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Phosphorus Waste Production in Fish Farming a Potential for Reuse in Integrated Aquaculture Agriculture


The development of aquaculture in recent years to become the fastest growing food production in the world is accompanied by a secondary effect on the environment, since considerable quantities of waste can be produced and discharged into the environment, as these phosphorus-rich effluents, over time, can contribute to eutrophication phenomena in the aquatic environment. This pollutant is essentially of food origin and is a necessary macro-mineral for fish. However, current scientific and technical means are far from offering the solution to the environmental problems posed by aquaculture development. However, this effluent is a compound that is necessary for the soil as a fertiliser and has great potential for reuse. In this context, aquaculture systems must therefore be well managed to ensure the environmental sustainability of the sector by exploiting these phosphorus-rich discharges in the system of integrating aquaculture with agriculture. The integration of agricultural and aquaculture production systems is seen as a sustainable alternative and as a way to rationalise the use of water and fertilisers. However, for the optimisation of this integrated system to be justifiable in terms of the exploitation of phosphorus from aquaculture effluents, it is necessary to take ownership of the processes involved in the presence of food-borne phosphorus in these effluents and the possibility of its advantageous use both in aquaponics and in agricultural irrigation, the aim of which is to increase the efficiency and sustainability of both aquaculture and agriculture.
International Journal of Environmental & Agriculture Research (IJOEAR) ISSN:[2454-1850] [Vol-7, Issue-1, January- 2021]
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Phosphorus Waste Production in Fish Farming a Potential for
Reuse in Integrated Aquaculture Agriculture
Aba Mustapha1, Maryam El Bakali2
1Aquaculture Scientific Expert in Fish Nutrition. Region Rabat-Kenitra, Moroco
2Biological Engineering Agro-Food and Aquaculture. Department of Life Sciences Polydisciplinary Faculty Larache,
Abstract The development of aquaculture in recent years to become the fastest growing food production in the world is
accompanied by a secondary effect on the environment, since considerable quantities of waste can be produced and
discharged into the environment, as these phosphorus-rich effluents, over time, can contribute to eutrophication phenomena
in the aquatic environment. This pollutant is essentially of food origin and is a necessary macro-mineral for fish. However,
current scientific and technical means are far from offering the solution to the environmental problems posed by aquaculture
development. However, this effluent is a compound that is necessary for the soil as a fertiliser and has great potential for
reuse. In this context, aquaculture systems must therefore be well managed to ensure the environmental sustainability of the
sector by exploiting these phosphorus-rich discharges in the system of integrating aquaculture with agriculture. The
integration of agricultural and aquaculture production systems is seen as a sustainable alternative and as a way to
rationalise the use of water and fertilisers. However, for the optimisation of this integrated system to be justifiable in terms of
the exploitation of phosphorus from aquaculture effluents, it is necessary to take ownership of the processes involved in the
presence of food-borne phosphorus in these effluents and the possibility of its advantageous use both in aquaponics and in
agricultural irrigation, the aim of which is to increase the efficiency and sustainability of both aquaculture and agriculture.
Keywords Aquaculture, Agriculture, Integration, Phosphorus, Effluent, Aquaponics. Irrigation.
The increase in the size of the world's population, together with the rise in average per capita fish consumption and the
demand for fish, the role that aquaculture plays in ensuring food security, and to preserve marine resources has led to
development of this sector in the world over the last few decades (FAO, 2020).
One of the consequences of the expansion of aquaculture is the significant increase in the production of faecal and metabolic
waste from feed in farming systems. The main pollutants involved in these aquaculture effluents, are phosphorus (P),
nitrogen (N) stand out as important contributors to the eutrophication process of the aquatic environment, leading to negative
impacts on the environment, (Lazzari and Baldisserotto, 2008). Among the nutrients lost from diets, phosphorus is the most
critical, is the main factor of pollution in aquaculture since it influences directly the eutrophication process (Carpenter et al.,
20O8; Morales et al, 2015; Han et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2017, Sugiura, 2018).
In this context, this forces us to rethink waste management with a sustainable vision, operating systems that allow us to reuse
nutrients from effluents generated by fish farming (Carpenter and Bennett, 2011), in order to take advantage of the
phosphorus nutrients present in aquaculture effluents, especially as the growing global demand for food results in a steady
increase in the demand for P, which is expected to increase the cost of P fertilizers in the future (Ashley et al, 2011; Scholz
and Wellmer, 2015; Geissler et al., 2019 ).
From this need stems the concept of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) systems, which allow the co-production
of food or other products through the recycling of aquaculture wastes in order to ensure the environmental sustainability of
the sector (Troell et al., 2009; Barrington et al., 2009; Chopin, 2013).
