Article

Surface acceleration transmission during drop landings in humans

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to quantify the magnitude and frequency content of surface-measured accelerations at each major human body segment from foot to head during impact landings. Twelve males performed two single leg drop landings from each of 0.15 m, 0.30 m, and 0.45 m. Triaxial accelerometers (2000 Hz) were positioned over the: first metatarsophalangeal joint; distal anteromedial tibia; superior to the medial femoral condyle; L5 vertebra; and C6 vertebra. Analysis of acceleration signal power spectral densities revealed two distinct components , 2-14 Hz and 14-58 Hz, which were assumed to correspond to time domain signal joint rotations and elastic wave tissue deformation, respectively. Between each accelerometer position from the metatarsophalangeal joint to the L5 vertebra, signals exhibited decreased peak acceleration, increased time to peak acceleration, and decreased power spectral density integral of both the 2-14 Hz and 14-58 Hz components, with no further atten-uation beyond the L5 vertebra. This resulted in peak accelerations close to vital organs of less than 10% of those at the foot. Following landings from greater heights, peak accelerations measured distally were greater, as was attenuation prior to the L5 position. Active and passive mechanisms within the lower limb therefore contribute to progressive attenuation of accelerations, preventing excessive accelerations from reaching the torso and head, even when distal accelerations are large.

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... It was concluded that an unrestricted model is appropriate for simulating kinematic performance, but compliance is required elsewhere in the link system (e.g., within joint structures) to accurately calculate internal forces. This may also improve the timing of modeled elastic wave transmission [60], which is typically instantaneous in rigid systems, but not in vivo [142]. ...
... Although this method enables soft tissue displacement, future advancements may facilitate more realistic displacement magnitudes and damping periods [60,70,71]. Additionally, the inclusion of compliance within joint structures [61,62] may facilitate more accurate predictions of ground reaction forces, internal forces, and elastic wave transmission in sporting movements with great impact forces [60,142]. ...
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This article was published in the serial, Journal of Applied Biomechanics [© Human Kinetics]. The definitive version is available at: http://journals.humankinetics.com/JAB The aims of this study were to quantify intra-segmental motion using an array of 28 surface mounted markers to examine frequency and amplitude measurements of the intra-segmental motion to calculate forces and energy transfer; and to show that the underlying muscles are a major contributor to the skin marker motion. One subject performed 27 trials under three conditions in which his forearm was struck against a solid object fixed to a force plate while the locations of the markers were recorded at 240 Hz. For impacts with equal peak forces the muscle tension significantly affected the amount of intra-segmental motion. Tensing the arm reduced the intra-segmental motion by 50 %. The quadrilateral sectors defined by the markers changed in area by 11% with approximately equal motion in the vertical and horizontal direction. The maximum linear marker motion was 1.7 cm. The intra-segmental motion had distinct frequency components around 14 and 20 Hz. Soft tissue deformation could account for 70 % of the energy lost from the forearm during these impacts. The study has demonstrated the important role that intra-segment soft tissue motion can have on the kinetics of an impact. Accepted for publication
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This article was accepted for publication in the Journal of Biomechanics [© Elsevier]. It is also available at: www.elsevier.com/locate/jbiomech The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that by accounting for soft tissue motion of the lower leg during the impacts associated with in vivo testing, that the differences between in vivo and in vitro estimates of heel pad properties can be explained. To examine this a two-dimensional model of the shank and heel pad was developed using DADS. The model contained a heel pad element and a rigid skeleton to which was connected soft tissue which could move relative to the bone. Simulations permitted estimation of heel pad properties directly from heel pad deformations, and from the kinematics of an impacting pendulum. These two approaches paralleled those used in vitro and in vivo respectively. Measurements from the pendulum indicated that heel pad properties changed from those found in vitro to those found in vivo as relative motion of the bone and soft tissue was allowed. This would indicate that pendulum measures of the in vivo heel pad properties are also measuring the properties of the whole lower leg. The ability of the wobbling mass of the shank to dissipate energy during an impact was found to be significant. These results demonstrate the important role of both the heel pad and soft tissue of the shank to the dissipation of mechanical energy during impacts. These results provide a further clarification of the paradox between the measurements of heel pad properties made in vivo and in vitro. Accepted for publication
Article
This study aimed to determine whether the landing phase of a drop landing (DL) differed with respect to a complete jumping and landing task, a spike jump (SJ), and whether fatigue altered the landing of these movements. Fourteen male volleyball players performed five DL and SJ in a counterbalanced order under two experimental conditions: non-fatigued and fatigued. Fatigue, induced by repetitive jumping sets, was confirmed by decrements in vertical jump height >25% and increased blood lactate >6 mmol/L. Each landing task was characterized by the resultant ground reaction forces (GRF), sagittal plane kinematics and muscle recruitment patterns of six lower extremity muscles. Two-way repeated analysis of variance results indicated a main effect of movement on many of the GRF, kinematic and electromyographic variables characterizing landing, indicating that the two tasks required substantially different lower limb biomechanics during landing. Although fatigue did not alter the GRF in either task, there were significant movement x fatigue condition interactions. The significant between-task differences in the biomechanical variables characterizing landing and the differential effects of fatigue on each landing task, question the validity of using a DL as an experimental task to investigate lower limb landing mechanics of whole jumping and landing movements.
