Article

Fire Resistance of 3D Printed Concrete Composite Wall Panels Exposed to Various Fire Scenarios

Abstract and Figures

Purpose Fire safety of a building is becoming a prominent consideration due to the recent fire accidents and the consequences in terms of loss of life and property damage. ISO 834 standard fire test regulation and simulation cannot be applied to assess the fire performance of 3D printed concrete (3DPC) walls as the real fire time-temperature curves could be more severe, compared to standard fire curve, in terms of the maximum temperature and the time to reach that maximum temperature. Therefore, this paper aims to describe an investigation on the fire performance of 3DPC composite wall panels subjected to different fire scenarios. Design/methodology/approach The fire performance of 3DPC wall was traced through developing an appropriate heat transfer numerical model. The validity of the developed numerical model was confirmed by comparing the time-temperature profiles with available fire test results of 3DPC walls. A detailed parametric study of 140 numerical models were, subsequently, conducted covering different 3DPC wall configurations (i.e. solid, cavity and rockwool infilled cavity), five varying densities and consideration of four fire curves (i.e. standard, hydrocarbon fire, rapid and prolong). Findings 3DPC walls and Rockwool infilled cavity walls showed superior fire performance. Furthermore, the study indicates that the thermal responses of 3DPC walls exposed to rapid-fire is crucial compared to other fire scenarios. Research limitations/implications To investigate the thermal behaviour, ABAQUS allows performing uncoupled and coupled thermal analysis. Coupled analysis is typically used to investigate combined mechanical-thermal behaviour. Since, considered 3DPC wall configurations are non-load bearing, uncouple heat transfer analysis was performed. Time-temperature variations can be obtained to study the thermal response of 3DPC walls. Originality/value At present, there is limited study to analyse the behaviour of 3DPC composite wall panels in real fire scenarios. Hence, this paper presents an investigation on the fire performance of 3DPC composite wall panels subjected to different fire scenarios. This research is the first attempt to extensively study the fire performance of non-load bearing 3DPC walls.
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1
Fire Resistance of 3D Printed Concrete Composite Wall Panels
1
Exposed to Various Fire Scenarios
2
Highlights
3
Fire resistance performance of 3DPC walls exposed to various fire scenarios (i.e.
4
standard, hydrocarbon fire, rapid and prolong) were investigated.
5
Suitable heat transfer finite element models were developed and the validation
6
showed a good agreement with fire test data.
7
Extensive finite element parametric analyses were undertaken for different 3DPC wall
8
configurations with different densities.
9
Lower fire resisting level was achieved for the cavity walls compared to the solid
10
walls.
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Superior fire performance was observed from the cavity walls insulated with
12
Rockwool, a type of mineral fibre.
13
Thermal responses of 3DPC walls are crucial under rapid fire scenario.
14
Abstract:
15
3D concrete printing technology is an emerging construction method at present and the
16
applications include either panel-based or full building construction. Although, 3D
17
concrete printing is currently being subjected to many research studies, the investigation
18
on fire performance is limited. Fire safety of a building is becoming a prominent
19
consideration due to the recent fire accidents and the consequences in terms of loss of life
20
and property damage. ISO 834 standard fire test regulation and simulation cannot be
21
applied to assess the fire performance of 3D Printed Concrete (3DPC) walls as the real
22
fire time-temperature curves could be more severe, compared to standard fire curve, in
23
terms of the maximum temperature and the time to reach that maximum temperature.
24
Therefore, this article describes an investigation on the fire performance of 3DPC
25
composite wall panels subjected to different fire scenarios. The fire performance of 3DPC
26
2
wall was traced through developing an appropriate heat transfer numerical model. The
27
validity of the developed numerical model was confirmed by comparing the time-
28
temperature profiles with available fire test results of 3DPC walls. A detailed parametric
29
study of 140 numerical models were conducted subsequently covering different 3DPC
30
wall configurations. Solid, cavity, and cavity insulated walls with 5 varying densities
31
were investigated under 4 fire curves (i.e. standard, hydrocarbon fire, rapid and prolong).
32
3DPC walls and Rockwool infilled cavity walls showed superior fire performance.
33
Furthermore, the study indicates that the thermal responses of 3DPC walls exposed to
34
rapid fire is crucial compared to other fire scenarios.
35
Keywords: 3DPC wall panels, Fire performance, Real Fire, Finite element modelling,
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Insulation fire rating.
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1. Introduction
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3D printing is an advanced technique in manufacturing process in which material layers
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are deposited over each other to construct an object. The printing of large structures or
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structural components using a concrete-like or concrete based composite substance in
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conjunction with 3D printing is an upcoming progression of 3D printing technology [1-
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3]. In recent years, this technology has developed and has attracted many construction
43
industries around the world. This process initially was utilized in small non-structural
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applications and now has started being adopted for large-scale structures. Figure 1
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illustrates the development of increasing numbers of 3D Printed Concrete (3DPC)
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projects in the construction industry around the world. Studies suggest that, this
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revolutionary development of 3DPC projects is highly anticipated to increase rapidly
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because of its unique advantages over traditional construction [4, 5].