The integration of fish farming systems with the production of vegetables or fruits are commonly cultivated by integrating
aquaculture with agriculture; in agricultural irrigation or aquaponics, is already well established in freshwater, is a
Received: 3 January 2021/ Revised: 11 January 2021/ Accepted: 18 January 2021/ Published: 31-01-2021
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sustainable and productive approach, in line with the principles of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA), applying
ecological concepts and principles of agro-ecology, which can therefore play an important role in building resilience and
adapting to climate change, in addition to food security (FAO, 2019). Integrating aquaculture into farming systems can
improve productivity, water use efficiency and overall environmental sustainability (Ingram et al., 2000), reduce the use of
chemical fertilizers (Rejesus et al., 2013), and promote ecological, social and economic benefits (Halwart et al., 2003; Aba
Mustapha and El Bakali, 2020).
Fish feeds contain Phosphorus and are essentially the only significant source of P in aquaculture (Van Ginkel et al.., 2017;
Strauch et al, 2018), although the importance of phosphorus nutrition is well known to fish nutritionists, mainly because of
its effect on bone development and energy kinetics in the cell (Lall, 2002 ; NRC, 2011), in addition to its biological
importance for fish, it is well established that excess phosphorus in fish feed can promote eutrophication of aquatic
environments, few studies are available on phosphorus-rich aquaculture effluents used by plants by integrating aquaculture
into agriculture in order to contribute to the sustainability of aquaculture production. Due to the lack of information on
mineral nutrition, in particular phosphorus, and its importance for both fish and plants, and for the beneficial use of fish feed
waste, we purpose this Review article which aims to gather, analyse and synthesise information on phosphorus nutrition in
fish feed, with the aim of presenting guidelines for the use of this mineral responsible for aquatic pollution as a fertiliser in
the integrated aquaculture agriculture system.
2.1 Minerals
Minerals are essential elements for the vital processes of all animals, including fish, which need minerals more than land
animals for tissue formation, osmoregulation and other metabolic functions (Lall, 2002). Minerals differ from other
necessary nutrients because they are not produced by the body and have to be provided by the diet. Minerals are of great
importance because they perform various biological functions. These functions can be classified as structural, such as bone
tissue and muscle protein; regulatory, such as cell replication and differentiation; physiological, such as its action on
osmoregulation and membrane permeability; and they are and are part of energy storage molecules (Cho et al., 1985; Bureau
and Cho, 1999; Roy and Lall, 2003).
Minerals are classified according to the amount required by the organism and are separated into macro and micromineral
groups (NRC, 2011; Antony Jesu Prabhu et al, 2016).
Macroelements are required in relatively high quantities in the body, the main examples of this group being calcium,
phosphorus, potassium and sodium.
Microminerals are relatively small elements required by the animal, such as: molybdenum, selenium, cobalt, copper,
iron, zinc and manganese.
Fish have the physiological capacity to absorb some of these minerals from the aquatic environment through ion exchange in
the gills. In freshwater, there is generally a sufficient concentration of calcium, sodium, potassium and chloride to meet their
needs except for phosphorus, which must be present in the feed (Bureau and Cho, 1999).
2.2 Phosphorus
Phosphorus is a fundamental macromineral for the growth and reproduction of fish; it is widely distributed in all cells of the
body, with important functions in several essential metabolic processes. This mineral is present in nucleic acids,
phospholipids, enzymes and glycolic compounds. In oxidative phosphorylation, it acts as a covalent moderator, participating
in the regulation of many metabolic processes, and being one of the main anions in the crystalline structure of bones (Lovell,
1988; Roy and Lall, 2003; NRC, 2011). In its phosphate form, Phosphorus plays an essential role in all the fundamental
biochemical reactions of respiration, photosynthesis, muscle contraction, cell division, transmission of genetic information
and fermentation (Lall, 1991).
In nature, phosphorus is widely distributed in combination with other elements. Phosphate is in equilibrium with phosphoric
acid (H3PO4), with dihydrogen phosphate (H2 PO-4) and with hydrogen phosphate (HPO2- 4). The predominant form at
neutral pH is hydrogen phosphate, as in an acidic medium, phosphoric acid predominates. Pentavalent phosphate is the most
common form (PO43-), being an essential component of protoplasm, present in plant and animal tissues (Strain and Cashman,
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2002). Hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 has the important role of being the main crystalline constituent of bones, giving
them rigidity and strength (Lall, 2002).
Free phosphate is also called inorganic phosphate (inorganic phosphorus Pi). Phosphate that is covalently bound to sugars,
proteins and other components of the cell is called organic phosphate (P) (NRC, 2011).
Although fish absorb many essential minerals directly from the aquatic environment, most of the phosphorus must be
obtained from the feed, as the absorption of phosphorus directly from the water is very low, indicating the need for
supplementation of this mineral in the diet (NRC, 2011; Chen et al., 2017).
2.3 Source and availability of phosphorus
In aquaculture, feed is the inly source of phosphorus in fish (Roy and Lall, 2003; Chen et al, 2017; Verri and Werner, 2019).
Phosphorus can be found in different forms and concentrations in the ingredients used in feed formulation, such as: inorganic
phosphate, bone phosphorus and organic phosphates of animal and plant origin.