Article
Statistical guidelines and expert statements are now available to assist in the analysis and reporting of studies in some biomedical disciplines. We present here a more progressive resource for sample-based studies, meta-analyses, and case studies in sports medicine and exercise science. We offer forthright advice on the following controversial or novel issues: using precision of estimation for inferences about population effects in preference to null-hypothesis testing, which is inadequate for assessing clinical or practical importance; justifying sample size via acceptable precision or confidence for clinical decisions rather than via adequate power for statistical significance; showing SD rather than SEM, to better communicate the magnitude of differences in means and nonuniformity of error; avoiding purely nonparametric analyses, which cannot provide inferences about magnitude and are unnecessary; using regression statistics in validity studies, in preference to the impractical and biased limits of agreement; making greater use of qualitative methods to enrich sample-based quantitative projects; and seeking ethics approval for public access to the depersonalized raw data of a study, to address the need for more scrutiny of research and better meta-analyses. Advice on less contentious issues includes the following: using covariates in linear models to adjust for confounders, to account for individual differences, and to identify potential mechanisms of an effect; using log transformation to deal with nonuniformity of effects and error; identifying and deleting outliers; presenting descriptive, effect, and inferential statistics in appropriate formats; and contending with bias arising from problems with sampling, assignment, blinding, measurement error, and researchers' prejudices. This article should advance the field by stimulating debate, promoting innovative approaches, and serving as a useful checklist for authors, reviewers, and editors.
Article
Results of mechanical analyses of running may be helpful in the search for the etiology of running injuries. In this study a mechanical analysis was made of the landing phase of three trained heel-toe runners, running at their preferred speed and style. The body was modeled as a system of seven linked rigid segments, and the positions of markers defining these segments were monitored using 200 Hz video analysis. Information about the ground reaction force vector was collected using a force plate. Segment kinematics were combined with ground reaction force data for calculation of the net intersegmental forces and moments.
Article
The transmission of heel-strike vibration using skin-mounted accelerometers was measured in normal subjects and subjects with ankylosing spondylitis. In normal subjects transmissibility was enhanced between 5 and 13 Hz and attenuated at frequencies above 15 Hz. In ankylosing spondylitis transmissibility was enhanced at 4 Hz but less so between 5 and 13 Hz and little attenuation was observed at the higher frequencies. This difference is expected in view of the pathological changes occurring in the spinal column in ankylosing spondylitis. The results support the hypothesis that the normal spinal column has to bend in order to absorb vibrations with a frequency greater than 15 Hz.
Article
A biomechanical study has been carried out on 20 cadaveric knees to investigate their load-absorbing mechanism. The impact load was applied using a weight falling onto the transected proximal femur and the force transmitted through the knee was measured at the transected distal tibia using a load transducer. The peak force transmitted increased as, sequentially, meniscus, articular cartilage and subchondral bone were damaged or removed. The most striking result was found in an implanted knee replacement where the transmitted force reached 180% of that in the intact knee. The results show that the joint has an impact-absorbing property in each segment and that in the osteoarthritic knee there is less absorption of shock than in the normal knee. The high impact force in an implanted knee suggests that microfractures of the cancellous bone might be expected and may produce loosening.
