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A Multidimensional Approach to Individual Differences in Empathy

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Thesis--University of Texas at Austin. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 209-219).
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... To test the convergent validity, we followed the Portuguese validation of the ECS and chose the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980). Twenty-eight items are supposed to measure such empathic facets as fantasy, empathic concern, personal distress, perspective taking (e.g., "I am often quite touched by things that I see happen"). ...
... For the convergent validity measures, 73 participants (55 females, mean age = 24.6, Cronbach's α = 0.82 in our study) filled in the IRI (Davis, 1980;Budagovskaja et al., 2013) and 58 participants (51 females, mean age = 26.7, Cronbach's α = 0.85 in our study) completed the EQ (Baron- Cohen and Wheelwright, 2004;Kosonogov, 2014). ...
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The aim of the work was to develop and test the Russian version of the Emotional Contagion Scale. A sample of 518 volunteers from the general population filled in this questionnaire. We examined the one-factor model (all the items), the two-factor model (positive/negative), and the five-factor model (love/happiness/fear/anger/sadness). To measure its construct validity, we asked different subsamples to complete questionnaires of empathy and sensation seeking. The coefficients of test–retest reliability, internal consistency, and validity were acceptable. Only the one-factor model showed acceptable properties by all psychometric criteria. We also observed the gender effect, that is women were more contagious, according to the total scale and all subscales.
... Por su parte, la empatía está constituida por dos dimensiones cognitivas y dos dimensiones emocionales o afectivas (Davis, 1980(Davis, , 1983. Las dos dimensiones cognitivas son: 1) la fantasía, que es la capacidad de la persona para imaginarse en situaciones ficticias; y 2) la toma de perspectiva, que se refiere a la motivación e intención del individuo para adoptar la perspectiva del otro. ...
... para ambas subescalas. Davis, 1980Davis, , 1983Mestre Escrivá et al., 2004;Müller et al., 2015). Es un cuestionario utilizado para evaluar empatía desde una perspectiva multidimensional a partir de 28 ítems con formato de respuesta tipo likert de cinco opciones, que van de 0 (no me describe bien) a 4 (me describe muy bien). ...
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El protocolo de primera ayuda psicológica establece acciones para asistir a las personas inmediatamente después de ser afectadas por un desastre. El objetivo de esta investigación fue proponer un modelo predictivo de la efectividad en primera ayuda psicológica en una muestra de 246 rescatistas profesionales. Se aplicó el método stepwise de regresión múltiple multivariada que resultó en un modelo de 5 predictores: valoración de las situaciones como amenaza, distrés emocional ante el sufrimiento del otro, preferencia por la intuición, realización en la oración y sensación de trascendencia. La capacidad de predicción del modelo resultante fue significativa, explicando el 21 % de la varianza. Los resultados de este estudio permiten guiar la selección de personal profesional para la asistencia en desastres
... The current study used the interpersonal response index scale developed by Davis (1980), and the Chinese version was revised by Rong et al. (2010). This scale can effectively measure empathy in elementary school children and adolescents (Mayberry and Espelage, 2007). ...
... Specifically, emotional empathy negatively predicted children's antisocial behavior and positively predicted children's social competence, which supports the idea that emotional empathy, as a pro-social motivator, plays a stronger role in inhibiting antisocial behavior (Lonigro et al., 2014), has a positive impact on the development of social competence, and is a powerful protective factor for left-behind children. Individuals with high level of emotional empathy typically express warmth and compassion, and concern for those who are experiencing negative experiences (Davis, 1980). Lower emotional empathy may create a greater risk of engaging in antisocial behavior (Wright et al., 2019), and hinder the development of social competence. ...
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To investigate the effects of left-behind children’s empathy and coping styles on school adjustment, 605 left-behind children in the third grade from three rural elementary schools in Suzhou, Anhui Province were selected to complete the Chinese version of the Interpersonal Reaction Index Scale, the Coping Style Scale, and the School Adjustment Behavior Scale for Primary and Secondary School Students. The results showed that (1) emotional empathy positively predicted children’s social competence, and negatively predicted children’s antisocial behavior; cognitive empathy positively predicted children’s social competence; (2) the role of positive coping styles mediated the relationship between cognitive empathy and social competence, and that between cognitive empathy and antisocial behavior; negative coping styles mediated the relationship between cognitive empathy and antisocial behavior; both positive and negative coping styles mediated the relationship between emotional empathy and social competence, and that between emotional empathy and antisocial behavior. The findings of the study are valuable for understanding the relationship between empathy and school adjustment, which also helps to enhance the school adjustment of left-behind children.
... Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Albiero et al., 2006;Davis, 1980), for the assessment of empathic responsiveness, is composed of 28 items rated by patients on a 5-point Likert scale. It is composed of four subscales, with seven items each: (1) phantasy, that assess the tendency to transpose oneself into an imaginary situation; (2) empathic concern, that assess the tendency to feel sympathy and compassion toward others; (3) perspective taking, that assess the tendency to assume the point of view of others; (4) personal distress, that assess the tendency to feel distress in reaction to the distress of the others. ...
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Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between patients' mentalizing problematics and their personality; specifically, it aimed to identify clusters of individuals characterized by specific patterns of mentalizing imbalances and to analyze the relationship between these and diagnosis of personality disorder (PD), nonmentalizing modes, emotion dysregulation, and interpersonal reactivity. Methods: Four hundred therapeutic dyads were recruited. A part of these (n = 183) only completed clinician-report measures, Mentalization Imbalances Scale, and Modes of Mentalization Scale, while others (n = 217) also completed patients' self-report measures, which were Reflective Functioning Questionnaire, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Results: A latent profile analysis enlightened the presence of four clusters with problematics in the dimensions of mentalization, indicated by cluster names: (1) Affective-self-automatic profile (ASA-P) (with higher percentage of PDs); (2) External profile (E-P) (with lower percentage of PDs); (3) Others-automatic-affective profile (OAA-P); (4) Cognitive-self-automatic profile (CSA-P). Multivariate analysis of variances confirmed that the four clusters differed in relation to the quality of mentalization, emotional dysregulation and interpersonal reactivity, with higher levels of nonmentalization modes, uncertainty about mental states and emotion dysregulation in ASA-P, higher levels of good mentalization in E-P, lower impulsivity in CSA-P, and greater empathic concern in OAA-P.
... It measures Empathy on four scales namely Perspective Taking, Fantasy, Empathic Concern, and Personal Distress scale. 10 There is no cut-off value in this scale and it is reported as a continuous scale and higher scores indicate more Empathy of the participant. For sampling, we used non-probability continuous sampling. ...
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Introduction: Empathy among medical students and doctors, is a rather unexplored part of medical flora and fauna which may vary with each personality. Objective: To determine the correlation between empathy and personality traits of final-year medical students. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Rawalpindi Medical University, Pakistan. A total of 144 medical students were included in the study. For personality traits assessment and empathy assessment, Big Five Inventory and Interpersonal Reactivity Index were used. All the data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: The mean score for the empathy scale was found to be 61.25 ± 10.0. Females were more empathetic than males in all subscales but pointedly so in the empathetic concern scale. Overall empathy scale was strongly correlated with Agreeableness and Neuroticism (P<0.001). Perspective taking scale was positively related to Agreeableness and openness, the Empathy concern scale was positively related to Agreeableness, and Personal Distress was positively related to Conscientiousness and Neuroticism. The demographic factors of age and gender explained only 1.7%, 6.8%, 2.4%, and 2.0% of the variance in the four scales of empathy. After adjustment for age and gender, perspective taking was positively associated with Agreeableness and Openness and Personal distress was associated with Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Openness. Conclusion: We conclude that personality traits have a substantial correlation with empathy and its subscales. So we need to evaluate the personality of a medical student and tailor a set of rules for each individual consistent with their persona to develop empathy for them.
... We used the empathic concern subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI -Empathic Concern) [36] to assess empathy. Higher total scores (range 0-28) indicate greater empathy. ...
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Purpose Neurofibromatosis (NF) is an incurable genetic neurological condition. Psychosocial interventions that promote resiliency are a promising approach to address the high emotional distress and low quality of life (QoL) associated with NF. However, no studies have examined the psychosocial needs of treatment-seeking adults with NF. Our goal was to explore, using data from the largest efficacy trial of a psychosocial intervention for NF, differences in QoL, emotional distress, resiliency, and pain-related outcomes compared to other chronic medical populations and within subtypes (NF1, NF2, schwannomatosis; SCHW). Methods Enrolled participants (N = 228) were geographically diverse adults with NF and elevated stress. We performed secondary analysis on baseline measures of QoL, emotional distress, resiliency, and pain-related outcomes. We reported descriptive statistics and normative comparisons to understand the psychosocial characteristics of the overall sample and performed between-group analyses to explore differences within NF type. Results Our sample endorsed worse QoL, emotional distress, resilience, and pain-related outcomes than similar chronic illness populations. Within NF types, participants with NF1 reported lower QoL and resilience compared to those with NF2. Participants with SCHW reported higher pain intensity than those with NF1. Participants with SCHW reported higher pain interference and lower physical QoL compared to those with NF1 and NF2. Conclusions Our findings support the urgent need for psychosocial interventions targeting deficits in QoL, emotional distress, resilience, and pain-related outcomes in adults with NF. We recommend efforts to enhance sample diversity, prepare clinicians to provide high-levels of support, and attune skills training to each NF type. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03406208; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03406208 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/72ZoTDQ6h).