2.3.1 Organic Phosphorus
In order to improve the availability of P in aquaculture feed and to prevent P deficiencies, such as skeletal deformities and
reduced growth, supplementation of organic P used in feed is necessary to accurately cover the needs of fish (Lall, 2002;
Sugiura et al., 2004).
The availability and digestibility of this mineral is also different depending on the feed. Fishmeal has been the main source of
protein especially for carnivorous species for many years and has the highest digestibility of phosphorus intake (66-74%). Its
importance in the formulation of feeds has considerably decreased, but it still remains a significant ingredient. It is very rich
in P in the form of hydroxyapatite and phospholipids (Kaushik, 2005; Vandenberg, 2001).
In the context of the sustainability of aquaculture and the gradual depletion of marine resources (FAO, 2020) the substitution
of fish meal by a vegetable protein source is recommended, As an alternative to this ingredient, many authors have
recommended the plant based protein ingredients specifically regarding the cost as they seem to be cheaper compared to fish
meal ( Daniel, 2018).
However, these plant ingredients contain anti-nutritional factors, such as phytic acid, which form complexes with minerals,
proteins and lipids, reducing their digestion and bioavailability in the digestive tract (Vielma et al., 2002).
One of the minerals trapped by phytic acid is phosphorus, which is the main representative of the structural components of
skeletal tissue and is directly involved in energy processes (Akpoilih et al., 2017). According to (Kumar et al., 2012;
Cangussu et al., 2018), the incorporation of a synthetic enzyme called phytase could counteract the anti-nutritional factors of
phytic acid and improve the bioavailability of minerals and their absorption in the intestinal tract. The opposite, ruminants
can produce phytase in rumen by phytate hydrolysis but monogastric animals don’t have phytase available during digestion
(NRC, 1993), but for fish, according Hardy (2010), reported that majority of the phosphorus in plant protein cannot be
utilized by fish, which are monogastric animals.
Phytase also plays a role in improving the digestibility of plant proteins and the bioavailability of certain minerals,
particularly phosphorus (Kémigabo et al., 2018). The fish nutrition researchs have suggested the increase of phytase in the
feed formulation to increase bioavailability and utilization of the phosphorus in fish feed (Dauda et al, 2019).
2.3.2 Inorganic Phosphorus and Food Additives
To ensure the sustainability of aquaculture and the availability of P in fish feeds, inorganic additives to P (Pi) such as
monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and tricalcium phosphate are generally added to the diets of fish
and terrestrial animals to meet P requirements for maximum growth (Yoon et al, 2015). Feed manufacturers often add mono
or dicalcium phosphate to feed to supplement phosphorus from other feed ingredients (Chatvijitkul et al, 2017).
2.4 Phosphorus requirements
Of all minerals considered essential for fish, requirement for phosphorus (P) is the most extensively studied (Antony Jesu
Prabhu et al., 2013). P is a macro element that is essential for several physiological functions in fish (Kaushik, 2005). Unlike
ammonia, phosphorus is not toxic to farmed fish (Wong, 2001).
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According to Amirkolaie (2011), information on the dietary phosphorus requirements of each fish species and the availability
of this nutrient in the diet is essential for the formulation of diets. In the context of mineral nutrition of fish species of
aquaculture importance, the main four groups; salmonids (trout and salmon), cyprinids (carp), cichlids (tilapia) and silurids
and (catfish) are well studied compared to the other groups, whose most was widely used old method for estimating the
phosphorus requirement in fish nutrition is to study the excretion of metabolic discharges, the level of requirement being the
one where an increase in phosphorus excretion is observed.
Currently , that the phosphorus requirement of the fish should be estimated by using the method who use the combination the
excretion of metabolic discharges, and digestibilty of phosphorus reported in the works Sugiura (2000) and Kaushik (2005),
as a tool to estimate the content of this ingredient in aquaculture feed formulation (Hua and Bureau, 2010).
Most of the required phosphorus (P) is supplied to farmed fish through feeding (Stickney, 1979; Hardy and Gatlin, 2002 ;
Roy and Lall, 2003), and the requirement may be variable according to the life stage, phosphorus source and the statistical
approach used to estimate the requirement (NRC, 2011). Additionally, that digestive tract differences among fishes may
influence the quantitative requirement of phosphorus (Hua and Bureau ; 2010). Data available for teleost fish show that
requirements vary between 0.5 and 0.9% (Kaushik, 2005; NRC, 2011) and 0.4 to 0.7% of total P (Hardy and Gatlin, 2002;
Kaushik, 2005).
2.5 Digestion and retention of phosphorus
This mineral is present in virtually all food ingredients, in a mixture of inorganic and organic forms. Intestinal phosphatases
hydrolyse the organic form, so most absorption is in the form of inorganic phosphorus, with a higher percentage of total
absorption in young animals than in adults (McDowell, 1992).
