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Smart Specialisation: Opportunities and Challenges for Regional Innovation Policy

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... Among them of particular interest is that process called entrepreneurial discovery. (Hausmann & Rodrik, 2003) (Foray, 2014) (Gheorghiu et al., 2016). ...
... The vertical dimension of innovation policies is of particular importance for this work. Foray (2014) shows that a non-neutral policy is a key to the so-called new industrial policy plan, based on economic geography and smart specialization. At the same time, active approaches to support specific sectors at different stages of development have been vital to emerging countries, for example, the success of advanced chemicals in Korea (Crespi et al., 2014). ...
... Tödtling and Trippl (2005) mention the differences regarding preconditions for innovation, innovation activities and processes between central, peripheral and old industrial regions. Foray (2014) takes the EC (European Commission) classification of regions into three main categories: less developed regions, transition regions, more developed regions, arguing that the intelligent specialization policy framework provides strategies and roles for any region. OECD (2013) describes four types of regions and proposes according to STI strategies (See Table 1). ...
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Despite past failures related to industrial policy, most Latin American countries see the regional perspective as a viable alternative for innovation policy. This paper explores how regional innovation policy is implemented in some regions of Lain America. The case study considers 14 regions located in 4 countries: Argentina, Colombia, Chile and Peru. The study analyzes the perceptions of experts about the policy instruments implemented in each region and the regional capacity to implement their own initiatives. The results show that different types of instruments are implemented; however, the capacity to implement regional policies differs among them, and the policy at national level could affect it. It is concluded that the regional innovation policy needs the political empowerment of local territories and the management of geographical and non-geographical aspects. Likewise, the technological aspect could be key when local territories have low political empowerment.
... Moreover, investments in innovation generally occur on similar activities, leading towards a 'homogenization' of industrial trajectories among European regions. In some cases, such characteristics may make regions unattractive for firms' global location (Foray, 2015). ...
... The result is not just technological innovation, but a structural change based on different paths (Foray et al., 2011). According to Foray (2015), each path of structural change shows a degree of relatedness between the existing resources and the new domain. The transition, modernisation and diversification patterns link with the original industrial commons. ...
... Based on an analysis of the industrial structure, the article wants to understand if smart specialisation may foster regional economic resilience in the face of shocks. The analysis focuses on the core of the smart specialisation, namely, the structural change as the process of regional transformation (Foray, 2015). For this reason, we analyse how the regional diversification paths before and after the advent of the great recession affect the regional capacity to resist and react to the crisis. ...
Article
The European Regional Development Funds for the programmatic cycle 2014-2020 aims to support regions that implement an innovation strategy based on Smart Specialisation. Within this framework, the European Commission emphasises the role of smart specialisation in favouring regional transformation, enhancing competitiveness and fostering resilience. However, the concepts of smart specialisation and resilience have been poorly combined. The article aims at investigating their relationship to understand if a smart specialisation strategy may promote the economic resilience of regions in response to major economic shocks. Drawing upon the concepts of adaptation/adaptability, the analysis investigates the relatedness of new industrial specialisations to the existing industrial structure before and after a shock occurrence. Evaluating the resilience of Italian provinces in relation to the economic crisis of 2008, the analysis aims to understand if provinces that resisted and recovered better followed a smart specialisation framework where new industrial specialisations are related to the existing industrial structure.
... The theoretical foundations of our study are the coevolutionary perspective (Martin andSunley 2006, 2015;Gong and Hassink 2019), the concept of RIT (Asheim 2019;Hassink, Isaksen, and Trippl 2019;Isaksen et al. 2019), as well as the concept of exploration and exploitation in industrial path development (Sirén, Kohtamäki, and Kuckertz 2012;Foray 2014;Grillitsch Asheim, and Nielsen 2022). We develop a longitudinal case study of Małopolska, based on the structured content analysis of secondary sources such as policy documents and evaluation reports (more than fourteen thousand normalized pages), the analysis of public statistics, as well as forty-five interviews with representatives of industry and policy. ...
... ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY economic areas. Second, we advance the literature on how innovation policies can contribute to RIT, in general (Foray 2014;Oinas, Trippl, and Höyssä 2018;Asheim 2019;Hassink and Gong 2019;Hassink, Isaksen, and Trippl 2019), as well as more specifically in the context of Poland (Stryjakiewicz 2009;Swianiewicz 2011;Pylak and Kogler 2021) and Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) (Smętkowski and Wójcik 2012). Third, our study adds to policy practice by addressing the challenges that might prevent RIT, and by revealing how regional innovation policies are implemented and why they assume particular roles. ...
... Moreover, it depends on the inclusive policy-setting rules and the ability of enterprises to organize their interests (Foray et al. 2012). Acknowledging this specificity, the industry may contradict policy (industrial change develops against policy priorities) (Indergaard 2019), reinforce policy (industrial change leads and strengthens policy priorities) (Benner 2021), accommodate policy (complies with or adjusts to policy priorities), complement policy (supplement and support selected policy priorities) (Foray 2014), and substitute for policy (industry replaces policy in setting up development directions and measures) (Indergaard 2019). The referred roles can either support or impede the structural change toward progressive RIT. ...
Article
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This article aims to explain the role of regional innovation policies in regional industrial transformation (RIT) from a coevolutionary perspective. The empirical basis is the case study of Małopolska, a Polish region undergoing an industrial transformation in parallel with the launch and development of its innovation policies after the EU accession in 2004. To accomplish its purpose, our research extends the common coevolutionary theoretical framework with interaction mechanisms (IMs), that is, the outcome-oriented processes underlying policy-industry mutual influences, and thus explaining their coevolution. IMs allow us to better understand the reciprocal roles of policy and industry, and the major paths in industrial development and policy approach. The role of innovation policy in the Małopolska RIT can be described as predominantly accommodating and complementing industrial change with some level of proactive promotion of new industrial opportunities. Moreover, we observe reciprocal relationships with regional industry, rather than the unidirectional influence of this policy. This dynamic interaction enabled the evolution of policy to balance the exploitative and explorative approaches to industrial development.
... The terms S3 and RIS3 differ slightly when it comes to their specific focus but are widely used as synonyms. The process to this systematical approach was mainly evolutionary, whereas authors consider this process to be more programmatically abrupt (Foray, 2014;Kroll, 2015;Lopes et al., 2018). The idea of the general S3 approach is that regional authorities can make use of the concept by assessing their region's knowledge assets, capabilities and competences as well as the key players between whom knowledge is transferred to use this analysis as an orientation for economic specialisation (McCann and Ortega-Argilés, 2015). ...
... The development of a RIS3 follows mainly a procedure of six steps (Foray, 2014): (i) analysis of the regional context and potential for innovation, (ii) set-up of a sound and inclusive governance structure, (iii) production of a shared vision about the future of the region, (iv) selection of a limited number of priorities for regional development, (v) establishment of suitable policy mixes, and, finally, (vi) integration of monitoring and evaluation mechanism. The process of developing an interregional methodology for S3 revealed a variety of challenges compared to a standardised S3: (i) the geographical context being "disconnected" (due to the large distance both physically and in terms of development, different economic structures, and innovation levels among the respective regions); (ii) temporary and relatively weak governance structures (project based, probably not universal); (iii) agreement on shared vision is difficult due to "disconnectedness" and weak governance; (iv) policy mixes are generally not compatible at interregional level, funding is largely differentiated, except for EU horizontal programs; and (v) monitoring and evaluation set in the project context are not easily transferable to permanent interregional structures. ...
... "quadruple-helix" framework) through which the proposed smart priorities and domains can be assessed and new potential ones identified, mostly based on market and/or technological opportunities identified in the process; (ii) provides a vehicle for integrating entrepreneurial knowledge by strengthening connections and partnerships. The EDP process gives the interregional S3 framework the policy legitimation (Foray, 2014). ...