Article
Simultaneous measurements during normal walking of the transient acceleration on heel strike in the tibia and skull show peaks of ∼ 5 g and 0.5 g respectively when hard heels were worn. Resilient heels halved the amplitudes, while rebound could be avoided by a construction including a viscoelastic polymer insert. The transient is propagated as travelling waves up (and outwards from) the skeleton, its inconspicuous appearance in force plate studies being due to the non-uniform and non-synchronous acceleration of various parts of the body.Implications of these findings are noted, including the potential contribution of heel strike transients to osteoarthritic degeneration. Aggravation of symptoms in sufferers from back troubles may well be due to shear induced by them in para-osteal tissue. Possible physiological roles for the transients, which may account for their existence, are also mentioned.
Article
In this second of three papers, the principles of a non-invasive in vivo method to quantitatively evaluate the shock absorbing capacity of the human musculoskeletal system and the correlation of this shock absorbing capacity with low back pain (LPB) symptoms are presented. The experiments involved patients suffering from low back pain (as well as other degenerative joint diseases) and healthy patients. The obtained results reveal that low back pain correlates with the reduced capacity of the human musculoskeletal system between the femoral condyle and the forehead to attenuate incoming shock waves. Examination of the absolute values of the amplitude of the propagated waves leads to the conclusion that the human locomotor system, which possesses reduced attenuation capacity, tries to prevent overloading of the head from insufficiently attenuated shock waves. Results of the present investigation support the idea that the repetitive loading resulting from gait generates intermittent waves that propagate through the entire human musculoskeletal system from the heel up to the head. These waves are gradually attenuated along this course by the natural shock absorbers (bone and soft tissues). Contemporary methods for examination of the human musculoskeletal system may by improved by using the proposed non-invasive in vivo technique for quantitative characterization of the locomotor system's shock absorbing capacity.
Article
The principles of a noninvasive measurement of the shock absorbing capacity of the knee are presented. Accelerometry, which has been proven to be a useful tool for noninvasive measurements in biomechanical investigation, was employed for quantitative evaluation of the knee's shock absorbing capacity by registration of bone vibrations resulting from the gait. Results of the experiments show that both patients with painful knee and patients after meniscectomy suffer from insufficient shock absorbing capacity of the knee. It was found that the shock absorbing capacity of a normal knee is about 20% higher than that of a pathological one. The results indicate that while meniscectomy may reduce pain, instability, swelling, etc. in an injured knee, it cannot improve its reduced shock absorbing capacity, which eventually will lead to development of degenerative osteoarthritis. It seems that the pain syndrome is a biological reaction to severe repetitive overloading of the knee. Noninvasive in vivo determination of the knee's shock absorbing properties may be useful as an additional clinical technique to reveal a knee's pathology. It may lead to early discovery of knee insufficiency, so that preventive steps can be taken to delay or reverse the process of degeneration.
Article
The attenuation of shock waves invading the human locomotion system during gait has been studied. The purpose of this work is to evaluate attenuational capacity of the healthy locomotion system by using an original system which consists of accelerometers attached to specified points of the legs, body and head and to recording devices.The experiments were performed on clinically healthy subjects who, on the basis of obtained data, were divided into two groups: those truly healthy and those with a high risk for development of degenerative changes in their joints.The shock absorbing capacity of the truly healthy subjects' locomotor systems has been estimated.The methodology presented may serve as a simple diagnostic tool for early revealing of the deficiency of the subject's locomotion system. This may allow some preventive action to be taken to delay or cancel the process of joint degeneration.
Article
The influence of the mechanical characteristics of certain insole materials in the generation and transmission of heel strike impacts while walking was studied. Three insole materials were selected according to their mechanical characteristics under heel strike impacts. The selection of materials has made it possible to distinguish the effect of rigidity and loss tangent in the transmission of heel strike impacts. A lower rigidity and a high loss tangent have been shown to reduce the transmission of impacts to the tibia. A low rigidity was seen to significantly increase the transmission of impacts from tibia to forehead.