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Dance is unique in that it is a sport and an art simultaneously. Beyond improving sensorimotor functions, dance training could benefit high-level emotional and cognitive functions. Duo dances also confer the possibility for dancers to develop the abilities to recognize, understand, and share the thoughts and feelings of their dance partners during the long-term dance training. To test this possibility, we collected high-resolution structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from 43 expert-level ballroom dancers (a model of long-term exposure to duo dance training) and 40 age-matched and sex-matched nondancers, and measured their empathic ability using a self-report trait empathy scale. We found that ballroom dancers showed higher scores of empathic concern (EC) than controls. The EC scores were positively correlated with years with dance partners but negatively correlated with the number of dance partners for ballroom dancers. These behavioral results were supported by the structural and functional MRI data. Structurally, we observed that the gray matter volumes in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and EC scores were positively correlated. Functionally, the connectivity between ACC and occipital gyrus was positively correlated with both EC scores and years with dance partners. In addition, the relationship between years with dance partners and EC scores was indirect-only mediated by the ACC-occipital gyrus functional connectivity. Therefore, our findings provided solid evidence for the close link between long-term ballroom dance training and empathy, which deepens our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon.
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Background Racism is a longstanding driver of health inequities. Although medical education is a potential solution to address racism in health care, best practices remain unknown. Objective We sought to evaluate the impact of participation in a curriculum addressing racism on pediatric residents' racial biases and empathy. Methods A pre-post survey study was conducted in 2 urban, university-based, midsized pediatric residency programs between July 2019 and June 2020. The curriculum sessions included Self-Reflection on Implicit Bias, Historical Trauma, and Structural Racism. All sessions were paired with empathy and perspective-taking exercises and were conducted in small groups to facilitate reflective discussion. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to assess changes in racial bias and empathy. Linear regression was used to assess the effect of resident characteristics on racial bias and empathy. Results Ninety of 111 residents receiving the curriculum completed pre-surveys (81.1%), and among those, 65 completed post-surveys (72.2%). Among participants with baseline pro-White bias, there was a statistically significant shift (0.46 to 0.36, P=.02) toward no preference. Among participants with a baseline pro-Black bias, there was a statistically significant shift (-0.38 to -0.21, P=.02), toward no preference. Among participants with baseline pro-White explicit bias, there was a statistically significant shift (0.54 to 0.30, P<.001) toward no preference. Among all residents, there was a modest but statistically significant decrease in mean empathy (22.95 to 22.42, P=.03). Conclusions Participation in a longitudinal discussion-based curriculum addressing racism modestly reduced pediatric residents' racial preferences with minimal effects on empathy scales.
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This study aimed to investigate the relationship between job stress, burnout, and intention to leave, moderated by empathic concern and perspective-taking. The data were collected via the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) measuring perspective-taking and empathic concern, Spielberger's Professional Stress Questionnaire, and a questionnaire measuring intention to leave. Medical doctors, nurses, and psychologists working in addiction facilities were surveyed. The results showed that, independently, job stress increases burnout and intention to leave. In addition, either cognitive or emotional factors of empathy prevent burnout and intention to leave; however, the preventing effect of each is reduced when they interact. Moreover, perspective-taking enhances the effect of job stress on intention to leave. This twofold effect of empathy for burnout and intention to leave provides practical implications for health-care professionals.