Article
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The concept of Smart Specialisation Strategies (S3) is one of the key policy instruments for Europe's regional development. The strategy considers the regional sectoral diversity to build a competitive advantage and increase the position in the knowledge economy. Particularly less-developed regions can benefit in this context when Smart Specialisation is promoted as the primary instrument of European Cohesion Policy. One strategy to develop the competitive advantage of moderate innovator regions is to develop a common, collaborative strategy to overcome regional disparities by leveraging regional growth potential. A methodology is presented by the authors, which is suggested to be accompanied for the identification of Smart Specialisation Strategies in an interregional context. The objective of this is to supply a novel method for interregional Smart Specialisation development and to improve its outward-looking orientation
... Recent policy prescriptions have progressively endorsed the idea of regional specialization based on branching arguments and revolving around the concepts of heterogeneity and path dependence in regional know-how bases, variety, and specialization strategies (Boschma, 2014;Colombelli et al., 2013;Rigby and Essletzbichler, 1997). Such policies have built on the identification of strategic areas of intervention by leveraging the role of industrial actors, the accumulated knowledge base, and the distinctive assets of the territory (Foray, 2014). However, some criticism has been raised that the future development of regions as a function of locally embedded skills and capabilities guiding new activities, industries, and technologies cannot be effectively operationalized into concrete policies (Foray et al., 2011) and that lock-in effects might hamper related diversification. ...
... This empirical result provides support to the recent wave of regional policies implementing smart specialization strategies (Boschma, 2014). These policies aim to identify strategic areas of intervention to sustain regional innovation activities, by building on cumulated knowledge, collective intelligence, and distinctive assets of the territory (Foray, 2014). ...
Article
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This study investigates the relationship between the entry of universities into a new technology field and the innovative activities of firms located in the same geographical area. We aim to assess the presence of a significant correlation between academic research and technological specialization. The empirical setting is based on a dataset of 846,440 patent families, the output of 256 European regions and 428 local universities. The results of the fixed-effect models indicate a robust and positive relationship between the technological entry of academic institutions and the specialization of the region in the same domain. Furthermore, the technological distance between the portfolio of inventions filed by universities and that of co-localized firms is negatively correlated with the subsequent specialization of the hosting region, and this relationship is amplified by the entry of local academies. Several robustness checks have been performed. In particular, the results are tested on sub-samples that distinguish technology fields with lower and higher complexity and geographical regions with lower and higher innovative performance. The technological entry of universities has an additional positive effect for the strong and leading innovators whereas no significant premium or penalty was found for high and low-tech areas. This suggests that the entry of academic institutions into new technology fields occurring in a highly developed innovation ecosystem is more conducive to subsequent industrial specialization thanks to existing collaborations and transmission channels.
... With the programming period 2014-2020, European Union (EU) Cohesion Policies (CP) introduced the key concept of smart specialisation (Foray, 2015), which further focused EU cohesion policies around the two main elements of innovation and territorial competitiveness, fitting smart specialisation as an ex-ante condition for receiving support from European structural and investment funds (Landabaso, 2014;Mccann & Ortega-Argilés, 2013). A key aspect of these smart specialisation strategies is the centrality of the context in which they are implemented. ...
... It is important to note that although smart specialisation strategies do not target specific territories and regions, most positive examples of such strategies are located in structurally and economically strong regions (Foray, 2015). It is clear that by heavily relying on locally existing strengths and opportunities, the effectiveness of these strategies is largely impacted by the development path and industrial past of the region. ...