Article
The shocks imparted to the foot during locomotion may lead to joint-degenerative diseases and jeopardize the visual-vestibular functions. The body relies upon several mechanisms and structures that have unique viscoelastic properties for shock attenuation. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether impact severity and initial knee angle (IKA) could alter the shock transmission characteristics of the body. Impacts were administered to the right foot of 38 subjects with a human pendulum device. Combinations of velocities (0.9, 1.05 and 1.2 m s-1) and surfaces (soft and hard foams) served to manipulate impact severity in the first experiment. Three IKA (0, 20 and 40 degrees) were examined in the second experiment. Transmission between shank and head was characterized by measuring the shock at these sites with miniature accelerometers. Velocity and surface had no effect on the frequency profile of shock transmission suggesting a consistent response of the body to impact severity. Shank shock power spectrum features accounted for the lower shock ratio (head/shank) measured under the hard surface condition. IKA flexion caused considerable reduction in effective axial stiffness of the body (EASB), 28.7-7.9 kNm-1, which improved shock attenuation. The high correlation (r = 0.97) between EASB and shock ratio underscored the importance of EASB to shock attenuation. The present findings provide valuable information for the development of strategies aimed at protecting the joints, articular cartilage, spine and head against locomotor shock.
Article
A three-dimensional model of the lower limb containing 47 muscles was developed to study the differences between a two- and three-dimensional approach for determining internal loads, the role of the dynamic joint representation, and the behavior of different load-bearing criteria in walking and running. The problem of redundancy of the musculo-skeletal system was resolved by applying inverse dynamics and static optimization methods. Different hypothetical load-bearing capabilities of hinge, spherical and intermediate joint types for the knee and the ankle joints were tested. It was found that even almost planar movements such as walking and running are associated with significant three-dimensional intersegment moments, especially in the frontal plane. Thus, a two-dimensional approach may underestimate internal loads up to 60%. It is shown that pure hinge joints are inappropriate for modeling the dynamical joint function of the knee and ankle joints. A more flexible joint representation in combination with a squared muscle stress minimization criterion predicted a lot of synergistic as well as antagonistic muscle activation which was also found in the EMG patterns. The results indicate the importance of muscular joint stabilization in natural human movements. Compared to in vivo measurements it is speculated that the predicted force magnitudes are considerably overestimated due to error propagation and still insufficient anatomical models. Thus, increased efforts to improve further the reliability of internal load calculations should be made in the future.
Article
The foot-ground impact experienced during running produces a shock wave that is transmitted through the human skeletal system. This shock wave is attenuated by deformation of the ground/shoe as well as deformation of biological tissues in the body. The goal of this study was to investigate the locus of energy absorption during the impact phase of the running cycle. Running speed (3.83 m x s[-1]) was kept constant across five stride length conditions: preferred stride length (PSL), +10% of PSL, -10% of PSL, +20% of PSL, and -20% of PSL. Transfer functions were generated from accelerometers attached to the leg and head of ten male runners. A rigid body model was used to estimate the net energy absorbed at the hip, knee, and ankle joints. There was an increasing degree of shock attenuation as stride length increased. The energy absorbed during the impact portion of the running cycle also increased with stride length. Muscles that cross the knee joint showed the greatest adjustment in response to increased shock. It was postulated that the increased perpendicular distance from the line of action of the resultant ground reaction force to the knee joint center played a role in this increased energy absorption.
Article
The purpose of the study was to investigate changes in lower extremity joint energy absorption for different landing heights and landing techniques. Nine healthy, active male subjects volunteered to perform step-off landings from three different heights (0.32 m, 2.5 m(-s); 0.62 m, 3.5 m(-s); and 1.03 m, 4.5 m(-s)) using three different landing techniques (soft, SFL; normal, NML; and stiff landing, STL). Each subject initially performed five NML trials at 0.62 m to serve as a baseline condition and subsequently executed five trials in each of the nine test conditions (3 heights x 3 techniques). The results demonstrated general increases in peak ground reaction forces, peak joint moments, and powers with increases in landing height and stiffness. The mean eccentric work was 0.52, 0.74, and 0.87 J x kg(-1) by the ankle muscles, and 0.94, 1.31, and 2.15 J x kg(-1) by the hip extensors, at 0.32, 0.62, and 1.03 m, respectively. The average eccentric work performed by the knee extensors was 1.21, 1.63, and 2.26 J x kg(-1) for the same three heights. The knee joint extensors were consistent contributors to energy dissipation. The ankle plantarflexors contributed more in the STL landings, whereas the hip extensors were greater contributors during the SFL landings. Also a shift from ankle to hip strategy was observed as landing height increased.