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Figure 1: Development of large-scale 3DPC for application in the construction sector [4]
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A 400-square-foot-home (Figure 2) built from scratch in just 24 hours in Moscow by a
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Russian company is a great example of a successful 3DPC project. The house has been
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designed to be constructed entirely on site using just a mobile 3D printer, which shows
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the uniqueness of utilizing 3DPC technology. It is indeed a house that is spacious and
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habitable. Here all the structural components of the home were 3D printed using a
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concrete mixture mixture, and other fixtures and openings were added after construction
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[5].
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Figure 2: Apis Cor’s 3D printed House in Russia [5]
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4
Sustainability in building construction is an inevitable aspect of future construction
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projects, which is a standout advantage in 3DPC construction over traditional
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construction practices. Justification of sustainability by comparison of 3DPC construction
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technology with conventional construction techniques in terms of reduced labour
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requirement, absence of formwork requirement, and decreased waste production, is
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illustrated in Figure 3 [4-7]. As illustrated, reducing the construction time and materials
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used for the fabrication, enables less and shorter disruptions in the immediate proximity
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of the building being built. 3D printing will also minimize the difficulty of non-traditional
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layout of the construction site, as it needs only a device in conjunction with one or two
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operators, where all traditionally used facilities that mostly cause difficulties are
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redundant [1].
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Figure 3: Conventional construction and 3D printed concrete construction [4-7]
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A fully functional 3D printed office called “Office of the Future”, featuring all necessary
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facilities including electricity, water and telecommunications and air-conditioning
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systems, was designed and constructed for the United Arab Emirates National Committee
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as the headquarter for the Dubai Futures Foundation [8]. These were manufactured in
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5
China as parts and then were shipped to Dubai for assembly. Figure 4 shows an assembled
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exterior view of office of future in Dubai. It has been reported that, this project has proved
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a 50 % to 80% reduction in labour costs and 30% to 60% of reduction in construction
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waste [5, 8]. This project’s uniqueness and efficiency are considered the inspiration
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behind the adoption of 3DPC for future constructions in Dubai.
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Figure 4: An exterior view of the Office of The Future, Dubai [8]
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In addition to the aforementioned advantages, the 3DPC system carries its own limitations
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and challenges in industrial applications. There is a lack of knowledge in effects of
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different environmental factors on 3DPC structures, difficulty in manipulation of the large
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sized 3D printer at the construction site, requirement of higher capital investment for
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creating and to developing the digital model which also requires skilled persons,
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limitation on design such as for cantilever parts [3, 4]. Especially, the lack of knowledge
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on the behaviour of 3DPC structure under critical conditions such as earthquake and fire
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has to be investigated extensively [9].
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Fire safety has been considered as a critical component of building design, after the loss
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of human life and property damage that have accumulated over the past decades [10, 11].
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6
The surge in use of new concrete composite materials in building industry has explained
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the need to follow an appropriate fire safety standard.
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Results of the analysis by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology show
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that since 1970, 22 multi-story structures have completely or partly collapsed as a result
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of fire around the world. This includes one of the largest historic building fire incidents,
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the collapse of World Trade Centre Building 5 (Figure 5) due to fire, on September 11,
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2001 [12].
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Figure 5: Collapse of World Trade Centre Building 5 due to fire, September 11, 2001 [12]
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Many past studies and experiments on 3DPC based elements were predominantly focused
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on initial strength and toughness, especially the capacity parameter for load bearings [13-
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16]. Although 3DPC materials and structural elements are tested for strength, fire
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resistance, hardness and thermal properties are rarely verified. Based on the limitation of
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past studies, it is evident that a reliable method to predict the fire performance of 3D
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printed composite concrete structure is essential.
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The fire resistance of the building elements is conventionally evaluated on the basis of
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the standard time-temperature curve provided in ISO 834 [17]. This curve was established
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in the beginning of the 1900s based on wood burning furnaces, and then substantially
107
altered to raise the temperature in the first few minutes of fire to demonstrate the
108
7
temperatures in the gas burning furnace [18]. Several experiments for fire tolerance were
109
performed at considerable expense and over the years. A comprehensive inventory of fire
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resistance rating times was compiled using the typical fire curve. Most countries either
111
use ISO 834 [17] or have ISO 834-like specifications with slight modifications [19].
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The prime limitation of the standard temperature-time curve is, it will not be considered
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as an interpretation of a natural fire in a real building [20]. In addition, recent results
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obtained from researchers found that building components exposed to building fire will
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have less fire resistance than their fire resistance scores based on basic fire tests provided
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in ISO 834, which is critical [20-23]. The use of different material composition especially
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in case of composite materials, have increased the fire growth and the thermal release
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rate, thus growing the fire intensity above the regular ISO 834 fire curve. This has also
119
led to difficulties in the secure evacuation and rescue operations and, in some cases, the
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sudden collapse of entire buildings [22, 23].