Book
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This open access book is the result of the 1st International Conference on Evaluating Challenges in the Implementation of EU Cohesion Policy (EvEUCoP 2022). It presents the recent findings, sparks discussion, and reveals new research paths addressing the use of novel methodologies and approaches to tackle the challenges and opportunities that are unveiled with the implementation of the EU cohesion policy. The authors cover a wide range of topics including the monitoring of data; the clearness of indicators in measuring the impact of interventions; novel evaluation methods, addressing the mid-term and terminal assessment; as well as case studies and applications on evaluations of the thematic objectives under the scrutiny of the cohesion policy, namely: • Research, technological development, and innovation; • Information and communication technologies; • Shift toward a low-carbon economy. During the 2014-2020 programmatic period, member states were required to undertake assessments to evaluate the efficacy, efficiency, and impact of each operational program. Such evaluations are generally concerned with the compliance of projects and activities with programmatic priorities, as well as with funds' absorption capacity and refer to ex-ante and ex-post assessments. Hence, this book proposes the use of novel methodologies addressing the mid-term and terminal assessments that enable performing the efficiency appraisal of the operational programs and that can support decision-makers in the selection of projects that should be awarded for funding.
... With the programming period 2014-2020, European Union (EU) Cohesion Policies (CP) introduced the key concept of smart specialisation (Foray, 2015), which further focused EU cohesion policies around the two main elements of innovation and territorial competitiveness, fitting smart specialisation as an ex-ante condition for receiving support from European structural and investment funds (Landabaso, 2014;Mccann & Ortega-Argilés, 2013). A key aspect of these smart specialisation strategies is the centrality of the context in which they are implemented. ...
... It is important to note that although smart specialisation strategies do not target specific territories and regions, most positive examples of such strategies are located in structurally and economically strong regions (Foray, 2015). It is clear that by heavily relying on locally existing strengths and opportunities, the effectiveness of these strategies is largely impacted by the development path and industrial past of the region. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The concept of competitiveness is today a central element for regional development, European cohesion policies and smart specialisation strategies. Despite being born for firm-level analyses, competitiveness is indeed commonly used at the territorial level, mainly at the regional or urban scale, normally measured with different composite structural indicators. However, since territorial competitiveness is unevenly distributed in space, territorial units smaller than a full NUTS-2 region might be differently competitive and hence suited to implement differentiated cohesion policies and smart specialisation strategies. To test the hypothesis that these firm-level indicators can characterize the intraregional differences in aggregate performance, the paper sets up a meta-analysis framework between these indicators and structural indicators (employment growth and specialisation index) measured at the NUTS-3 level. For the meta-analysis at this novel intraregional level, the paper exploits the Lombardy region as a case study. Lombardy is well suited for the aims of this paper, being a large and competitive European region, whose territory—as well as its labor market—is highly differentiated, from peripheral and mountainous areas to many medium and small cities, second-tier large cities and a large metropolitan area—the city of Milan. All these territories are characterized by different economic and social vocations, but all share the same regional administration. The results of the meta-analysis show that firm-level indicators correlate with the aggregate performance of regions and that the structural measures selected can characterize different territories in different conditions. Hence, the competitiveness of firms seems to translate into aggregate territorial performance at small spatial scales. This implies that territorial specificities are also relevant inside regions and should be considered in designing regional policy interventions, such as those of the Smart Specialisation Strategy (S3).
... Smart specialization strategies refer to "the capacity of an economic system (a region for example) to generate new specialities through the discovery of new domains of opportunity and the local concentration and agglomeration of resources and competences in these domains" (Foray, 2014, p. 1). Focusing and building on region-specific capabilities addresses two major weaknesses of the European economy, national level fragmentation of public research systems and duplication of knowledge bases (Foray, 2014;Hassink and Gong, 2019). ...
... In order to reduce the complexity of real world cases to a manageable number of indicators linking a region's capabilities with promising potential diversification strategies, Balland et al. (2019) combine the concept of "relatedness" (Frenken et al., 2007;Hausmann et al., 2007;Hidalgo et al., 2007;Hidalgo and Hausmann, 2009;Neffke et al., 2011;Boschma et al., 2013Boschma et al., , 2015Rigby, 2015;Essletzbichler, 2015;Boschma, 2017;Kogler et al., 2017) with the concept of "complexity" (Fleming and Sorenson, 2001;Hidalgo and Hausmann, 2009;Tacchella et al., 2012;Balland and Rigby, 2017;Broekel, 2019;Balland et al., 2020;Mewes and Broekel, 2020;Hidalgo, 2021;Pintar and Scherngell, 2021). As the policy focus and the large majority of work in economic geography is on the role of technological change for (smart) economic growth, we restrict our analysis to knowledge complexity (Foray, 2014;Rigby, 2015;Kogler et al., 2017;Balland and Boschma, 2019b;Balland et al., 2019;Pintar and Scherngell, 2021;Rigby et al., 2022). ...