Article
Surface myoelectric signals often appear to carry more information than what is resolved in root mean square analysis of the progress curves or in its power spectrum. Time-frequency analysis of myoelectric signals has not yet led to satisfactory results in respect of separating simultaneous events in time and frequency. In this study a time-frequency analysis of the intensities in time series was developed. This intensity analysis uses a filter bank of non-linearly scaled wavelets with specified time-resolution to extract time-frequency aspects of the signal. Special procedures were developed to calculate intensity in such a way as to approximate the power of the signal in time. Applied to an EMG signal the intensity analysis was called a functional EMG analysis. The method resolves events within the EMG signal. The time when the events occur and their intensity and frequency distribution are well resolved in the intensity patterns extracted from the EMG signal. Averaging intensity patterns from multiple experiments resolve repeatable functional aspects of muscle activation. Various properties of the functional EMG analysis were shown and discussed using model EMG data and real EMG data.
Article
Vibration characteristics were recorded for the soft tissues of the triceps surae, tibialis anterior, and quadriceps muscles. The frequency and damping of free vibrations in these tissues were measured while isometric and isotonic contractions of the leg were performed. Soft tissue vibration frequency and damping increased with both the force produced by and the shortening velocity of the underlying muscle. Both frequency and damping were greater in a direction normal to the skin surface than in a direction parallel to the major axis of each leg segment. Vibration characteristics further changed with the muscle length and between the individuals tested. The range of the measured vibration frequencies coincided with typical frequencies of impact forces during running. However, observations suggest that soft tissue vibrations are minimal during running. These results support the strategy that increases in muscular activity may be used by some individuals to move the frequency and damping characteristics of the soft tissues away from those of the impact force and thus minimize vibrations during walking and running.
Article
This study tested the hypotheses that when the excitation frequency of mechanical stimuli to the foot was close to the natural frequency of the soft tissues of the lower extremity, the muscle activity increases 1) the natural frequency and 2) the damping to minimize resonance. Soft tissue vibrations were measured with triaxial accelerometers, and muscle activity was measured by using surface electromyography from the quadriceps, hamstrings, tibialis anterior, and triceps surae groups from 20 subjects. Subjects were presented vibrations while standing on a vibrating platform. Both continuous vibrations and pulsed bursts of vibrations were presented, across the frequency range of 10-65 Hz. Elevated muscle activity and increased damping of vibration power occurred when the frequency of the input was close to the natural frequency of each soft tissue. However, the natural frequency of the soft tissues did not change in a manner that correlated with the frequency of the input. It is suggested that soft tissue damping may be the mechanism by which resonance is minimized at heel strike during running.
Article
In clinical research, parameters required for sample size calculation are usually unknown. A typical approach is to use estimates from some pilot studies as the true parameters in the calculation. This approach, however, does not take into consideration sampling error. Thus, the resulting sample size could be misleading if the sampling error is substantial. As an alternative, we suggest a Bayesian approach with noninformative prior to reflect the uncertainty of the parameters induced by the sampling error. Based on the informative prior and data from pilot samples, the Bayesian estimators based on appropriate loss functions can be obtained. Then, the traditional sample size calculation procedure can be carried out using the Bayesian estimates instead of the frequentist estimates. The results indicate that the sample size obtained using the Bayesian approach differs from the traditional sample size obtained by a constant inflation factor, which is purely determined by the size of the pilot study. An example is given for illustration purposes.
Article
The principle of specificity suggests that it may be beneficial to undertake plyometric drop-jump training when fatigued. However, this may increase peak-impact accelerations and therefore increase the risk of injury. The aims of the study were to determine if whole-body fatigue (i) increased peak-impact acceleration on the proximal tibia during plyometric drop jumps and (ii) produced associated changes in knee-joint kinematics during landing. Fifteen physically active male subjects performed drop jumps (30 and 50 cm) when nonfatigued and when fatigued. Whole-body fatigue was induced using a treadmill running protocol that incrementally increased effort. Peak-impact acceleration was measured with an accelerometer attached to the proximal tibia. Knee-joint kinematics were assessed during the eccentric phase: angle at initial touch down, maximum angle of flexion, range of motion, and peak angular velocity. Fatigue caused a significant increase in tibial impact acceleration and peak angular velocity in drop jumps from 30 cm (154.9 +/- 93.8 vs 192.6 +/- 103.9 m x s(-2): 24%; 675.3 +/- 60.7 vs 811.4 +/- 68.9 degrees x s(-1): 20%), but not from 50 cm (222.4 +/- 74.9 vs 234.1 +/- 83.9 m x s(-2): 5%; 962.0 +/- 189.0 vs 984.4 +/- 189.3 degrees x s(-1): 2.6%), with no associated change in the knee-joint angles assessed. It was argued, however, that rather than the neuromuscular system being selectively affected by fatigue at 30 cm and not 50 cm, drop jumps from 50 cm resulted in larger-impact accelerations with the neuromuscular system having only a limited ability to attenuate them per se, whether fatigued or nonfatigued. Care should be taken when performing drop jumps from a height of 30 cm in a fatigued state because of the reduced capacity to attenuate impact accelerations at the tibia, which may be associated with an increased risk of injury.
