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Evaluation STEAM Imaging III: Art Meets Medical Research Online STEAM course "Inside Out: 10 STEAM Evenings"

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Evaluation of STEAM Imaging III Course, online course format. Online course entitled "10 Evenings - An Interdisciplinary Exploration of Digital Medicine and the Human Body". A course designed by Fraunhofer MEVIS in cooperation with Bulgarian media artist Eli Joteva.
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Evaluation
STEAM Imaging III:
Art Meets Medical Research
December 23,2020
Online STEAM course Inside Out: 10 STEAM Evenings An
Interdisciplinary Exploration of Digital Medicine and the Human Body
A course designed by Fraunhofer MEVIS in cooperation with artist Eli Joteva
The online STEAM course Inside Out: 10 STEAM Evenings is part of the artist
residency STEAM Imaging III, jointly hosted with Ars Electronica in Linz, Austria, in
collaboration with the International Fraunhofer Talent School and Schulzentrum
Walle, Bremen (SZ Walle, School for Advanced Secondary Education), and UCLA
ArtSci Center, Los Angeles, USA.
Course by Fraunhofer MEVIS: 28 October 2020 - 10 December 2020
Project Leaders: Sabrina Haase and Bianka Hofmann
Course Design and Conductors: Sabrina Haase, Hanne Ballhausen,
Bianka Hofmann in cooperation with Eli Joteva
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Summary
Fraunhofer MEVIS, Institute for Digital Medicine, collaborated with Bulgarian media artist Eli Joteva,
based in California, US, at Art|Sci Center + Lab of the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) to
develop the third edition of the STEAM Imaging for high school students at Schulzentrum Walle,
Bremen (SZ Walle, School for Advanced Secondary Education, in Bremen), also known as STEAM
Imaging III. The course for the high school students was developed by the team at Fraunhofer MEVIS,
inviting the artist to contribute to the course design from an artistic perspective and by adding artistic
practice. Within the artist-in-residence program at Fraunhofer MEVIS, the artist was invited to remotely
engage and collaborate with scientists, and new procedures and technologies, for instance in
biophysical simulation or MR-image acquisition, at Fraunhofer MEVIS in Bremen in order to develop an
artistic project. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the artist-in-residence program including course design
and teaching took place in an online setting. During the residency and during the course the artist was
working remotely from the USA and from Bulgaria. The project team at Fraunhofer MEVIS consisted of
project leader Bianka Hofmann and Sabrina Haase, who teamed up to design and conduct the course
with Fraunhofer MEVIS colleague Hanne Ballhausen, and artist in residence Eli Joteva. The Fraunhofer
MEVIS colleagues Alexander Köhn and Susanne Diekmann joined for one evening each for specific
contributions to the topic presented on the respective evening.
For STEAM Imaging III, the course design was changed from a two-day on-site workshop to an online
course that took place on 10 evenings (90min per evening) over 6 weeks, from 28 October 2020 to 10
December 2020. The course design allowed for 5 themed evenings of in-depth insights and practical
experience for the high school students, and 5 evenings consisting of a welcoming session including a
lecture on SciArt by Prof. Dr. Victoria Vesna, Head of the Art|Sci Center + Lab at UCLA, a virtual tour to
the MR Lab of Fraunhofer MEVIS, a virtual tour to UCLA CNSI California NanoSystems Institute, a
virtual tour to the Ars Electronica Center, and a presentation by the artist Eli Joteva.
For the design of this course, entitled Inside Out: 10 STEAM Evenings”, the team at Fraunhofer MEVIS
met in internal workshops to break up the planned STEM teaching content in a new way. In internal
workshops the project team redesigned the STEAM Imaging workshop for two consecutive days into a
course that spanned 10 evening sessions of 90 minutes. 5 of these sessions were dedicated to
teaching of the core themes, theories, and methods. Inspired by the idea of “Things That Talk”
(Lorraine Daston, 2004) the course design was arranged around physical objects that matters direct or
indirect in the daily working routine for the scientists, namely a skeleton and phantoms, physical
models, used for research purposes. By working with these objects, medical imaging and visualization
methods and programming tools, media art and artistic strategies along the themes were able to be
approached and explored. The following five theme evenings form the core of the course:
- Back to the Bones: The Human Skeleton and What Keeps us Together?
- From Phantoms to Avatars: Analog and Digital Simulations for the Body
- Medical Images: What gets lost in the Digital World?
- Sense Making in Medical Images: Flesh and Voxel
- Getting Real: How Researchers and Physicians work Hand in Hand
These new perspectives and approaches on existing competences were experienced as valuable by
the team at Fraunhofer MEVIS as this helped to break out of routines and push the boundaries of the
workshop design. Additionally, the team at Fraunhofer MEVIS invested in internal workshops for the
redesign of the STEAM Imaging workshop into the course which helped to break up habitual blindness
in working with the as well as teaching strategies of the course content and tools.
The high school students were provided with in-depth knowledge and approaches from scientists, a
physician, and an artist to build up a basic understanding of the background and the processes
required for medical imaging. They received anatomical input by an analog model, a 3D print of a
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kneecap, and instructions for medical drawing, background in digital images, medical imaging methods
and biophysical simulation. They used Inside Insight a web-based interactive STEAM application to
explore medical images creatively , they learned photogrammetry to create their own digital 3D and
AR models from physical objects, and connected to the real-world experiences and work situations of
the scientists and the artist.
The course’s main topics were connected to theory, practical applications, and hands-on sessions. The
artist contributed theoretical and hands-on sessions (e.g., theoretical insights, work with online tools,
tutorials) to the previously identified main topics.
This third edition could build on the experience gained at the STEAM Imaging workshops in 2017 and
2019, to further develop methods to affect the participating students with an eye on the main goals. The
focus of the subsequent evaluation lies on these four goals:
- Integrate a diverse range of subjects, theory, and practice with the aim to help students to
bridge theoretical knowledge to real-world situations, and to raise their interest in the topics.