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Recent work in economic geography posits that regional diversification into related and complex knowledge fields boosts innovative output and economic development. While the theoretical arguments on the importance of complex knowledge creation for regional development are widely accepted and scholars have started using measures of knowledge complexity to inform policy decisions in the context of the EU’s smart specialization programme, the application of the theoretical concept to regional development policy raises a number of questions: First, what concept of knowledge complexity should be employed for policy analysis? Second, how is complexity operationalized empirically? Third, which alternative empirical operationalization of knowledge complexity should be used for policy purposes? This paper offers the first systematic comparison of three theoretically sound measures of knowledge complexity and related 48 empirical operationalizations of those three complexity indices based on regional patent data from 1996-2017 for a consistent set of 197 European metropolitan regions. The results show that the choice of complexity measure and empirical operationalization produces widely varying results and that more theoretical and conceptual work on knowledge complexity is required before it can be employed widely for policy purposes, and in particular, to inform smart specialization policies.
... Desde una perspectiva espacial, la variedad relacionada ofrece una perspectiva regional al crecimiento, relacionada con el incentivo de mecanismos de transmisión de conocimiento localizados (Foray, 2014;D' Adda et al., 2019). Empíricamente su aplicación nace en la Comunidad Europea, donde las evaluaciones recientes han enfatizado su potencial al crecimiento regional; pero también, la incapacidad de instrumentos de planeación suficientes para identificar adecuadamente su potencial dadas las capacidades productivas imperantes (Gianelle et al., 2020;Dzemydaitė, 2021). ...
... Esta estrategia supone que, para cada región, existen "caminos" posibles de desarrollo ligados a la capacidad de crear mecanismos de interacción entre empresas e instituciones (e.g., universidades), que favorezcan el intercambio de prácticas, tecnología y conocimiento que incentiven el crecimiento económico regional (Martin, 2010;Frangenheim et al., 2020). El ejemplo primordial es la estrategia S3 de la Unión Europea, una "plataforma" institucional que provee estas prácticas, tecnología y conocimiento a las empresas de las distintas subregiones europeas (Foray, 2014;European Comission, 2022). ...
Article
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Objetivo. Analizar los efectos espaciales de la variedad industrial en el crecimiento del empleo y creación de empresas manufactureras, de 2010 a 2019, en la Megalópolis del Valle de México. Metodología. Los efectos se estiman mediante modelos espaciales Durbin, que permiten identificar interacciones espaciales de distinto tipo. Resultados. Los resultados indican efectos directos positivos de la variedad sobre el crecimiento del empleo y la creación de empresas. Limitaciones/implicaciones. El análisis se limita por la falta de datos sobre la relación tecnológica. Sin embargo, se elaboran sugerencias de política definidas a partir de la teoría de la especialización inteligente. Originalidad/valor. Es el primer análisis econométrico-espacial desagregado sobre el impacto de la variedad industrial en el empleo y la creación de empresas, y único en su tipo en México. Conclusiones. La variedad industrial incentiva las tasas de crecimiento de empleo y empresas en la megalópolis. La concentración manufacturera también interviene en los efectos de la variedad (no) relacionada sobre estas tasas de crecimiento.
... Это характерно и для кластерной политики, и для получающей в настоящее время все большую популярность концепции «умной специализации». Последняя изначально связывалась с регионами, ее внедрение тоже идет именно на региональном уровне (Foray D., 2015). ...