The digestibility of phosphorus depends on its origin: phosphorus from fishmeal is 60% digestible because the digestive
enzyme complex of most teleosteans is better adapted to the digestion of products of animal origin, while vegetable
phosphorus, in the form of phytic acid, is little useable by fish (0 to 20%) because the latter do not have the enzyme phytase
to digest it (Dosdat, 1992). In this context, feeds formulated from plant ingredients are supplemented with inorganic sources
of phosphorus to meet the metabolic requirements of the mineral by fish. This strategy increases the cost of production in
addition to allowing greater excretion of the mineral into the environment (NRC, 2011; Araújo et al., 2012).
Fish assimilate only 20-40% of the applied P (Gross et al., 2020), and the ability of fish to digest phosphorus can vary
depending on various factors such as the rearing phase, fish species, various organic ingredients and inorganic sources
(Quintero-Pinto et al., 2011).
The digestibility of P depends on multiple factors and the association between variables, including pH, the anatomy and
physiology of the gastrointestinal tract of TIG fish, the interaction between Pi and divalent minerals, and the presence of feed
additives (Hua and Bureau, 2006; Hua and Bureau 2010).
The digestibility of P in the diet varies between fish species (Satoh et al., 1997; Hua and Bureau, 2010), the level of dietary
inclusion of P (Satoh et al., 1997), the interaction with other dietary nutrients (e.g. Ca) and the presence of feed additives
(e.g. phytase) (Hua and Bureau, 2006).
Phosphorus from plants is mainly found in forms of phytic acid (inositol exaphosphate), which is poorly hydrolysed in the
gut, with low absorption and excreted via the faeces (Steffens, 1987).
The food provided to the fish on a daily basis is usually based on a ration. The amount of feed depends on the energy and
nutritional requirements of the fish. However, fish generally do not regulate their consumption on a daily basis, but rather
over longer periods of time depending on their developmental stages (Madrid et al., 2009).
But Feed is the main source of waste and is also responsible for most of the environmental impact of aquaculture (Roque
d'Orbcastel et al. 2009). The quantity and quality of the waste excreted by fish depend on intake, digestion and metabolism of
dietary compounds (Bureau and Hua, 2010).
Environmental problems arise when much of the dietary P, because it is not bioavailable or exceeds the physiological needs
of fish, ends up in fish farm effluents and is eventually discharged into receiving watercourses (Sugiura et al., 2000).
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3.1 Phosphorus discharges in aquaculture effluents.
it is well documented that 15-40% of the applied P is retained by the fish, while the rest is excreted and released into the
water (Trépanier et al., 2002;Roqued'Orbcastel et al., 2008; Sugiura, 2018;). There are several routes of P release in fish
farms: faeces, uneaten feed, gill and urine excretion, and fish excrete P in soluble and particulate form (Lall, 1991).
3.1.1 Forms of phosphorus excretion
Phosphorus (P) is found in fish farm effluents in two forms, namely (i) a solid or particulate form and (ii) a soluble or
dissolved form.
Solid Waste
Solid waste is mainly derived from uneaten feed and faeces from farmed fish excreta (Akinwole et al., 2016). The magnitude
of the impact of solid waste depends mainly on the amount of faeces produced and the stability/decay rate of the ingested
faeces (Brinker, 2007). It has been shown that diet composition can also change the consistency of faecal solids and other
physical characteristics of fish faeces (Kokou and Fountoulaki, 2018).
These phosphorus solid wastes, therefore, are the P that has not been ingested and the P that has been ingested but not
assimilated. This solid fraction represents the majority of phosphorus discharges from fish and this is confirmed by several
studies concerning different fish species (carnivores and omnivores), which have revealed that phosphorus solid wastes
represent between 60 and 70% of food discharges in tilapia (Alves and Baccarin, 2005; Montanhini Neto and Ostrensky,
2015;), trout (Boujard et al, 2002l, Roque d'Orbcastel et al., 2008) and catfish (Nwana et al., 2009).
The particulate form settles to the bottom of basins and reservoirs or accumulates in the sediment (Tundisi and Tundisi,
2008; Canale et al., 2016), and the average dietary conversion of diets has a major influence on the excretion of the amount
of solid P produced by the fish (Bureau and Hua, 2010).
Dissolved Waste
The dissolved form comes indirectly from the food in the sense that it represents the fraction of the portion of P absorbed in
excess and then released in the urine primarily and through the gills (Bureau and Cho, 1999b; Ouellet, 1999; Hardy and
Gadin, 2002).
Dissolved wastes, both in organic and inorganic forms, result from the excretion of fish and the decomposition of solid
wastes (faeces and uneaten food) in the water column (Gowen et al., 1991; Yokoyama et al., 2009). These wastes are
quantitatively more abundant than particles.
According to Numery (2018) dissolved P includes mineral forms of orthophosphate ions, and organic forms in the process of
mineralisation of dead matter (phosphoproteins, phospholipids). Phosphorus excretion at the gills contributes to
osmoregulation and acid-base equilibrium in fish (Bucking and Wood, 2006), while renal excretion of phosphate is more
important than gill excretion and accounts for 90% of excreted blood P (Dosdat, 1992).