- Support students to recognize the entanglement and interdependencies of subjects at school.
- Motivate students to explore new ways to solve problems and inspire self-determined learning.
- Foster creativity and excite students about science and technology to employ the tools they
have, such as mobile phones, as experienced in the course in future/in their own projects.
Additionally, a major focus of the evaluation will be the experience and realization of the STEAM
Imaging III course in a restricted online situation. The team at Fraunhofer MEVIS, and the media artist,
were all presenting and teaching remotely. Due to COVID-19 restrictions, high school students had to
attend the course sessions and realize assignments remotely from their homes. Thereby, not all
students had access to the same level of technical equipment at home.
The group of high school students at Schulzentrum Walle, Bremen, consisted of 20 participants. 9 of
the participants were female, 11 male; the age range was 15 18 years. The 20 participants constitute
a class in the first year of their studies with a focus on biology at Schulzentrum Walle. The high school
students attending Schulzentrum Walle are from diverse background. The Inside Out: 10 STEAM
Evenings” were tied to the biology course at school, led by the class teacher and head of school Jan
Wicke.
On average, the participants graded the course with a grade of 1.95, which represents the overall
positive feedback from the high school students to the course; the German school system uses grades
from 1 (= best) to 6 (= worst).
In contrast to STEAM Imaging I and STEAM Imaging II in the previous years, the restrictions due to the
COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown during the period of the course challenged the course design and
organization of the course because the full program had to take place online and self-directed group
projects were not possible. Moreover, due to cooperating partners at UCLA in California, US, the
course sessions had to be scheduled in the evening (local time in Bremen) which led to unconventional
timing of the course for the high school students. These challenges resulting in the delivery of the
course as a pure online format. Thus, this evaluation also focuses on the implications of the realization
of this course as an online format and will discuss possibilities and limitations of realizing such courses
online based on the feedback from students, the class teacher, and the project leader at Fraunhofer
MEVIS.
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Setting
Following the first two editions of STEAM Imaging in 2017 and 2019 for high school students in
Bremen, Germany, and Linz, Austria, the third edition of the STEAM Imaging residency at Fraunhofer
MEVIS in 2020 included a course for high school students at Schulzentrum Walle, Bremen, Germany.
On the following pages, you will find the evaluation of the STEAM Imaging III course that took place in
Bremen at Fraunhofer MEVIS as an online course 28 October 2020 10 December 2020. The course
entitled Inside Out: 10 STEAM Evenings” took place in 10 sessions in the evening throughout six
weeks. The course has been developed collaboratively and performed by Sabrina Haase, Bianka
Hofmann, and Hanne Ballhausen and was enhanced by media artist Eli Joteva (Bulgarian artist, based
in Los Angeles, California, US). Sabrina Haase and Bianka Hofmann realized the course within the
residency program and with the school partner. Part of the opening session was a guest lecture by
Prof. Dr. Victoria Vesna, Head of the Art|Sci Center + Lab at UCLA, who gave an introductory talk on
SciArt for the high school students, moreover three evenings were designed as virtual tours, which
were also open and announced for the wider public: a virtual tour to the MR Lab of Fraunhofer MEVIS,
a virtual tour to UCLA CNSI California NanoSystems Institute, and a virtual tour to the Ars Electronica
Center. The head of school Jan Wicke, who is also class teacher of the participating class, teaching the
class in biology, was in contact with the team during the development of the course.
The aim of this evaluation is to understand:
- the effectiveness of the strategies used to engage high school students in a remote online
setting, and the challenges of the realization of such courses in restricted online settings
- if the course succeeded in motivating the high school students by bridging theoretical
knowledge to real-world situations, and to raise their interest in natural sciences and technology
- if the course helped the high school students to recognize the entanglement of subjects and
interdependencies of subjects to approach real-world problems
- if the course succeeded in inspiring the high school students to self-determined learning and
becoming more creative in their work
- the effectiveness of the course to inspire the high school students to use the learnings from the
course for their own projects and apply new knowledge, tools, and processes to their work at
school
Data and materials that inform this evaluation are:
- High school student questionnaire (20 participants)
- Qualitative semi-structured interview with Bianka Hofmann and Sabrina Haase on 9 Dec 2020
- Qualitative semi-structured interview with Jan Wicke, class teacher, on 11 Dec 2020
- Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 3 participants of the course on 11 Dec 2020 (one
interview with one high school student, one interview with two high school students)
- Qualitative semi-structured interview with artist Eli Joteva on 17 Dec 2020
- Schedule of the course “10 Evenings”
- Official communication about the project and project goals, i.e. announcements about the
course
- Notes to Zoom calls and emails with Bianka Hofmann, Sabrina Haase, and Jan Wicke to
develop evaluation goals during the preparation phase of the course
- Notes of the debriefing after finalization of the course by the team at Fraunhofer MEVIS (Bianka
Hofmann, Sabrina Haase, Hanne Ballhausen)
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Evaluation
The course STEAM Imaging III is the third edition of the STEAM Imaging workshop and artist-in-
residence program series by Fraunhofer MEVIS. While the first edition in 2017 and the second edition
in 2019 were designed as 2-day-workshops, the new setting of STEAM Imaging III called for a re-
design of the workshop into a course format. The course took place on 10 evenings over the period of 6
weeks. This allowed a new approach to breaking up and presenting the content of the course to the
high school students. Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic throughout the year of 2020, the course was
also posed with the challenge of remote teaching. The re-design of the course was challenged by
numerous aspects: it had to be a pure online course for high school students from diverse backgrounds
who took part in the course mainly from home with various levels of technical equipment (concerning
mobile phones, laptops and computers, availability of a webcam, internet speed, access to
software/technical equipment). Due to the COVID-19 situation no group projects could be included into
the course schedule, although group projects and final presentations had been part of the course
schedule in the first two editions of STEAM Imaging. The course was held in English in a German-
speaking school in Bremen, with US-based Bulgarian media artist Eli Joteva as co-course conductor. It
was the first course for the students to experience in English. The 20 high school students started their
career at Schulzentrum Walle in Bremen in the same class only a few weeks before the course STEAM
Imaging III took place. The age range was 15 to 18 years, where the majority of students was 16 and
17 years old (18 participants), 9 out of 20 participants were female.