... Generally, decentralisation refers to transferring powers and responsibilities from the central government to elected authorities at sub-national levels such as regional governments or municipalities (OECD, 2019). The academic rationale behind the decentralisation is that local governments understand the local needs better (e.g., Foray, 2014;Klugman, 2013). Strengers (2004) argues that local government is widely recognised as an environmental leader while advocating the policies of other levels of government. ...
Article
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1 The perception of public procurement has changed over the last decade and gained the role of a strategic tool for achieving sustainable and inclusive growth goals. Environmental considerations in procuring goods, services, and works thus help promote sustainability goals and obtain better environmental value using public funds in the long term perspective. This paper analyses selected determinants' impact on green criteria to award public contracts in the Visegrad Group countries. Using content and regression analysis on an extensive dataset of contract award notices published in Tender Electronic Daily in 2017-2019, we show that green criteria are more prominent in contracts awarded by regional and local contracting authorities, confirming their significant role in fulfilling sustainable development goals on a local and regional level. On the other hand, the relatively low uptake of green award criteria suggests a somehow reserved attitude of contracting authorities towards promoting environmental requirements by awarding contracts based on the most economically advantageous tender.
... Regions with agglomerations in HDI sectors are globally more connected and competitive. Smart Specialization and Industry 4.0 policies are strongly linked; however, new policy approaches such as Opportunities and Challenges for Regional Innovation Policy (Foray, 2014), Revitalizing Lagging Regions (Barzotto et al., 2020), and Regional Transformations Opportunities (De Propris and Bailey, 2020) are not yet completely exploited in the literature. Major policy issues, outlined by Fischer and Njikamp (1987), regarding the modernization of labor market policies according to the new spatially segmented labor market profiles, spatial inequalities in terms of job quality and the high risk of unemployment, new coordination methods of labor supply and demand, and changes in job structure must be approached from a regional perspective, connectivity, and clustering. ...
Article
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Globalization and the Fourth Industrial Revolution or Industry 4.0 act as shocks on regional labor markets and regional economies. The presence of a digital economy has high spillover effects on regional development, job creation, economic resilience, and sustainability; furthermore, it valuates eco-innovation and the clean economy. We believe that the process of digital transformation has a robust impact on the green and clean aspects of the entire economy. The consistency of high digital-intensive (HDI) sectors can be evaluated through high digital-intensive employment, human resources, and technological infrastructure, as these are the main pillars of digital transformation. The shift-share analysis method (SSM) is used in this study on employment growth during 2008–2018 for the EU27, the United Kingdom, and Norway, combined with a second stage of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA). The findings on national growth, industrial mix, and competitiveness are presented in GIS mapping system considering the Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) technique at the NUTS2 level. This approach allows us to determine the clustering level of high digital-intensive employment and sectors, resilience based on connectivity and eco-innovation, and the regional potential of digital transformation. Policymakers and political or governmental decision-makers could consider the results of the present study as the starting point for developing and implementing their policies for a sustainable green regional economy and determine the emerging area patches that need to be stimulated.
... LA PROGRAMMAZIONE REGIONALE 2021-2027: LA NUOVA STRATEGIA S3 Nel dicembre 2021 la Regione Piemonte ha approvato il documento di Smart Specialisation Strategy (S3) 2021-2027. La S3 è un indirizzo di policy che valorizza il ruolo dell'innovazione, della ricerca e dello sviluppo tecnologico (R&I) come motori della trasformazione strutturale dei territori, basato sulla concentrazione di risorse in specifici ambiti tecnologici (Foray, 2015) individuati in base alle caratteristiche e alle sfide distintive di contesti regionali (McCann & Ortega-Argilés, 2016). Questo approccio, introdotto a livello europeo nella programmazione 2014-2020, è stato rafforzato per il periodo 2021-2027, in cui la S3 compare come condizione abilitante applicata ad alcuni obiettivi del PR Fesr: in specifico, «rafforzare le capacità di ricerca e di innovazione e l'introduzione di tecnologie avanzate» e «sviluppare le competenze per la specializzazione intelligente, la transizione industriale e l'imprenditorialità». La S3, ne consegue, ha carattere vincolante per le risorse destinate alla R&I. ...