Soluble P would be the most problematic form, as current effluent treatment methods would be unable to remove it
effectively (Bureau and Cho, 1999b; Lellis et al, 2004), but has an advantage as a fertiliser in the system for integrating
aquaculture into agriculture (Aba Mustapha and El Bakali, 2020).
3.1.2 Factors influencing phosphorus discharges
According to Bureau (2004), the production of metabolic P waste by fish is determined by many endogenous (biological) and
exogenous (dietary, environmental) factors. Nutrition and feeding remain the main factors that have a determining effect on
the amount of metabolic waste produced. However, endogenous factors, such as fish species and size/age, can also have very
important impacts.
Several factors influence the excretion of P in the body (NRC, 2011). According to Araripe et al (2006) and Koko (2007), the
4 main ones are :
The quality of the feed, which depends on the content and digestibility of the P, on the one hand, and on the
balance of the different nutrients and the physical form of the feed, on the other hand.
The quantity and distribution method of the feed.
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The adequacy of the diet to meet the actual needs of the farmed fish species;
The physiological state of the fish: in particular the age and state of health.
Phosphorus excretion is favoured by high doses of calcium carbonate, high concentrations of aluminium in the diet or lower
water temperature (Lall, 2002). Metabolic wastes of P are mainly excreted as phosphate in the urine (Bureau, 2004), and
phosphate excretion is proportional to the increase in plasma phosphate (Bureau and Cho, 1999).
In addition, fish density has a great influence on N and P excretion (Verant et al, 2007). Another factor favouring P excretion
is that P is excreted in the farmed water mass in stomachless fish species such as carp (Kim and Ahn 1993).
Phosphorus is a vital, but limited and non-renewable resource for life on earth. The constant increase in the world's
population and the need to feed the billions of people has put the global availability of P at risk (Cordell et al. 2011). Of the
89% of the world's phosphorus resources that are used for food production, 7% is used in animal feed and 82% is used as
fertilizer (GPRI, 2010).
P plays an essential role in energy storage, respiration, and photosynthesis in plants (Zeitoun and Biswas 2020). With the
prospects of a growing world population and the need to increase food production for food security, the agricultural sector
requires the application of fertilizers containing phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium on agricultural fields in order to increase
crop yields.
Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for a growing agricultural industry (Morawicki, 2012). In the context of agricultural
sustainability, a more integrated and effective approach to managing the phosphorus cycle is needed. To this end, over the
last decade, fish has become more integrated into an overall agricultural system, where wastes from one system are recycled
as inputs into another, resulting in reduced pollution (Corner et al, 2020). This nutrient is acquired by plants from the soil
solution mainly in the form of H2PO4- and HPO42-. Some soils, however, particularly volcanic soils, possess a high capacity
to fix phosphate, thus limiting the bioavailability of P (Morales et al, 2011)
Systems that integrate agriculture with fish production are gradually being recognised as environmentally friendly practices
that combine aquatic and terrestrial crop production while promoting waste recycling (Jamu and Piedrahita, 2002), thereby
increasing farm productivity and optimising the use of limited water resources (Ingram et al., 2000; Stevenson et al., 2010).
P-rich aquaculture effluents are causing growing concern worldwide about possible environmental pollution, so the
integration of aquaculture into agriculture, through aquaponics (Cerozi and Fitzsimmons; 2017) and the integration of
aquaculture into irrigation (Aba Mustapha and El bakali, 2020), holds promise for improving nutrient and water use
efficiency and overall environmental sustainability.
Phosphorus deficiency leads to stunted plant growth, while excess phosphorus can lead to antagonistic interactions with
micronutrients, particularly zinc (Barben et al., 2010). Therefore, to remedy this problem, the fish farmer is obliged to
monitor phosphate concentrations in aquaculture ponds in order to determine the values of this mineral.
The demands of food to ensure food security are combined with the demands for sustainable agricultural production models
that consider production systems that have a low environmental impact and require less water or make its use more efficient.
Therefore, the aquaculture-agriculture integration system has the potential to reuse aquaculture effluents rich in phosphorus,
responsible for the eutrophication of aquatic environments, as fertilizer, and capable of improving the productivity, water use
efficiency and overall environmental sustainability of both aquaculture and agriculture for agro-ecology.
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... Aquaculture effluents with high levels of P and N contribute to the pollution of the aquatic ecosystem through the eutrophication of natural fresh water. Consequently, aquaculture faces a dilemma: feed must meet P levels, but at the same time, feeding practices must comply with environmental guidelines to minimize the P load in the aquatic environment [17]. Inorganic commercial phosphates, under European Union Regulation [18], can be easily found on the market, being categorized according to the Ca/P ratio (Figure 1). ...