Overview: General impression of the course
The general impression of the course was positive, as the average overall grade of 1.95 that the high
school students gave to the course shows (the German school system uses grades from 1 meaning
best to 6 meaning worst): 2 participants graded the course with 1, 16 participants graded the course
with 2, 1 participant graded the course with 3, only one participant did not grade the course. Also, the
feedback to the open questions of the questionnaire was throughout positive. For example, even
students who found the theory too detailed or complicated, remarked that they liked the content of the
course or were motivated to explore this direction further. Others explicitly mentioned that they were
inspired by the practical hands-on sessions, the work with and talks by the artist, or the virtual tours.
Figure 1: Overview balancing and level of difficulty of the course
0246810 12 14 16 18 20
Was the content depth demanding?
Was the practical work demanding?
Were the theoretical explanations well-balanced?
Was the practical guidance well-balanced?
Was there enough connection to the content presented
at school?
How challenging and well-balanced was the course?
well-balanced way too much little too much little too little not enough
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As shown in Figure 1, the majority, 11 of the participants experienced the depth of the content as well-
balanced. For 5 participants the content depth of the course was a little too demanding and for 2
participants it was way too demanding. Only two participants mentioned that they could cope with a
little more depth. The corresponding theoretical parts and explanations were for 16 out of 20
participants a little too much and challenging. Only 1 participant experienced the theoretical parts too
little and another 1 participant as way too little. 2 participants experienced the theoretical explanations
as well-balanced. This corresponds with the verbal feedback from the teacher of the class during the
qualitative interview. He mentioned that later in their school career, the high school students will be able
to connect more with the contents of the course. It will also be a valuable source for future activities in
the biology classes to go back to videos from STEAM Imaging III and connect future learnings with the
experience during and perspectives presented in the course. One high school student, for whom the
course was too demanding, mentioned that s/he liked the content of the course very much.
18 participants responded that the course was not enough connected to the school teaching. In open
questions and students in the qualitative interview specified this that some of the content was too deep
at this moment of their school career. They wished that there were more connections in STEAM
Imaging III to what they have already learned at school. This would have helped them to cope with the
depth of the content and the theoretical explanations. It was positive, though, that they could further
explore some of the tools learned in STEAM Imaging III further at school (e.g., additional time with
Inside Insight, support when they did not have the necessary technology at home).
The answers to the depth of the practical parts of the course and the guidance to the practical parts
correspond. While 8 participants claimed that the practical work was demanding, only 5 participants
experienced it as too demanding and 7 participants experienced it as a little too little demanding. While
7 participants experienced the guidance to the practical sessions well-balanced, 7 even experienced it
as a little too much, and 6 as a little too little. In the interviews and the open questions of the
questionnaire, Inside Insight, 3D models and AR tasks have been mentioned as exciting and motivating
aspects of the course. Overall, the practical parts have been mentioned in the open questions as
inspiring, stimulating and interesting aspects of the course and take away experience for the high
school students’ future (8 answers to the open questions). Some wanted to have more time for practical
work and others would have loved to at least do the practical tasks at school due to their limited
possibilities at home. Repeating some tasks (i.e., Inside Insight) at school was benefitting them.
Overall, that the course took place in English was challenging for the students, but in the qualitative
interviews the students mentioned that although the language was challenging, it was not affecting their
experience of the course. They mentioned that it was positive that any time when there was a question,
they were heard and a translation to German was made. The teacher and the team at Fraunhofer
MEVIS mentioned similar impressions in the qualitative interviews.
Figure 2: Course design
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Introductions, impulse talks, Things That Talk
Guided hands-on parts
Discussion of the portfolio with the artist and…
Virtual tours
What do you think about the course design?
very reasonable rather reasonable so-so not so reasonable not reasonable N/A
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As shown in Figure 2, most of the high school students experienced the overall course design as very
reasonable or as rather reasonable. Although 3 students mentioned that the inclusion of the virtual
tours seemed so-so to them and 2 even mentioned that the virtual tours seemed not so reasonable to
them within the course design, also these students partly mentioned the experience of the virtual tours
as inspiring in the feedback to the open questions of the questionnaire. One student who did not see a
reasonable connection even this student mentioned that the virtual excursions are the most important
take away from the course.
In the qualitative interviews the students commented that the virtual tours were especially interesting for
them and that they did not know before the excursion that technologies like the Deep Space at Ars
Electronica Center existed. In the open questions, one student mentioned that they would follow up
what happens at the Deep Space in future, and 5 high school students mentioned the virtual tours as
interesting and memorable. One participant commented that s/he would have liked to see more of the
places where the virtual tours took place. As the class teacher mentioned in the interview, as he
mentioned to the students that after COVID-19 restrictions they could see if they can organize an
excursion to Ars Electronica, the response from the class was positive. He suspects that the class will
insist on an excursion as soon as travel gets possible again. They also hope that they will be able to
visit Fraunhofer MEVIS as soon as the restrictions are relaxed, and a visit can be made possible soon.
Online Situation
Due to COVID-19 pandemic, the course was redesigned as an online course. As only on short notice
all details concerning changing COVID-19 restrictions to realize the course were known officially, any
group work that was intended to be integrated in the course design could not be realized. Also, the high
school students could not use all the school facilities during the course as they had to attend remotely
from home. Also, any travel was restricted, thus the course design was realized in a virtual process with
the artist, who was only virtually joining as artist-in-residence at Fraunhofer MEVIS and worked with the
team at Fraunhofer MEVIS in virtual meetings and using their online collaboration tools.