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• The four parts of which this work consists, though intimately related to each other as different views of the same great aggregate of phenomena, are yet, in the main, severally independent and complete in themselves. The General Analysis is an inquiry concerning the basis of our intelligence. Its object is to ascertain the fundamental peculiarity of all modes of consciousness constituting knowledge proper—knowledge of the highest validity. The Special Analysis has for its aim, to resolve each species of cognition into its components. Commencing with the most involved ones, it seeks by successive decompositions to reduce cognitions of every order to those of the simplest kind; and so, finally to make apparent the common nature of all thought, and disclose its ultimate constituents. The General Synthesis, setting out with an abstract statement of the relation subsisting between every living organism and the external world, and arguing that all vital actions whatever, mental and bodily, must be expressible in terms of this relation; proceeds to formulate, in such terms, the successive phases of progressing Life, considered apart from our conventional classifications of them. And the Special Synthesis, after exhibiting that gradual differentiation of the psychical from the physical life which accompanies the evolution of Life in general, goes on to develop, in its application to psychical life in particular, the doctrine which the previous part sets forth: describing the nature and genesis of the different modes of Intelligence, in terms of the relation which obtains between inner and outer phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • The four parts of which this work consists, though intimately related to each other as different views of the same great aggregate of phenomena, are yet, in the main, severally independent and complete in themselves. The General Analysis is an inquiry concerning the basis of our intelligence. Its object is to ascertain the fundamental peculiarity of all modes of consciousness constituting knowledge proper—knowledge of the highest validity. The Special Analysis has for its aim, to resolve each species of cognition into its components. Commencing with the most involved ones, it seeks by successive decompositions to reduce cognitions of every order to those of the simplest kind; and so, finally to make apparent the common nature of all thought, and disclose its ultimate constituents. The General Synthesis, setting out with an abstract statement of the relation subsisting between every living organism and the external world, and arguing that all vital actions whatever, mental and bodily, must be expressible in terms of this relation; proceeds to formulate, in such terms, the successive phases of progressing Life, considered apart from our conventional classifications of them. And the Special Synthesis, after exhibiting that gradual differentiation of the psychical from the physical life which accompanies the evolution of Life in general, goes on to develop, in its application to psychical life in particular, the doctrine which the previous part sets forth: describing the nature and genesis of the different modes of Intelligence, in terms of the relation which obtains between inner and outer phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Proposes a 2-stage model of empathic mediation of helping behavior, which holds that taking the perspective of a person in need increases empathic emotion; this in turn increases helping. Ss in 2 experiments learned of another person's need from taped radio broadcasts and were subsequently given an opportunity to offer help to that person. The experiments used different strategies for manipulating empathic emotional response to the other's plight. In Exp I, using 44 male and female undergraduates, the empathic emotion of some Ss was experimentally reduced by a misattribution of arousal technique; in Exp II, using 33 female undergraduates, the empathic emotion of some Ss was experimentally increased by a false feedback of arousal technique. Results of each experiment support the proposed model. Ss who experienced the most empathic emotion also offered the most help. Results of Exp I indicate that perspective taking did not directly affect helping; it affected helping only through its effect on empathic emotion. Motivational implications are discussed. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In view of the increasing number of factor analytic studies, investigators are urged to plan such studies prior to collecting the data, to formulate a hypothesized factor structure, to develop several relatively pure measures of each factor expected, and to select an appropriate sample of at least 200 cases. Continuous rather than dichotomous variables should be used wherever possible. Programmatic series of studies are preferred over one-shot investigations. Putting unities in the diagonals and rotating all factors with eigenvalues of one or more is discouraged, because this procedure tends to give communalities that are too high, produces too many factors, and distorts the rotational solution, especially when analytic rotational programs are used. In some situations, a computer-assisted hand rotational solution is most likely to give satisfactory results. Mathematical algorithms designed to approximate simple structure work well only in situations properly designed for their application. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--UCI--Philosophy. Typewritten. Abstract: leaves vi-viii. Vita: leaf v. Bibliography: leaves 354-362. Microfilm-xerography. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms International, 1979.--21 cm.
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A selective review of various conceptual positions within a historic framework is used to address four issues: whether an empathic response is an understanding or sharing of affect; whether an empathic response is a response to an object, another’s affect, and/or circumstance; which mechanisms explain empathy, and is self-other differentiation required by various definitions. This discussion is related to an examination of representative, predictive and situational measures. Comments are made regarding the reliability and construct validity of certain measures. The implications of this evidence for the use and the development of measures are advanced. A cognitive theoretical perspective is applied, in which variables that influence empathic learning are discussed with several applications of data, to assist in our understanding of empathy.Copyright © 1975 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article
According to the prevailing cultural stereotype as well as various psychological theories, empathy (the vicarious affective response to another person's feelings) is more prevalent in females than in males. A review of the research indicates that females do indeed appear to be more empathic than males. They do not appear to be more adept at assessing another person's affective, cognitive, or spatial perspective, however. There is also evidence to suggest that empathy in females may be part of a prosocial affective orientation that includes the tendency to experience guilt over harming others, but it does not, at least in early childhood, appear to be part of a larger interpersonal sensitivity that includes egocentric concerns about the feelings of others toward the self. It is suggested that females may have greater tendency to imagine themelves in the other's place, whereas males have more of a set toward instrumental ameliorative action. (71 ref)