximize the coverage of the population of the allocated districts with
centralized water supply and bring the quality indicators of the tap water supplied to the
population in accordance with the state standard.
However, the level of primary incidence in children under 14 years of age in the Republic of
Karakalpakstan for the 10-year period 2009-2018 has an upward trend. The level of chemical
pollution of water in open reservoirs also tends to grow, especially in the northern and southern
zones of the Republic of Karakalpakstan.
Our results can contribute to planning the reduction of the pollution of the environment,
providing a measure for a differential approach for specific territories of the Republic of
Karakalpakstan.
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About harmful environmental factors affecting the incidence of children in the Republic of Karakalpakstan
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METHODS AND FORMS OF GREETINGS
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NurnazarPirnazarov, MadiyarUtebaev. "METHODS AND FORMS OF GREETINGS", "Scientific enquiry in the contemporary world: theoretical basiсs and innovative approach" 7th edition, Colifornia, USA, 2016, pp 59-64
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