Overall, the online course was received positively by the participants, but there was longing for
personal exchange, realization of practical assignments at a technologically well-equipped place like
the school, visiting places like Fraunhofer MEVIS, and experiencing the course conductors and team at
Fraunhofer MEVIS personally on-site. The class teacher also gave positive feedback to the online
course design and the high school students reception. Nevertheless, he mentioned that from his
perspective they experienced digital disappointment”, as he guesses it would have been much more
influential, inspirational, and motivating for the students to work together, be on-site, and especially to
experience the media artist and the team at Fraunhofer MEVIS in person. Connections and personal
conversations could have been crucial additions to elevate the motivating experience.
The artist experienced the online situation as challenging as the participants need different guidance
and it is difficult to support them directly. Smaller feedback sessions where the course conductors could
give more direct feedback could be considered for a future design of an online course. Additionally, a
team project that the students can develop in small groups, and the course conductors can give
detailed feedback will be elevating the potential to support the students and to connect the different
parts of the course more explicitly for the participants. The artist also reflected on the possibility to
integrate more games to reach out to the high school students in future online courses.
The dependency of the planning on the constantly changing COVID-19 restrictions led to development
of next steps on rather short notice. This also experienced the students. 3 participants requested to get
a more detailed schedule in advance and to get assignments much earlier than it was possible to give
them in the course (e.g., what software to install). These aspects were also mentioned in the qualitative
interviews. Although the high school students understood that there are COVID-19 restrictions, they
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would have loved to experience at least parts of the course in person and on-site at school and at
Fraunhofer MEVIS.
Moreover, the team of STEAM Imaging III could not get on the learning platform of the school and use
a common blog and school student’s diaries as planned due to administrative reasons which limited the
communication possibilities and frequency between the participants and the team of STEAM Imaging
III. Both, administrative communication which had to react to most recent COVID-19 restrictions and
communication on content level (theory and input for hands-on work) was limited. Participants
mentioned in the questionnaire and in the interviews that they have limited equipment at home to follow
the course properly, and 3 participants mentioned that the communication of assignments was too short
notice for them.
The limited technical resources and restrictions STEAM Imaging III had to deal with concerning remote
teaching, remote learning, different levels of access to technological equipment, and no possibility for
teamwork, were also experienced as challenging for the team at Fraunhofer MEVIS, the class teacher,
and the media artist. A minor aspect what the students mentioned concerning the online course
realization was the request to ask people who do not speak at a time to turn off their microphones.
Apparently, there were difficulties to understand the speaker at some points due to this issue.
Furthermore, the timing in the evening and the tight schedule which led to overrun the schedule at
some points was also a concern of some participants. One participant specified that it was difficult to
stay concentrated due to the long evening schedule.
Figure 3: Felt involvement of participants in execution of online course
As Figure 3 shows, most of the students felt that the involvement in the course online was good. Only 5
participants felt the involvement was “so-so”. 2 participants mentioned in the open questions that more
involvement of the students is needed in the online format.
2
13
5
How well did you feel involved in the course online?
very good good so-so not so good poorly
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Figure 4: Motivation to participate hands-on in online course situation
As Figure 4 shows, more than half of the participants claimed that it was motivating (4 very motivating,
8 motivating) to participate in the hands-on parts of the online course. For two it was not so motivating
and for 6 it was “so-so”. It is already successful for an online course to motivate more than half of the
participants in hands-on parts of the course. It shows that the content was interesting to them.
Nevertheless, technical restrictions at home can be demotivating and are not controllable by the course
conductors. Moreover, it is much more challenging to give individual support, guidance and feedback
compared to an on-site situation.
Figure 5: Possibility to execute practical parts of the online course
As Figure 5 shows, only for half of the participants the practical parts could be combined well with the
online situation of the course. For the other half it was only “so-so” or not so good.
Motivation by bridging theory and practice, by bridging rational thinking and creativity
One of the fundamental goals of STEAM Imaging is to motivate by bridging theory and practice as well
as to trigger reflection on personal interests, sparking motivation to engage in one of the subjects
4
8
6
2
How motivating was it to participate in the hands-on
parts in the online situation?
very good good so-so not so good poorly
1
9
7
3
How well could practical parts (drawing,
photogrammetry) be combined with the online
situation of the course?
very good good so-so not so good poorly
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integrated in the course design. The answers to the four question that are developed to measure this
goal, show an overall positive feedback, and point to a successful outcome concerning this goal.
Figure 6: Motivation through theory in practice
As Figure 6 shows, for all students (3 claimed true; 17 claimed mainly true) the course was motivating
because they could use theoretical knowledge creatively and in practice. In the qualitative interviews
the high school students pointed to the observation that they could remember theoretical knowledge
better by working hands-on in the practical parts.
Figure 7: Motivation through topical questions
Figure 7 shows that the answers to the question if the course motivated them because the participants
could explore their focus at school through topical questions got more mixed answers. Whereas 11
participants responded with true or mainly true, 9 claimed it was less true or not true. The qualitative
interviews with the three students gave a bit of an insight into the mixed reactions. First, one student
got super excited about a tool and thus wants to follow up on more realms around this question through
what they learn at school. Moreover, two students said that this course and the experience in the
course reinforced that it was the right decision for them to attend this school. Another student said that
s/he was already sure that it is the right decision, so s/he did not need this kind of motivation anymore.
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
true mainly true less true not true
The course was motivating because I could use
theoretical knowledge creatively and in practice
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
true mainly true less true not true
The course motivated me because I could explore
my focus at school (biology and art) through
topical questions
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Figure 8: Motivation to engage in science and technology
As Figure 8 shows, the overall feedback was that the course was motivating to engage more in
scientific topics and technology in future. Whereas 6 participants responded this is true, 12 claimed it is
mainly true, and only 3 claimed it is less true. One student mentioned in the interview that they
experienced that technology is getting more and more important and thus it is important to engage in
such projects. This is something, they will follow up and it triggered personal reflection on this topic. In
the open questions in the questionnaire a student mentioned that s/he will remember that there is an
ongoing development of technologies in the medical field.