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As shown in Figure 6, a real fire building curve has a decay phase, while the standard fire
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curve continually increases. Fire experiments based on the standard fire curve could yield
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strong comparative results for building structures under the same conditions [24].
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Evaluation of fire resistance of material or structural element in comparison to that of
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standard fire time-temperature curve is based on the performance of a structural member
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exposed to a realistic fire curve, which includes maximum temperature, minimum load
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capacity and maximum deflection methods, and empirical formulae. A comprehensive
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evaluation on the application of these techniques has demonstrated that they approximate
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the fire resistance of structural components according to realistic fire curves, but have
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their own limitations on the fire resistance rating estimation [25].
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Figure 6: Comparison of real fire and ISO 834 standard fire [24]
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Considering the limitation on available research studies on fire performance of 3DPC
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composite wall structures, a preliminary experimental based study was performed by
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Cicione et al. [26] to investigate the behaviour of 3D printed concrete at elevated
135
temperatures. Based on the experimental results by Cicione et al.[26] ,a numerical study
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has been performed by the authors focusing on investigating the fire performance 3DPC
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composite wall panels under standard fire condition [27].
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However, there are limited studies have been conducted to analyse the behaviour of 3DPC
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composite wall panels in real fire scenarios. Through developing an appropriate heat
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transfer numerical model using Abaqus [28] finite element software, fire performances
141
of the non-load bearing 3DPC walls were tracked. Developed numerical models were
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then validated by comparing the time-temperature profiles with available experimental
143
fire test results of 3D printed concrete [27]. Hence, this paper presents a numerical
144
investigation on the fire performance of 3DPC composite wall panels subjected to
145
different fire scenarios. This research has utilized a detailed parametric study of 140
146
numerical models covering different 3D printed concrete wall configurations in 5
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different densities such as solid, cavity, and Rockwool infilled cavity, under 4 real fire
148
conditions including standard, hydrocarbon fire, rapid and prolong.
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9
2. Development of Finite Element Model
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The FE model development for the investigation of heat transfer behaviour of 3D printed
151
concrete walls has been discussed under this section. Three main criteria such as
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insulation, integrity and structural (load bearing), may determine the fire performance of
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a structural feature. The insulation analysis determines the heat transfer within the
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element; integrity criteria monitors the penetration of the fire flame into the element and
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structural exhibits the load bearing ability of structure during fire. Element is exposed to
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normal flames and the investigations are carried out in the form of an unexposed surface
157
temperature (insulation), flame penetration (integrity) and element deflection (load-
158
bearing) [10, 29, 30]. The commercially available software Abaqus [28] allows
159
performing uncoupled and coupled thermal analysis to investigate the thermal behaviour.
160
Coupled analysis is typically employed to investigate combined mechanical-thermal
161
behaviour. Since the considered 3DPC wall configurations are non-load bearing,
162
uncoupled heat transfer analysis was performed in this study.
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Three-dimensional heat transfer finite element models were developed to determine the
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unexposed surface temperature variation of 3DPC composite wall panels exposed to four
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different fire conditions such as standard fire, hydrocarbon fire, rapid fire and prolong
166
fire. The fire behaviour of three different types of 3D printed concrete wall
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configurations: solid walls, cavity walls and composite walls (cavity filled with insulation
168
material) were investigated through this FE analysis.
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2.1. Elevated temperature thermal properties
170
Thermal properties of concrete used for the 3D printing and the insulation material are
171
the crucial governing parameters of 3D heat transfer finite element analyses which must
172
be specified in a temperature-dependent manner [11, 29, 31]. Hence, the precise thermal
173
10
conductivity, specific heat, and relative density variations with elevated temperature must
174
be involved in order to analyse the thermal behaviour of 3DPC walls. The variation of
175
thermal properties of concrete with aggregates with increasing temperature is obtainable
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from EN 1992-1-2 [32]. Since the 3D printed concrete mixture behaves like a
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cementitious mortar rather than the typical concrete, suitable modifications have to be
178
made on these temperature-dependent thermal properties in order to be used in the
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development FE models. It is notable that the specific heat variation was slightly altered
180
within the temperature range of 20-120 °C while the thermal conductivity and relative
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density variations followed the normal concrete behaviour. These modifications were
182
validated against the experimental fire test results of 3D printed concrete. Figure 7 (a-c)
183
shows the considered and proposed thermal properties of 3D printed concrete at elevated
184
temperatures in this study.
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As this study investigates the fire behaviour of 3DPC non-load bearing walls with and
186
without cavity insulation under various fire circumstances, thermal properties of the
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Rockwool material is also described under this section. Figure 8 illustrates the thermal
188
conductivity variation of Rockwool insulation material which is derived from the study
189
by Dias et al. [33]. The constant density and specific heat values of Rockwool at elevated
190
temperatures are 100 kg/m3 and 840 J/kg.°C, respectively [34].