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This study was conducted to evaluate the apparent availability and P and N excretion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using different inorganic phosphorus sources. With this goal, fish (153 ± 14.1 g) fed four inorganic P sources were assayed: monoammonium phosphate (MAP, NH4H2PO4), monosodium/monocalcium phosphate (SCP-2%, AQphos+, NaH2PO4/Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O in proportion 12/88), monosodium/monocalcium phosphate (SCP-5%, NaH2PO4/Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O in proportion 30/70) and monocalcium phosphate (MCP, Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O). Phosphorus (P) digestibility, in diets that included MAP and SCP-2% as inorganic phosphorus sources, were significantly higher than for SCP-5% and MCP sources. In relation to the P excretion pattern, independent of the diet, a peak at 6 h after feeding was registered, but at different levels depending on inorganic P sources. Fish fed an MAP diet excreted a higher amount of dissolved P in comparison with the rest of the inorganic P sources, although the total P losses were lower in MAP and SCP-2% (33.02% and 28.13, respectively) than in SCP-5% and MCP sources (43.35% and 47.83, respectively). Nitrogen (N) excretion was also studied, and the fish fed an SCP-5% diet provided lower values (15.8%) than MAP (28.0%). When N total wastes were calculated, SCP-2% and SCP-5% showed the lowest values (31.54 and 28.25%, respectively). In conclusion, based on P and N digestibility and excretion, the SCP-2% diet showed the best results from a nutritional and environmental point of view.
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Water contaminated with phosphorus needs to be managed efficiently to ensure that clean water sources will be preserved. Aquaculture plays an essential role in supplying food and generating high revenue. However, the quantity of phosphorus released from aquaculture effluents is among the major concerns for the environment. Phosphorus is a non-renewable, spatially concentrated material essential for global food production. Phosphorus is also known as a primary source of eutrophication. Hence, phosphorus recovery and separation from different wastewater streams are mandatory. This paper reviews the source of phosphorus in the environment, focusing on aquaculture wastewater as a precursor for hydroxyapatite formation evaluates the research progress on maximizing phosphorus removal from aquaculture wastewater effluents and converting it into a conversion. Shrimp shell waste appears to be an essential resource for manufacturing high-value chemicals, given current trends in wealth creation from waste. Shrimp shell waste is the richest source of calcium carbonate and has been used to produce hydroxyapatite after proper treatment is reviewed. There have been significant attempts to create safe and long-term solutions for the disposal of shrimp shell debris. Through the discussion, the optimum condition of the method, the source of phosphorus, and the calcium are the factors that influence the formation of hydroxyapatite as a pioneer in zero-waste management for sustainability and profitable approach. This review will provide comprehensive documentation on resource utilization and product development from aquaculture wastewater and waste to achieve a zero-waste approach. Graphical abstract
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Agricultural production is threatened by population growth, shrinking arable land and water scarcity under the impact of climate change. To ensure growing food security, sustainable agricultural innovations are needed to meet future food needs. New agricultural systems will need to evolve in such a way as to improve water productivity for its efficient use to ensure nutrition and food security while ensuring the sustainability of agricultural production. Although aquaculture uses non-consumptive water, in addition, global climate change is affecting the availability of water for both aquaculture and agriculture, which in turn affects the production of food needed to ensure food security. Due to the water scarcity experienced by Morocco, a country with a semi-arid climate, it is necessary to research new techniques to efficiently use water in agriculture, such as the integration of aquaculture into irrigation, thus exploiting aquaculture effluents for irrigation. This open system food production technology that integrates aquaculture with irrigation in agriculture is based on the exploitation of irrigation water storage basins for aquaculture and will create a synergy of recycling fish effluents rich in nitrogen and phosphorus materials needed by plants. The rational use of water in arid and semi-arid zones is fundamental to the sustainability of resources, and the integration of aquaculture into irrigation appears to be an efficient technique for water saving, to eliminate and exploit aquaculture effluents and to provide additional fertilisers for agricultural crops. Within this framework, in order to meet the various challenges of water shortages facing Moroccan farmers and to increase and diversify their animal and plant productivity, this strategy could be adopted and developed for the first time in Morocco, with the objective of an agricultural development model with multiple benefits that is more environmentally, economically and socially sustainable.
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Inorganic phosphorus (orthophosphate) determination is crucial within environmental applications. Conventional accredited measurement methods of orthophosphate provide accurate measurements for a limited number of samples due to cost, time, and labor involved with laboratory analysis and are insufficient to characterize phosphate variability within environmental applications. Precise electrochemical sensing has the potential to provide accurate phosphate measurements and has the advantage of being inexpensive to produce and portable. Cobalt is a robust metal that has shown a unique selectivity towards phosphate in potentiometric sensors. In this manuscript, we reviewed the cobalt phosphate ion-selective electrodes with cobalt matrices in the form of pure metal, microelectrode, thin-film, and heterogeneous metal membrane in building integrated probes for determining phosphate concentrations in aqueous solutions. We reviewed different proposals of the cobalt-phosphate chemical reactions on the electrode surface, the factors affecting the stability of the phosphate measurement, and the success stories in the form of the limit of detection, linear range, and sensitivity. With strong progress in recent decades, we restricted ourselves at the time between 1995 and 2018. We discussed future opportunities of cobalt sensors towards more reliable phosphate sensing using novel approaches like cobalt alloys, three in one cobalt phosphate sensors, and external interference elimination methods.