Figure 9: Analytical thinking and creativity
Figure 9 shows that STEAM Imaging III made the students aware that they need both in life: creativity
and analytical thinking. 12 participants reported this as true, 6 participants as mainly true, and only 2 as
less true. This insight is already closely related to the next subset of questions: interdependencies of
subjects.
Interdependencies of subjects
The second fundamental goal of the STEAM Imaging course was to help the students to recognize the
entanglement of subjects and interdependencies of subjects to approach real-world problems. The
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
true mainly true less true not true
The course showed me that I need both:
creativity and analytical thinking
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three corresponding questions of the questionnaire show a successful outcome concerning this
intention of the course.
Figure 10: Insights in interconnection of biology, medicine, art, and technology
Figure 10 shows that an overwhelming majority of 16 participants (80%) reports that the course gave
them new insights into the interconnection of biology, medicine, art, and technology. Additional 3
participants claim this is mainly true, only one participant states that this is less true. 7 participants
mentioned the connection of seemingly unrelated disciplines like nature and technology or biology and
art in medicine as major take away of the course. One of these answers went even further as the
participant mentioned that s/he were inspired to even follow up such a direction in their studies and
work after finishing the school.
Additionally, in the qualitative interviews one of the students mentioned that s/he was inspired to follow
up the connection between art and natural sciences further, as it helped their understanding of natural
science topis to draw and explore them artistically. This is something this participant wants to apply also
in future at school. The other students mentioned in the interview that the course helped them to
understand that there is a connection between the subjects, singling out especially the interconnection
of art and biology.
Figure 11: Complementary subjects
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
true mainly true less true not true
The course gave me new insights into the
interconnection of biology, medicine, art, and
technology
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
true mainly true less true not true
The course showed me that subjects that seem to
be unrelated can be complementary (e.g., to answer
questions in health, medicine and media art)
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As Figure 11 shows, the majority of participants (13) claimed that it is true that the course showed them
that seemingly unrelated subjects can be interconnected. Additional 4 claimed that this statement is
mainly true. Only 2 participants claimed that this is less true and 1 claimed that this is not true.
The interview with the class teacher surfaced that the content of the course laid a sustainable
foundation for the future direction of working with the content in the biology class in the years to come.
The impact of working with 3D models (both virtual and analog) and the insights into how visual
representations in 2D and 3D differ in their implications for the teaching at school are substantial. Also,
the insights in how medical technologies measure the body, e.g., the brain and the nervous system,
indirectly will have implications on the teaching and inform the questions the high school students ask
at school in the biology class. Already now in diverse assignments, the high school students bring 3D
models as examples. One important quote the teacher mentioned as take away from the course for the
high school students and the teaching is “each illustration is only an idea”. The participants also
mentioned in the open questions of the questionnaire and in the interviews that the work with 3D
models was inspirational and interesting.
Additionally, learnings from working with colors and Inside Insight have been mentioned as relevant for
the work at school by the class teacher and one of the high school students who participated in the
qualitative interviews. Exploration with different colors and the playful and experimental approach the
participants could use in working with the tool have supported the learning process and stimulated
interest in the subject. Visualization and experimental configurations with different colors helped to
approach the topic and understand the content better.
The class teacher also observed that it was motivating for the participants to have a more playful
approach to the technologies and explore them in different ways in order to understand the application.
The high school students also learned about benefits of new technologies and limits of technology
without experiencing frustration. This broke up the curriculum and led to a new rhythm in the learning of
the high school students. This was motivating and successful. This observation correlates with the
feedback in Figure 6, pointing to motivation by the combination of theory and practice.
Figure 12: Visualization and creative methods in natural sciences and technology
Figure 12 shows an overwhelmingly successful aspect of the course as all participants gave a positive
feedback that the course showed them that visualization, interactive tools, and creative methods are
relevant in natural sciences and technology. 80% reported this is true, 20% this is mainly true. By one
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
true mainly true less true not true
The course showed me that visualization,
interactive tools, and creative methods are
relevant in natural sciences and technology
EVALUATION - DR. CLAUDIA SCHNUGG WWW.RESEARCHGATE.NET/PROFILE/CLAUDIA_SCHNUGG 14
of the high school students in the qualitative interviews, the additional insight was mentioned that
English is an important language in this field and in real-world situations. This participant started to
watch movies and series in English with the goal to improve their English. The high school student
mentioned that although English was a challenge, it motivated them to act outside their comfort zone.
Initiate self-determined learning and inspire creativity
The third fundamental goal of the course was to inspire the high school students to self-determined
learning and to become more creative in their work. Due to COVID-19 restrictions this proved to be a
difficult goal to reach. Considering the restrictions, the course was successful in achieving this goal fully
concerning creativity and partly concerning self-determined learning.
Figure 13: Motivation to employ diverse set of subjects
Figure 13 shows that the course motivated the majority of participants to find solutions on their own by
employing a diverse set of subjects. 10 participants claimed that this is mainly true and 2 claimed that
this is true. 8 participants claimed that this is less true.
Figure 14: Inspiration to become more creative
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
true mainly true less true not true
The course motivated me to find solutions on my
own by employing a diverse set of subjects
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
true mainly true less true not true
The course inspired me to become more creative
EVALUATION - DR. CLAUDIA SCHNUGG WWW.RESEARCHGATE.NET/PROFILE/CLAUDIA_SCHNUGG 15
As Figure 14 shows, the course was successful in inspiring the high school students to become more
creative. 9 participants claimed this is true and 5 that this is mainly true, only 6 claimed that this is less
true. One high school student mentioned in the interview that the course inspired them to draw more
and to find artistic approaches to content that is taught in natural sciences at school.