191
11
Figure 7: Thermal properties of 3D printed concrete: (a) Relative density; (b) Thermal
192
conductivity; (c) Specific heat [32]
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(c)
(b)
(a)
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Relative density
Temperature (C)
3D printed concrete [proposed]
Normal concrete [EN-1992-1-2]
12
Figure 8: Thermal conductivity of Rockwool [33]
194
2.2. Heat transfer model development in Abaqus
195
The development of FE model involved a similar behaviour of thermal loading and
196
boundary conditions as the actual conditions. Heat transfer across a 3DPC walls take
197
place through three major heat transfer modes such as conduction, convection, and
198
radiation. All these heat transfer methods were considered in the FE model development.
199
Thermal loading was applied to the 3DPC vertical wall surface as boundary condition.
200
The time-temperature behaviour at the fire exposed side of 3DPC wall was defined to
201
follow the different fire conditions such as; ISO 834 standard fire, hydrocarbon fire, rapid
202
and prolong fire curves. Meanwhile, the room temperature of 200C was applied to the
203
whole model as a predefined initial temperature. The 3D printed concrete walls and cavity
204
insulation were modelled using heat transfer solid elements (DC3D8) which are 3D 8-
205
node linear brick element with one degree of freedom per node. This element type was
206
selected as it allows the conduction mode heat transfer through the elements in the same
207
material.
208
The convection effect was included by defining convective film coefficients. The
209
convective film coefficient of 25 W / (m2.0C), which is derived from EN 1992-1-2 [32]
210
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Thermal conductivity [W/m/°C]
Temperature (°C)
13
was used for both fire exposed and fire unexposed surfaces. The heat transfer through the
211
air cavity by means of convection is assumed to be negligible as the airflow inside the
212
wall cavity is restricted. Similarly, the low thermal conductivity of the air inside the cavity
213
causes negligible heat transfer by the means of conduction. Hence, the major source for
214
the heat transfer within cavity is radiation bounded by the cavity surfaces. The radiation
215
heat transfer was applied by a specific emissivity radiation coefficient to the 3D printed
216
wall surfaces. The surface radiation was applied on cavity, fire exposed and fire
217
unexposed side of the wall configurations with an emissivity coefficient of 0.7 [32]. The
218
cavity approximation method was used for the surface radiation condition of the cavity
219
surfaces. The boundary conditions applied on the model are presented in Figure 9.
220
In order to find the heat transfer across the 3DPC walls, different mesh sizes were selected
221
for each model considering the convergence of the results. In cavity insulated 3DPC walls
222
continuity between the concrete and insulation material surface for heat transfer was
223
ensured using tie constraint option available in Abaqus which generates a solid to solid
224
heat transfer between them.
225
Figure 9: Boundary conditions applied on the model
226
Fire Unexposed Side
Convection coefficient = 25 W/(m2. )
Radiation of emissivity = 0.7
Cavity Radiation
Radiation of emissivity = 0.7
Fire Exposed Side
Different fire scenarios
Convection coefficient = 25 W/(m2. )
Radiation of emissivity = 0.7
14
3. Verification of Finite Element Model
227
Any developed model must be verified against the available experimental results in order
228
to ensure the precision of the developed models in terms of assumed modifications and
229
the material characterization. Hence, the developed FE model was validated using the
230
experimental results by Cicione et al. [26]. The samples were exposed to a high incident
231
heat flux of approximately 50-60 kW/m2, through radiant panels rather than testing them
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under conventional standard fire furnace conditions. The variation of temperature
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measurements with time on the fire exposed face (Front), middle point and unexposed
234
face (Back) were recorded. In this study, the unexposed surface temperature results
235
obtained from the FE analysis were compared with the experimental results. The fire test
236
results from the experimental study which has been derived for three (3) 3D printed
237
concrete (3DPC) panels of 160×165×50 mm and three (3) 3D printed and cut samples to
238
have a smooth surface (C3DPC) of 160×160×40 mm were used for the verification
239
purpose.
240
The comparison of the experimental results and the 3-D FEA results of the unexposed
241
surface temperature with time are shown in Table 1. It can be seen that FE model results
242
are well approving with the experimental results and the detailed validation results have
243
been presented by Suntharalingam et al. [27]. Therefore, with the modified thermal
244
properties at elevated temperature, i.e., thermal conductivity, specific heat, and relative
245
density of the material, the FE model could be used to determine the unexposed surface
246
temperature variation of a 3DPC wall structures. As per the good agreement between FE
247
and Experimental results, the developed FEM has been extended to study the fire
248
performance of 3DPC composite wall panels under different fire conditions.