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Phosphorus's essentiality for all life on Earth is beyond doubt. As one of the three major macronutrients, it is a crucial building block of modern-day mineral fertilizers and, thus, an essential production factor for global food security. Its almost-exclusive primary sources are phosphate-rock deposits of either sedimentary or igneous origin. The currently known deposits are widely scattered over the globe in large numbers but not necessarily in commercially feasible phosphate-rock quantities. Europe, in particular, possesses negligible considerable reserves; currently, only one Finnish igneous mine is in operation. Thus, phosphate imports are inevitable. Countermeasures like to foster phosphorus recycling from wastewater systems, will reduce rather than substitute imports. Phosphate trade of any form relies on bilateral commercial agreements as it is not traded on commodity exchanges. Therefore, questions regarding supply security and, particularly, the safeness of supply for import-dependent countries, must also address the issues of market concentration, the dynamic reserve–resource situation, and respectively their development over time. We provide a state-of-the-art fundamental analysis all along the supply chain by applying the Hirschman-Herfindahl Index (HHI) to quantify market concentrations as well as reserve-to-production ratios to evaluate developments over recent decades. Thereby, we overcome the unfavorable nature of these static measures. Results suggest medium to highly concentrated markets for the production of phosphate rock, phosphoric acid, and phosphate fertilizers (MAP, DAP) with increasing trends for the overall supply chain. However, these findings should not be interpreted as alarming developments for import-dependent regions, given that the export-market concentrations for phosphate fertilizers have shown significant decreases since the early 1980s.
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Teleost fish are excellent models to study the phylogeny of the slc34 gene family, Slc34-mediated phosphate (Pi) transport and how Slc34 transporters contribute Pi homeostasis. Fish need to accumulate Pi from the diet to sustain growth. Much alike in mammals, intestinal uptake in fish is partly a paracellular and partly a Slc34-mediated transcellular process. Acute regulation of Pi balance is achieved in the kidney via a combination of Slc34-mediated secretion and/or reabsorption. A great plasticity is observed in how various species perform and combine the different processes of secretion and reabsorption. A reason for this diversity is found in one or two whole genome duplication events followed by potential gene loss; consequently, teleosts exhibit distinctly different repertoires of Slc34 transporters. Moreover, due to habitats with vastly different salinity, teleosts face the challenge of either preserving water in a hyperosmotic environment (seawater) or excreting water in hypoosmotic freshwater. An additional challenge in understanding teleost Pi homeostasis are the genome duplication and retention events that diversified peptide hormones such as parathyroid hormone and stanniocalcin. Dietary Pi and non-coding RNAs also regulate the expression of piscine Slc34 transporters. The adaptive responses of teleost Slc34 transporters to e.g. Pi diets and vitamin D are informative in the context of comparative physiology, but also relevant in applied physiology and aquaculture. In fact, Pi is essential for teleost fish growth but it also exerts significant adverse consequences if over-supplied. Thus, investigating Slc34 transporters helps tuning the physiology of commercially valuable teleost fish in a confined environment.
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The intensification of aquaculture has emerged as a viable alternative for increasing aquaculture production due to competition that arose from the use of natural resources, such as land and water, by other production and developmental sectors. However, intensification demands increased inputs, such as fish and feed per unit culture area and, therefore, increased waste generation from the aquaculture production systems. The impact of waste products from aquaculture has increased public concern and threatens the sustainability of aquaculture practices. The need for increasing the production of aquaculture products cannot be overemphasized and, therefore, there is a need to develop culture systems that will increase fish production with efficient waste management in order to limit environmental degradation resulting from aquaculture wastes and ensure its sustainability. This paper reviewed various aspects of waste production from aquaculture, their sources, components, and methods of management, in different culture systems, primarily discussing waste production from feed, chemicals, and pathogens. We aimed to establish the sources of wastes, their contents, and potential harms to both the fish culture and the environment. Suggestions for managing wastes in different culture systems were made to ensure an improved and sustainable aquaculture production. Keywords: Fish farming, Aquaculture effluents, Environmental degradation, Waste management, Sustainable aquaculture
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The reuse of effluent waters and sediments from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) recirculation aquaculture systems requires a deeper understanding of the nutrient and energy flows and material pathways. Three semi-commercial systems, differing in stocking density, were sampled for nutritive and pollutant elements of the input- (tap water, feed) and output pathways (fillet, carcass, process water, sediments) by ICP-OES/MS and calorimetry. Highly water-soluble elements, e.g., potassium, accumulated in the water, whereas iron, copper, chromium and uranium where found in the solids. Feed derived phosphorous was accounted for, 58.3–64.2% inside the fish, 9.7–19.3% in sediments, and small amounts 9.6–15.5% in the process waters. A total of 7.1–9.9% of the feed accumulated as dry matter in the sediments, comprising 5.5–8.7% total organic carbon and 3.7–5.2% nitrogen. A total of 44.5–47.1% of the feed energy was found in the fish and 5.7–7.7% in the sediments. For reuse of water and nutrients in hydroponics, the macro-nutrients potassium, nitrate, phosphorus and the micro-nutrient iron were deficient when compared with generalized recommendations for plant nutrition. Low energy contents and C/N-ratio restrict the solely use of African catfish solids for biogas production or vermiculture. Using the outputs both for biogas supplement and general fertilizer in aquaponics farming (s.l.) (combined with additional nutrients) appears possible.