Figure 15: Self-determined learning through projects
Figure 15 shows the participants’ answers if the course stimulated self-determined learning by working
on their projects in a self-determined way. Half of the participants answered this was mainly true, the
other half that it was less true (9) or not true (1). The outcome for this question is rather positive
considering that on last notice the team project for the participants could not be included into the course
due to COVID-19 restrictions. Thus, this answer reflects mainly the guided hands-on parts of the course
and the high school students’ engagement in working with 3D models, AR, and Inside Insight outside of
the guided online course situation.
Inspiration, tools, and learnings for future projects
The fourth fundamental goal of the STEAM Imaging III course was to provide the high school students
with learnings from the course for their own projects and apply new knowledge, tools, and processes to
their work at school. The four questions allocated to this goal show that the participants experienced
this mainly positive. Additionally, some aspects mentioned throughout the previously explored
questions also point into the direction that the course was successful in doing so, i.e., inspiration to
apply knowledge about 3D, explore 3D in the course of their work, inspiration to apply artistic tools in
the process of learning natural sciences, inspiration to learn English to become better equipped in
international exchange and learning about the subject matter in future.
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
true mainly true less true not true
The course was stimulating because I could
work on a project in a self-determined way
EVALUATION - DR. CLAUDIA SCHNUGG WWW.RESEARCHGATE.NET/PROFILE/CLAUDIA_SCHNUGG 16
Figure 16: New tools to realize ideas
As Figure 16 shows, the participants were mainly positive about the question if the course gave them
new tools to realize their ideas. 5 claimed that this is true, 9 that it is mainly true, and 6 claimed that this
is less true. In the open questions 4 participants pointed out as take away their experience and
learnings concerning 3D modeling, and two more mentioned Inside Insight.
Figure 17: Inspiration to investigate school subjects in a self-directed way
The course was successful in inspiring the high school students to investigate aspects in biology with
their newly gained knowledge and tools in a self-directed way. 14 participants claimed that this is
mainly true, and 2 participants claimed that this is true. Only 4 participants claimed this is less true.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
true mainly true less true not true
The course gave me new tools to realize my ideas
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
true mainly true less true not true
The course inspired me to investigate aspects in
biology with the newly gained knowledge and
tools in a self-directed way
EVALUATION - DR. CLAUDIA SCHNUGG WWW.RESEARCHGATE.NET/PROFILE/CLAUDIA_SCHNUGG 17
Figure 18: Motivation for cross-disciplinary thinking and idea development
As Figure 18 shows, the course was also successful in motivating the high school students to use
cross-disciplinary thinking and idea development at school in future. 13 participants claimed this is
mainly true and 2 participants claimed it is true. 5 participants claimed this is less true.
The answers to the questions represented in Figure 18, Figure 17, and Figure 16 correlate with the
feedback from the three high school students in the qualitative interviews mentioning English as a tool
to learn and navigate in such courses or projects, and that drawing and practical hands-on session
support learning processes. This positive impression is also supported by the observations of the class
teacher.
Figure 19: Inspiration to bring science and technology in creative projects
The course was also successful in inspiring the high school students to use natural sciences and
technology as tool in creative processes. 12 claimed this is mainly true, 6 that this is true. Only 2
participants claimed that this is less true.
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
true mainly true less true not true
The course motivated me to use cross-
disciplinary thinking and idea development at
school in future
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
true mainly true less true not true
The course inspired me to use natural sciences
and technology as tool in creative projects
EVALUATION - DR. CLAUDIA SCHNUGG WWW.RESEARCHGATE.NET/PROFILE/CLAUDIA_SCHNUGG 18
Discussion
The participants graded the course with an average grade of 1.95, what represents a positive reception
of the overall course. In contrast to STEAM Imaging I and STEAM Imaging II which took place on-site
with a minor online section consisting of a virtual tour, this most recent edition STEAM Imaging III took
place as online course with all high school students working remotely from home. Moreover, the
redesign of STEAM Imaging as online course changed the rhythm and the format of the teaching: from
a 2-days workshop on-site a course was developed that took place on 10 evenings. The content of
each evening was designed around topics where theoretical parts and hands-on sessions were
intertwined around each topic as a story. The exploration of the research topics, fields, methodologies,
and tools presented in each session was based on the investigation of physical objects, namely the
skeleton and an analog phantom. Questions raised about the objects, such as “What is this?”, What
does it do?”, “What does it stand for?”, “How can it be represented as an image?” ignited the
discussions and in-depth explorations in the course design, the artist added ideas, knowledge, and
tools from the artistic perspective to selected sessions.
Although the methods and theory the artist employed (e.g., 3D models and color theory) represented
competencies that were already developed in the team at Fraunhofer MEVIS, the artist’s approach
added new methods of personal access (including AR) and connection to the topics for the high school
students, and new perspectives, and opened up new explorative ways the high school students
connected to in a positive way. These new perspectives and approaches on existing competences
were experienced as valuable by the team at Fraunhofer MEVIS as this helped to break out of routines
and push the boundaries of the workshop design. Additionally, the team at Fraunhofer MEVIS invested
in internal workshops for the redesign of the STEAM Imaging workshop into the course which helped to
break up habitual blindness in working with the as well as teaching strategies of the course content
and tools.
The course had to take place as online course with students attending remotely from their homes. Due
to changing COVID-19 during the development period of the course, the course design had to dismiss
a planned team project and phases in which the students could work together during the course. This
resulted in limitations concerning the technology used and limited opportunities to engage the students
actively outside guided hands-on sessions. As not all high school students had the possibility to access
the minimum requirement on the technology at home (e.g., 3D scanning on the phone), the school
provided access during the days in which the students could attend school respecting all COVID-19
restrictions. It was also possible to explore Inside Insight further at school during the biology course,
which helped the high school students to get deeper into the tool and to understand the processes
better. The teacher observed that high school students were actively engaging in the tool which works
very well as a teaching medium. As the session at school took place the day after the introduction to
Inside Insight in the evening, the teacher only needed to give some impulse at the beginning of the
session at school, and the high school students were able to work actively and with great interest for 60
minutes. It is an opportunity to explore these tools further, and more playful or game approaches, as
also mentioned by the artist in the interview, to engage students in an online course situation better.