249
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Table 1: 3-D FEA Validation for 3DPC and C3CPD Samples
250
Comparison of Experimental results of 3DPC
samples with 3-D FEA in Abaqus
Comparison of Experimental results of
C3DPC samples with 3-D FEA in Abaqus
3DPC(S1)
C3DPC(S1)
3DPC(S2)
C3DPC(S2)
3DPC(S3)
C3DPC(S3)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 10 20 30 40
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 10 20 30 40
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 10 20 30 40 50
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
Front (Exp) Front (FEA)
Back (Exp) Back (FEA)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 10 20 30 40 50
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
Front (Exp) Front (FEA)
Back (Exp) Back (FEA)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 10 20 30 40 50
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
0
100
200
300
400
500
0 10 20 30 40 50
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
16
4. Insulation fire ratings of 3D printed concrete wall panels with different
251
parameters
252
Developed FE model was used to determine the insulation fire ratings of non-load bearing
253
3DPC wall panels. The time taken for the unexposed surface to become 160°C is
254
considered as the insulation fire rating of the wall panel. Wall panels of 200 mm
255
thicknesses with different densities and different configurations with and without cavity
256
insulation were analyzed under ISO 834 standard fire, hydrocarbon fire, rapid and prolong
257
fire. The density of concrete material was identified as a dominant parameter that affects
258
the Fire Resistance Level (FRL) and five density values were selected for the heat transfer
259
analyses of the wall configurations. i.e.: 1800, 2000, 2150, 2250 and 2400 kg/m3.
260
Furthermore, three innovative cavity wall panel specimens (C1, C2 and C3) of 200 mm
261
thickness have been used in the analysis in order to reduce the overall material usage. The
262
material reductions per unit length of the wall are 64%, 53% and 59% for C1, C2, and C3
263
respectively with respect to solid wall. Those three wall panels were then integrated with
264
the Rockwool cavity insulation to improve the fire behaviour (CI1, CI2 and CI3) and were
265
also studied as three additional composite wall panels. The material reductions per unit
266
length of the wall are 61%, 50% and 55% for CI1, CI2, and CI3 respectively with respect
267
to solid wall. Material reduction percentages of Cavity Insulated panels were derived
268
considering the density of Rockwool and concrete as 100 and 2000 kg/m3. The Figure 10
269
(a-c) shows the cross-sections and dimensions of wall specimens which have been
270
inspected in the study.
271
10 (a): Solid Wall (200 mm)
272
17
10 (b): Cavity wall panels (200 mm)
273
10 (c): Cavity Insulated Composite wall panels (200 mm)
274
Therefore, the parametric study consists of 140 non load bearing 3D printed wall
275
specimens, which have been numerically analyzed for the FRL based on insulation
276
criterion. The details of parametric study are presented in Table 2. Insulation fire rating
277
of different wall panels under different fire conditions is tabulated in Table 3.
278
C1
C2
C3
CI1
CI3
CI2
18
Table 2: Parametric Study Outline
279
Fire Scenario
Density (kg/m3)
Wall Configuration (200 mm)
Number of models
ISO Fire
1800
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
2000
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
2150
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
2250
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
2400
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
Sub Total
35
Hydrocarbon
1800
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
2000
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
2150
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
2250
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
2400
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
Sub Total
35
Rapid Fire
1800
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
2000
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
2150
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
2250
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
2400
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
Sub Total
35
Prolong Fire
1800
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
2000
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
2150
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
2250
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
2400
Solid, C1, C2, C3, CI1, CI2, CI3
7
Sub Total
35
Total
140
19
5. Results and Discussion
280
This section describes the results obtained for considered 3D printed non- load bearing
281
wall configurations under different fire scenarios. The effect of wall configurations and
282
densities on the insulation fire rating is discussed herein extensively. It is clear that the
283
insulation fire rating is increasing with the increase in density for all the wall panels.
284
Significant reduction in insulation fire rating has been noted for all three cavity wall
285
configurations compared to solid wall. However, the incorporation of Rockwool as a
286
filling material has increased the fire performance considerably regardless of the fire
287
scenario. The solid and Rockwool infilled cavity walls showed superior fire resistance
288
such that insulation failure fire rating is not reached the limiting insulation fire rating
289
limiting temperature of 160°C (140°C+20°C) for those walls even with 5 hour of all four
290
fire exposures.
291
5.1. Standard Fire
292
Figure 11 (a-e) illustrate the unexposed surface temperature-time history of different
293
3DPC walls for different densities range from 1800-2400 kg/m3 subjected to standard
294
fire. The temperature rises in the unexposed surface of the 3DPC walls due to standard
295
fire is notably higher at the early time while slower temperature rise can be noticed at the
296
latter stage. This behaviour is prominently observed for the 3DPC cavity walls and that
297
lead to a relatively lower fire-resistance rating in terms of insulation failure. However,
298
the 3DPC solid walls demonstrate a controlled temperature rise at the unexposed surface
299
over the 5-hour fire exposure time. It is worth noting that the Rockwool infilled cavity
300
walls resulted in a similar time-temperature response of solid 3DPC walls, however, the
301
temperature of the unexposed surface remains lower than that of solid 3DPC walls.
302
Moreover, as expected for a particular wall configuration, the unexposed surface
303
temperature is reduced with the increasing density.