Article
The purposes of this study were to measure the relative linear and angular displacements of each pair of adjacent cervical vertebrae and to compute changes in distance between two adjacent facet joint landmarks during low posterior-anterior (+Gx) acceleration without significant hyperextension of the head. A total of twentysix low speed rear-end impacts were conducted using six postmortem human specimens. Each cadaver was instrumented with two to three neck targets embedded in each cervical vertebra and nine accelerometers on the head. Sequential x-ray images were collected and analyzed. Two seatback orientations were studied. In the global coordinate system, the head, the cervical vertebrae, and the first or second thoracic vertebra (T1 or T2) were in extension during rear-end impacts. The head showed less extension in comparison with the cervical spine. Relative motion for each cervical motion segment went from flexion at the upper cervical levels to extension at the lower cervical levels, with a transition region at the mid-cervical levels. This rotational pattern formed an "S" shape in the cervical spine during the initial phase of low-speed rear impacts. A pair of facet joint landmarks on each cervical motion segment was used to measure the distance across the joint space. Uni-axial facet capsular strains were calculated by dividing changes in this distance over the original distance in seven tests using three specimens. In 20-degree seatback tests, the average strain was 32+/-11% for the C2/C3 facet joint (17%-43% range), and 59+/-26% for the C3/C4 facet joint (41%-97% range). The C4/C5 and C5/C6 facet joints exhibited peak tensile or compressive strains in different specimens. In 0-degree seatback tests, the average strain was 28+/-11% for the C2/C3 facet joint (21%-41% range), 30+/-9% for the C3/C4 facet joint (21%-39% range), 22+/-4% for the C4/C5 facet joint (19%-25% range), and 60+/-13% for the C5/C6 facet joint (51%-69% range). In 20-degree seatback tests, there was less initial cervical lordosis, more upward ramping of the thoracic spine, and more relative rotation of each cervical motion segment in comparison with the 0-degree seatback tests. Relative to T1, the head went from flexion to extension for 20-degree seatback tests while stayed in extension for 0-degree seatback tests.
Article
According to experimental studies, low-amplitude high-frequency vibration is anabolic to bone tissue, whereas in clinical trials, the bone effects have varied. Given the potential of whole body vibration in bone training, this study aimed at exploring the transmission of vertical sinusoidal vibration to the human body over a wide range of applicable amplitudes (from 0.05 to 3 mm) and frequencies (from 10 to 90 Hz). Vibration-induced accelerations were assessed with skin-mounted triaxial accelerometers at the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar spine in four males standing on a high-performance vibration platform. Peak vertical accelerations of the platform covered a range from 0.04 to 19 in units of G (Earth's gravitational constant). Substantial amplification of peak acceleration could occur between 10 and 40 Hz for the ankle, 10 and 25 Hz for the knee, 10 and 20 Hz for the hip, and at 10 Hz for the spine. Beyond these frequencies, the transmitted vibration power declined to 1/10th-1/1000 th of the power delivered by the platform. Transmission of vibration to the body is a complicated phenomenon because of nonlinearities in the human musculoskeletal system. These results may assist in estimating how the transmission of vibration-induced accelerations to body segments is modified by amplitude and frequency and how well the sinusoidal waveform is maintained. Although the attenuation of vertical vibration at higher frequencies is fortunate from the aspect of safety, amplitudes >0.5 mm may result in greater peak accelerations than imposed at the platform and thus pose a potential hazard for the fragile musculoskeletal system.