Unfortunately, the online situation also led to limited personal contact of the course conductors with the
high school students. The class teacher observed that the high school students were motivated due to
the contact with the team at Fraunhofer MEVIS and the media artist, but that he suspects that the
reactions would have been much more intense and the motivational effect higher, if there was the
opportunity to meet at least once. The class teacher called this “digital disappointment” that became
observable within the high school students as they were excited that people like the team at Fraunhofer
MEVIS and the media artist took time for them, but never got as close as they hoped, always behind a
screen with limited interaction possibility. This also became visible in the answers of the high school
students to the open questions of the questionnaire. The team at Fraunhofer MEVIS and the media
artist had similar observations. The artist mentioned that the students seemed to be a bit shy during the
EVALUATION - DR. CLAUDIA SCHNUGG WWW.RESEARCHGATE.NET/PROFILE/CLAUDIA_SCHNUGG 19
sessions, although sometimes more active in the chat. Her suspicion was, that due to the online
situation and English language although everybody made a lot of efforts to translate for the high
school students aspects got lost in translation. The team at Fraunhofer MEVIS, the artist, and the
class teacher pointed out that the situation might have been better if the course could get access to the
school’s learning platform. This could have created a better exchange between the students and the
course conductors and thus might have resulted in more personal exchange. The media artist
mentioned that although she shared her emails for requests, only one high school student reached out
to her personally.
The virtual tours were inspiring for the high school students and eye opening as the places, technology,
and media art environment presented to them was new to them. They were explicitly excited about the
virtual tours to Fraunhofer MEVIS and to the Ars Electronica Center and some even mentioned that
they would follow these activities on their own in future. The class teacher mentioned that hopefully in
future there will be the possibility to visit both in excursions to the sites. The Ars Electronica Center and
Ars Electronica’s Deep Space were impressive for the students and eye-opening. Also, media art as
such was barely known. The high school students mentioned in the interviews that this kind of art was
new to them, but interesting. They would visit such an exhibition also outside of school activities. The
teacher observed that the depth of artistic processes (e.g., artists reflecting on color theory for their
artwork, or deeply investigating in computational visualization techniques before creating an artwork
based on scientific ideas or using such media) was new to the students and to certain degrees to him.
The course was not only new to everybody as online course with high school students attending from
home, but also the depth of content, perspectives, and tools used led to a situation that everybody
contributing and attending learned something new. Although the high school students would have
preferred a stricter and less flexible schedule, it was observed by the team at Fraunhofer MEVIS, the
class teacher, and the media artist, that this situation of everybody being in the position to learn at
some point, to learn together in the process, was a valuable experience for everybody. It was valuable
for the group culture and coherence of the class as a big part of the theories and tools presented in
STEAM Imaging III led to a joint learning experience between the class teacher and the high school
students. All these aspects are valuable for the future development and future teaching of the class at
school. The social cohesion created in the class, new teaching strategies, and content can become
reference points throughout the high school students’ trajectory in this school.
That the course was taught in English was a challenge for the high school students, but they evaluated
this challenge mainly positive, and some experienced this even as motivation. It was also evaluated
positively that everybody made efforts to translate to German. Nevertheless, some students mentioned
in the open questions in the questionnaire that it would have been helpful to alternate a bit more
between English and German so that they could follow more easily. Especially as the course only took
place online, sometimes it was difficult to understand what was spoken (e.g., the sound of some
microphones interfered with the sound of the microphone of the speaker at that time).
Conclusion
All in all, the STEAM Imaging III course was able to affect the students positively as intended in the
goals set by the project team:
The STEAM Imaging III course aimed at employing effective strategies to engage high school students
in a remote online setting, and the challenges of the realization of such courses in online settings:
75% of the students agreed (true or mainly true) that they felt involved in the course online. Although a
few students wanted to be more involved, most of the students were motivated in participating in the
course, and the hands-on sessions. 60% (very good and good) felt motivated to participate in the
hands-on sessions and 30% felt mixed about their motivation to participate, 10% felt not so motivated.
EVALUATION - DR. CLAUDIA SCHNUGG WWW.RESEARCHGATE.NET/PROFILE/CLAUDIA_SCHNUGG 20
In the light of the remote situation in which the students had to participate mainly from home with limited
access to technological equipment, this is mainly positive feedback. This is also reflected in the
possibilities to realize the hands-on parts at home, 50% felt good or rather good concerning this issue.
The STEAM Imaging III course integrated a diverse range of subjects, creative and analytical
processes, and theory and practice with the aim to motivate high school students by bridging theoretical
knowledge to real-world situations, and to raise their interest in natural sciences and technology:
All participants claimed that it is true or mainly true that the course was motivating because they could
use theoretical knowledge creatively and in practice. 55% claimed that it is true or mainly true that the
course motivated them because they could explore their focus at school through practical questions.
85% of the participants claimed that it is true or mainly true that the course motivated them to engage
more in scientific topics and technology in future. 90% claimed that it is true or mainly true that they
need both, creativity and analytical thinking.
The STEAM Imaging III course was designed to help the high school students to recognize the
entanglement of subjects and interdependencies of subjects to approach real-world problems:
80% of the participants reported that the course gave them new insights into the interconnection of
biology, medicine, art, and technology, additional 15% claimed this is mainly true. 60% claimed that the
course showed them that subjects that seem to be unrelated can be complementary, additional 20%
claimed that this is mainly true. All participants claimed that the course showed them visualization and
creative techniques are relevant for natural sciences and technology (80% true, 20% mainly true).