304
20
Figure 11(a): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
305
1800 kg/m3 under standard fire condition
306
Figure 11(b): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
307
2000 kg/m3 under standard fire condition
308
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
21
Figure 11(c): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
309
2150 kg/m3 under standard fire condition
310
Figure 11(d): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
311
2250 kg/m3 under standard fire condition
312
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
22
Figure 11(e): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of all wall
313
configurations with 2400 kg/m3 under standard fire condition
314
5.2. Hydrocarbon Fire
315
The time-temperature behaviour of the unexposed side of the 3DPC wall configurations
316
under hydrocarbon fire condition are presented in Figure 12 (a-e) for 5 different concrete
317
densities. Similar to standard fire, a higher temperature rise obtained for unexposed
318
surface at early stage as observed in section 5.1, Hydrocarbon fire scenario also resulted
319
in almost similar behaviour of time-temperature profiles. However, the unexposed surface
320
approached a constant temperature over time at later stages due to the nature of
321
hydrocarbon fire input.
322
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
23
Figure 12(a): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
323
1800 kg/m3 under hydrocarbon fire condition
324
Figure 12(b): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
325
2000 kg/m3 under hydrocarbon fire condition
326
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
24
Figure 12(c): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
327
2150 kg/m3 under hydrocarbon fire condition
328
Figure 12(d): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
329
2250 kg/m3 under hydrocarbon fire condition
330
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
25
Figure 12(e): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
331
2400 kg/m3 under hydrocarbon fire condition
332
5.3. Rapid Fire
333
The unexposed side time-temperature variation of the 3DPC wall panels under rapid fire
334
condition is shown in Figures 13 (a-e) for the selected concrete densities. The effect of
335
rapid fire is crucial during the first 1-hour period and resulted in sudden temperature rise.
336
Afterwards, as the real fire curve has a decay phase, a significant temperature reduction
337
can be identified. Compared to the other three fire conditions, the rapid fire scenario
338
showed the lower fire resistance rating for the cavity wall configuration C1, hence with
339
higher severity. Moreover, insulation failure fire rating temperature of 160°C is not
340
reached for the cavity wall configuration C2 for all different densities within 5 hour of
341
rapid fire exposure. Similarly, for C3 cavity wall configuration no insulation failure is
342
identified except the wall panel with 1800 kg/m3.
343
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
26
Figure 13(a): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
344
1800 kg/m3 under Rapid fire condition
345
Figure 13(b): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
346
2000 kg/m3 under Rapid fire condition
347
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
27
Figure 13(c): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
348
2150 kg/m3 under Rapid fire condition
349
Figure 13(d): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
350
2250 kg/m3 under Rapid fire condition
351
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
28
Figure 13(e): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
352
2400 kg/m3 under Rapid fire condition
353
5.4. Prolong Fire
354
Figures 14 (a-e) explain the unexposed surface temperature-time variation of 3DPC walls
355
for different densities subjected to prolong fire situation. The temperature rise is
356
remarkably higher at the initial 2-hour period and followed by a temperature fall at the
357
latter stages. It shows relatively higher insulation fire rating compared to hydrocarbon
358
and rapid fire while showed a lesser value related to standard fire condition.
359
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
29
Figure 14(a): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
360
1800 kg/m3 under Prolong fire condition
361
Figure 14(b): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
362
2000 kg/m3 under Prolong fire condition
363
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
30
Figure 14(c): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
364
2150 kg/m3 under Prolong fire condition
365
Figure 14(d): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
366
2250 kg/m3 under Prolong fire condition
367
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
31
Figure 14(e): Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations with
368
2400 kg/m3 under Prolong fire condition
369
5.5. Behaviour of Different wall configurations under different fire scenario
370
The insulation fire ratings of the 3DPC cavity walls determined from the generated time-
371
temperature profiles under different fire scenarios are presented Table 3. The results
372
demonstrate that relatively similar fire resisting time has been obtained for standard and
373
prolong fire conditions while fire resisting time for hydrocarbon and rapid fire also
374
relatively similar. This reveals that the characteristics of the fire curves including the
375
maximum fire temperature and the corresponding time, and the rate of decay significantly
376
influenced the unexposed temperature of 3DPC walls. The relevant behaviour can be
377
witnessed in Figures 15-18.
378
Figures 19 (a-g) illustrate the temperature contours at 0 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hrs, and 4 hrs
379
obtained from finite element analysis. These figures describe the clear detail of uniform
380
temperature distribution of 3DPC solid walls, and non-uniform temperature distribution
381
of the Rockwool infilled 3DPC walls due to the presence of insulation material.
382
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
SOLID C1 C2 C3
CI1 CI2 CI3
32
Moreover, Table 4 presents the comparison of the obtained hourly interval temperature
383
at unexposed side of the 3DPC samples. The temperature values provide a clear cut
384
evidence of the dependence of the different fire load on the unexposed surface
385
temperature.