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Until recently, fish meal was the chief protein source in the fish feed for diverse reasons collectively for its high protein content, excellent essential amino acid (EAA) profile, better nutrient digestibility, lack of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs), low price and ease in its availability. However ideal protein source of fish meal for fish feed is now at risk that threatens feed formulators to rely more on this. This example additionally makes feed formulators to look for alternative feedstuffs which can doubtlessly replace fish meal. Plant protein sources are acknowledged as the best source to replace fish meal; but they have contrasting characteristics to those of fish meal due to following attributes: Plant ingredients have ANFs, deficient in certain EAA, low nutrient digestibility, lesser nutrient bio-availability and palatability because of excessive degrees of non-soluble carbohydrates consisting of fibre and starch. These evaluation characters attributed to plant proteins have raised the controversy amongst feed nutritionists that how they can ably replace fish meal. Consistent with available evidences from research findings, it is found possible that plant proteins can replace fish meal either in part or completely when certain dietary recommended conditions are provided that are discussed in the review. Continuing further, the effects of dietary plant proteins on feeding, nutrient utilization and growth performances, protein retention, digestibility and bio-availability of nutrients, variations in biochemical compositions, flesh quality and immunity and stress responses of aquatic animals are individually discussed together with the idea of giving new avenues for future research in the current topic.
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Phytase plays a prominent role in monogastric animal nutrition due to its ability to improve phytic acid digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, releasing phosphorus and other micronutrients that are important for animal development. Moreover, phytase decreases the amounts of phytic acid and phosphate excreted in feces. Bioinformatics approaches can contribute to the understanding of the catalytic structure of phytase. Analysis of the catalytic structure can reveal enzymatic stability and the polarization and hydrophobicity of amino acids. One important aspect of this type of analysis is the estimation of the number of β -sheets and α -helices in the enzymatic structure. Fermentative processes or genetic engineering methods are employed for phytase production in transgenic plants or microorganisms. To this end, phytase genes are inserted in transgenic crops to improve the bioavailability of phosphorus. This promising technology aims to improve agricultural efficiency and productivity. Thus, the aim of this review is to present the characterization of the catalytic structure of plant and microbial phytases, phytase genes used in transgenic plants and microorganisms, and their biotechnological applications in animal nutrition, which do not impact negatively on environmental degradation.
The use of fish meal alternatives in aquafeeds is increasingly becoming a necessity due to declining fisheries stocks. Thus, the dietary formulations and their impacts remain a big challenge for the sustainability of the aquaculture sector. Plant ingredients have been successfully used as a sustainable alternative to fish meal for some aquaculture species. However, the presence of antinutritional factors in most of these ingredients interferes with feed acceptance and animal performance, causing impaired metabolism and digestibility. Besides the increased production costs, other concerns also arise from these impaired effects, such as waste production originating from nutrients not retained in biomass and released in the environment as faecal or non-faecal losses. In this review, we aim to address the impacts of the antinutrient factors, present in commonly used plant ingredients, on waste production, as it may lead to unwanted environmental changes. Reduction of waste outputs can be potentially achieved through the improvement of feed formulation, palatability, digestibility and nutrient retention. Indigestible plant components, such as non-starch polysaccharides present in high concentrations, increase faecal production and alter faecal properties; however, their impact depends highly on the rearing system i.e. open cages, flow-through or recirculating systems. As the study of faecal physical properties is a relatively new area, there is no agreement on the best parameter or method to use for predicting faeces behaviour in a commercial rearing system. Therefore, knowledge of the contribution of each antinutritional factor, and especially of non-starch polysaccharides, on faecal properties and waste production, and the levels that have the least environmental impact, is important and currently lacking.
Phosphorus (P) is a key nutrient in fish feed used in aquaculture. Several important advancements have been made in this field over the past few decades that have contributed to the continuous increase in aquaculture production while reducing its environmental impact. The goal of sustainable aquaculture production, however, is still far from being achieved with fish retaining only ∼40% of P in modern commercial fish feeds. This review highlights five major issues concerning P and explores practical approaches toward their resolution. The sustainable development of aquaculture is largely contingent upon the outcomes of problem-solving research rather than efforts to generate knowledge or to simply collecting data.