The STEAM Imaging III course was designed to inspire the high school students to self-determined
learning and becoming more creative in their work:
Due to COVID-19 restrictions and changes in the course schedule on short notice as reaction to new
restrictions, this goal could not be met on the same level as the other course goals. 50% of the
participants found it mainly true that the course motivated them to find solutions on their own, 10%
found this true. 70% of the participants found it true or mainly true that the course inspired them to
become more creative. 50% of the participants found the course stimulating because they could work
on a project on their own, 50% found this less true or not true. This results from the limited possibilities
to do this in the online course and the team project that had to be cancelled.
The STEAM Imaging III course was designed to inspire the high school students to use the learnings
for their own projects and apply new knowledge, tools, and processes to their work at school:
70% of the participants claimed that it is true or mainly true that the course gave them new tools to
realize their projects. 80% claimed that it is true or mainly true that the course inspired them to
investigate aspects in biology with the newly gained knowledge and tools. 75% claimed that it is true or
mainly true that the course motivated them to use cross-disciplinary thinking and idea creation at school
in future. 80% of the participants claimed it is true or mainly true that the course inspired them to use
natural sciences and technology as tool in creative projects.
EVALUATION - DR. CLAUDIA SCHNUGG WWW.RESEARCHGATE.NET/PROFILE/CLAUDIA_SCHNUGG 21
APPENDIX
Full overview of all answers to the course in German original (20 participants: 11 male, 9 female).
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
…war motivierend, da ich theoretisches Wissen praktisch
und kreativ anwenden konnte.
…hat mir neue Werkzeuge gezeigt, um meine Ideen zu
verwirklichen.
…hat mir gezeigt, dass der Umgang mit Bildern, interaktiven
Werkzeugen, und kreativen Methoden auch in
Naturwissenschaft und Technik wichtig ist.
…hat mich angespornt, da ich in einem Projekt
selbstbestimmt lernen konnte.
…hat mich motiviert, mich in Zukunft mehr mit
naturwissenschaftlichen Themen und Technik zu
beschäftigen.
…hat mich inspiriert, Naturwissenschaft und Technik als
Werkzeuge in kreativen Projekten zu nutzen.
…hat mir gezeigt, wie unterschiedliche Fächer
ineinandergreifen. (z.B. bei der Beantwortung von Fragen in
der Gesundheit und Medizin, oder in der Medienkunst)
…hat mir gezeigt, dass ich beides brauche: Kreativität und
analytisches Denken.
…hat mich motiviert, weil ich meine Schwerpunkte in
Biologie und Kunst durch aktuelle Fragestellungen
verbinden konnte.
…hat mich inspiriert, selbst kreativer zu werden.
…hat mich motiviert, selbständig Problemlösungen zu
finden und dabei Aspekte aus unterschiedlichen Fächern zu
nutzen
…hat mir neue Einblicke in die Verbindung von Biologie,
Medizin, Kunst und Technologie gegeben.
…hat mich motiviert, disziplinenübergreifendes Denken und
Ideenfindung in der Schule weiter zu nutzen.
…hat mich inspiriert, mit dem gelernten Wissen und den
Methoden beispielsweise im Fach in Biologie Neues zu
ergründen.
Der Kurs STEAM Imaging...
stimmt genau stimmt etwas stimmt weniger stimmt nicht
EVALUATION - DR. CLAUDIA SCHNUGG WWW.RESEARCHGATE.NET/PROFILE/CLAUDIA_SCHNUGG 22
0
5
10
15
20
genau richtig viel zu viel etwas zu viel etwas zu wenig viel zu wenig
War der Kurs ausgewogen?
Theorieanteile: Hintergrunderläuterungen der Kursanleitung
Praxisanteile: online hands-on
Anbindung an Inhalte im Schulunterricht
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
genau richtig etwas zu viel etwas zu wenig viel zu detailliert /
überfordernd
Viel zu wenig /
unterfordernd
War der Kurs herausfordernd?
Inhaltliche Tiefe Praktische Arbeit
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Gruppenübergreifende Einleitungen, Impulsvorträge,
Things that talk
Angeleitete Hands-on Anteile
Diskussion des Portfolios mit der Künstlerin und den
Wissenschaftlern
Virtual tours
Wie beurteilen Sie die Gestaltung des Kurses?
sehr sinnvoll eher sinnvoll teils/ teils eher sinnlos völlig sinnlos keine Angabe
EVALUATION - DR. CLAUDIA SCHNUGG WWW.RESEARCHGATE.NET/PROFILE/CLAUDIA_SCHNUGG 23
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
War der Inhalt des Kurses interessant? War das Arbeitsklima im Kurs angenehm?
Hat Ihnen der Kurs gefallen?
sehr eher ja teils / teils eher nicht gar nicht
16
4
sehr freundlich eher teils / eher unfreundlich sehr unfreundlich
2
13
5
sehr gut gut mittelmäßig nicht so gut mangelhaft
Wie war die Kursleitung?
Wie gut fühlten Sie sich online im Kurs eingebunden?
EVALUATION - DR. CLAUDIA SCHNUGG WWW.RESEARCHGATE.NET/PROFILE/CLAUDIA_SCHNUGG 24
On average the students graded the course with a school grade of 1,95.
Grade 1: 2; grade 2: 16; grade 3: 1; no grade: 1.
German students use a scale of grades from 1 to 6.
4
8
6
2
sehr gut gut mittelmäßig nicht so gut mangelhaft
1
9
7
3
sehr gut gut mittelmäßig nicht so gut mangelhaft
Wie motivierend war es in der online-Situation
hands-on mitzumachen?
Wie gut ließen sich Praxisteile (Zeichnen,
Photogrammetry) mit der online-Situation des Kurses
verbinden?
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.