386
Table 3: Insulation Fire Rating of Closed Cavity Wall Panels under different fire scenario
387
Density
Wall
Configurations
Different Fire Scenario
ISO Fire
Hydrocarbon
Fire
Rapid Fire
Prolong Fire
1800 kg/m3
C1
47
33
32
43
C2
110
84
-
101
C3
79
59
60
73
2000 kg/m3
C1
51
36
35
47
C2
118
94
-
111
C3
86
66
-
80
2150 kg/m3
C1
54
38
37
49
C2
127
101
-
119
C3
91
70
-
84
2250 kg/m3
C1
56
41
39
50
C2
132
106
-
123
C3
94
74
-
88
2400 kg/m3
C1
58
43
41
54
C2
138
112
-
132
C3
99
78
-
92
33
Figure 15: Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of solid wall with 1800 kg/m3
388
under different fire conditions
389
Figure 16: Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations C1 and
390
CI1 with 1800 kg/m3 under different fire conditions
391
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
ISO Fire HC Fire Rapid Fire Prolonged Fire
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
C1: ISO Fire CI1: ISO Fire C1: HC Fire
CI1: HC Fire C1: Rapid Fire CI1: Rapid Fire
C1: Prolonged Fire CI1: Prolonged Fire
34
Figure 17: Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations C2 and
392
CI2 with 1800 kg/m3 under different fire conditions
393
Figure 18: Comparison of Unexposed Surface temperature variation of wall configurations C3 and
394
CI3 with 1800 kg/m3 under different fire conditions
395
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
C2: ISO Fire CI2: ISO Fire C2: HC Fire
CI2: HC Fire C2: Rapid Fire CI2: Rapid Fire
C2: Prolonged Fire CI2: Prolonged Fire
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (C)
Time (Min)
C3: ISO Fire CI3: ISO Fire C3: HC Fire
CI3: HC Fire C3: Rapid Fire CI3: Rapid Fire
C3: Prolonged Fire CI3: Prolonged Fire
35
Figure 19(a): Temperature contours of 200 mm solid wall at different time intervals;
396
(a) 0 min, (b) 30 min, (c) 1hr, (d) 2hrs, (e) 4hrs
397
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
(e)
36
Figure 19(b): Temperature contours of C1 wall panel at different time intervals;
398
(a) 0 min, (b) 30 min, (c) 1hr, (d) 2hrs, (e) 4hrs
399
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
(e)
37
Figure 19(c): Temperature contours of C2 wall panel at different time intervals;
400
(a) 0 min, (b) 30 min, (c) 1hr, (d) 2hrs, (e) 4hrs
401
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
(e)
38
Figure 19(d): Temperature contours of C3 wall panel at different time intervals;
402
(a) 0 min, (b) 30 min, (c) 1hr, (d) 2hrs, (e) 4hrs
403
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
(e)
39
Figure 19(e): Temperature contours of CI1 wall panel at different time intervals;
404
(a) 0 min, (b) 30 min, (c) 1hr, (d) 2hrs, (e) 4hrs
405
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
(e)
40
Figure 19(f): Temperature contours of CI2 wall panel at different time intervals;
406
(a) 0 min, (b) 30 min, (c) 1hr, (d) 2hrs, (e) 4hrs
407
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
(e)
41
Figure 19(g): Temperature contours of CI3 wall panel at different time intervals;
408
(a) 0 min, (b) 30 min, (c) 1hr, (d) 2hrs, (e) 4hrs
409
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
(e)
42
Table 4: Equivalent Temperature rise of Closed Cavity Wall Panels under different fire scenario
410
Time
(hr)
Temperature (C)
C1
C2
C3
CI1
CI2
CI3
Solid
ISO
HC
R
P
ISO
HC
R
P
ISO
HC
R
P
ISO
HC
R
P
ISO
HC
R
P
ISO
HC
R
P
ISO
HC
R
P
1800 kg/m3
1
191
239
215
206
86
117
117
96
129
161
161
136
43
54
54
45
36
41
42
38
35
41
42
36
48
52
52
49
2
264
287
52
269
171
197
65
179
205
227
75
212
75
90
47
80
62
70
52
65
64
80
43
69
84
90
73
86
3
291
297
27
219
207
219
37
176
233
242
38
195
98
106
30
82
82
89
41
81
89
101
30
79
106
112
53
108
4
303
299
24
110
225
225
27
114
246
246
28
126
111
114
24
66
96
101
32
80
108
112
24
62
123
127
38
115
2000 kg/m3
1
181
228
208
195
77
106
106
86
118
149
149
126
40
50
50
43
34
38
38
35
33
38
39
34
44
47
47
44
2
256
283
58
265
159
186
69
168
196
221
83
206
71
86
46
76
58
66
51
61
59
74
43
65
79
84
71
81
3
287
296
29
221
202
214
39
175
230
240
42
196
93
103
32
81
77
85
41
77
86
98
31
76
101
106
55
102
4
301
299
24
122
222
224
28
121
244
245
30
133
109
112
25
67
92
98
33
79
104
109
25
63
117
121
41
111
2150 kg/m3
1
172
219
203
186
69
98
98
77
112
141
141
117
38
47
48
41
32
36
36
34
32
37
37
33
42
44
44
41
2
254
279
61
261
153
180
70
161
191
216
85
200
69
82
46
73
56
63
50
58
57
70
42
61
75
80
69
76
3
285
294
30
224
197
211
40
173
226
237
44
197
91
101
32
79
74
82
42
75
82
95
31
75
98
102
56
99
4
300
298
25
126
219
222
29
124
243
244
31
137
107
110
26
68
89
95
34
77
102
108
25
63
114
118
42
109
2250 kg/m3
1
169
213
199
179
65
92
92
69
106
135
136
114
37
43
46
39
31
35
35
32
32
35
36
32
38
42
42
40
2
252
277
63
259
149
176
71
156
188
213
85
196
68
77
46
72
54
62
49
56
55
67
42
59
74
78
68
75
3
283
293
32
225
194
210
44
173
224
235
46
197
90
96
33
79
73
81
41
73
80
92
32
74
95
100
54
97
4
299
298
25
130
217
222
30
126
241
243
32
140
105
107
26
67
88
93
34
76
100
105
25
63
111
115
41
107
2400 kg/m3
1
162
206
193
175
61
84
84
65
100
129
129
108
37
46
44
38
30
33
33
31
30
34
35
31
37
40
39
36
2
248
273
65
255
141
168
71
150
182
207
92
190
65
80
45
69
52
59
48
54
53
65
42
56
70
74
66
71
3
281
292
33
228
190
205
44
171
221
231
48
195
87
99
33
77
71
78
39
70
76
89
32
72
92
96
56
93
4
298
297
26
136
215
219
31
129
240
242
34
142
103
109
26
68
85
90
33
75
98
104
26
64
108
112
43
104
411
43
6. Conclusions
412
This work has investigated the fire performance of 3DPC walls subjected to different fire
413
scenarios using numerical simulations. The accuracy of heat transfer simulation models was
414
ensured comparing the time-temperature response with existing fire test results of 3DPC wall
415
samples. A series of 140 fire simulations on different non-load bearing 3DPC wall
416
configurations under standard, hydrocarbon fire, rapid and prolong fire scenarios were
417
performed aiming to determine the insulation fire rating. The study observed and compared the
418
behaviour of 3DPC wall under different fire scenarios. Based on the comparisons following
419
conclusions are drawn:
420
Finite element analysis is an effective tool to trace the fire performance of 3DPC walls
421
subjected to different fire scenarios.
422
The type of fire curve significantly influences the unexposed side temperature rise of
423
3DPC walls. The results confirm that rapid fire and prolong fire are critical on the fire
424
performance compared to standard and hydrocarbon fire curves.
425
Under the four different fire curves 3DPC solid walls showed superior fire performance
426
compared to usual cavity 3DPC walls.
427
The reduction of fire performance of cavity 3DPC walls can be enhanced with Rockwool
428
insulation infill as equal to fire performance of 3DPC walls and even beyond that.
429
This work can be extended to investigate the performance of 3DPC walls for other
430
different types of fire loadings such as slow burning and natural fire curves.
431
44
Acknowledgement
432
The Authors would like to acknowledge the financial and technical support of Northumbria
433
University, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology
434
and RMIT University.
435
Funding: This research received no external funding.
436
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
437
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... Though the standard fire curve has been used for centuries to determine the FRL of building elements, actual FRL of building components subjected to real fires is considerably less than that obtained from standard fire tests [40,47]. Hence, ISO 834 standard fire test regulation are incompatible to evaluate the fire performance of 3D printed concrete walls in terms of the highest temperature and the correspondence time taken to reach that highest temperature [50]. ...
... Therefore, authors have previously investigated some 3D printed concrete non-load bearing wall panels with different crosssectional configurations such as triangular, lattice and sinusoid concentrating on investigating the fire resistance and thermal behaviour under standard fire condition and different real fire circumstances. (i.e., hydrocarbon fire, rapid fire, and prolonged fire) [16,17,30,50]. ...
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... At present, Weng et al. [30] and Cicione et al. [31] performed the preliminary experimental studies to analyse the behaviour of 3DPC at elevated temperatures. Following the results presented by Cicione et al. [31], preliminary numerical studies were conducted by Suntharalingam et al. [32,33] focusing on investigating the fire performance of 3DPC composite wall panels under standard fire condition and different fire scenarios. (i.e., hydrocarbon fire, rapid, and prolong). ...
... The validation was performed for total six (6) 3-D models by comparing the unexposed surface temperature results obtained from the FE analysis with the fire test results from the experimental study. The FE model results were well approved with the experimental results and the detailed validation results have been presented in the studies by Suntharalingam et al. [32,33]. Since, both FE and experimental results showed good agreement, the developed FEM has been extended to investigate the fire performance of 3DPC wall configurations in this study. ...
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