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La relazione annuale "Piemonte economico sociale 2022. Affrontare il futuro con responsabilità" è disponibile al link https://www.ires.piemonte.it/relazione2022/RelazioneAnnuale2022.pdf; da pag. 107 il contributo sui temi della salute e dei servizi sanitari nel Capitolo 3 "Salute" a cura del gruppo di ricerca IRES. https://www.sistemasalutepiemonte.it/index.php/pubblicazioni1/relazione-annuale/15-pubblicazioni/228-relazione-annuale-2022
... Här kan vi också se att diversifieringskandidaterna i olika grad gynnas av samordning eller att låta olika regioner utveckla sina egna specialiseringar. I all enkelhet visar resultaten att samordningsvinster skulle iii erhållas då inbäddningen generellt ökar om vi ser på dessa tre regioner som en gemensam "Kvarkenregion" BAKGRUND En bärande tanke bakom EU:s strategi för Smart Specialisering (Foray 2015;McCann & Ortega-Argiles 2015) är att regioner ska utgå från sina existerande styrkor för att kunna identifiera framtida utvecklingsvägar. Med andra ord ska nya specialiseringar uppstå genom att hitta nya framgångsrika kombinationer av existerande verksamheter. ...
... Adding to the classical aspects of identity and politics, in recent decades the regional level has been highlighted as crucial to spark economic renewal in a Europe seeking to become a leading hub in the global economy. The whole paradigm of the virtues of regional economic clustering exploded just a few years after Rokkan's demise (Piore & Sabel, 1986;Porter, 1990), creating the seedbed for later industrial policies aimed at developing regional industrial structures in the Nordic countries as they are elsewhere (Castells & Himanen, 2005;Foray, 2015). The Porterian message of a global economy made up of specialized, innovative, and high-yielding regions has, in the European scene, been transformed into the claim for all EU-regions to adopt Smart Specialization (RIS3) procedures to become eligible for EU-funding (Foray, 2105). ...
Chapter
This volume examines three interconnected themes in political science: the nuts and bolts of government, the complex and evolving relationship between politics and administration, and continuity and change in government. Government ministries and agencies are vital components of the executive branch of government that play fundamental roles in the democratic governing of modern societies. Contemporary public administration is conventionally portrayed as being based on a series of dichotomies: politics versus administration, coordination versus fragmentation, integration versus disintegration, trust versus distrust, etc. As an alternative, this volume, which is composed of a series of case studies from the Nordics and beyond, conceptualises and empirically demonstrates how government bodies at different levels of governance are driven by pragmatism characterised by the co-existence of multiple decision-making premises. To account for the composite aspect of government, this volume illustrates how institutional and organisational factors can structure elements in the policymaking process and how these elements are powerful tools available to purposeful design.
... This study relies on published data which is scientific evidence of how Technology has been able to innovate and provide solutions to regional economic governance and is seen from the prospect of problems and the challenges faced when developing Technology for regional economic development (Foray, 2014). Meanwhile, we searched online for data on scientific publications published between 2010 and 2022, considering that Technology and development have shown remarkable developments since the last year (Bekkers, 2011). ...
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This paper focused on the discussion to answer the problems of regional economic governance and how scientific evidence of the use of Technology can be a prospect and challenge in Indonesia's efforts to develop poor areas into prosperous areas. We study with a phenomenological approach that begins with in-depth data analysis techniques, thorough evaluations, and high interpretations to obtain valid data to answer existing problems. After we develop the data and discuss the results, it can be concluded that the government and other parties can develop the national and local economy by utilizing what Technology works with the prospects and challenges. Technology has brought a life that is now wholly industrialized. Therefore, resources are needed that can manage to see Technology in terms of prospects and challenges so that regional economic governance in Indonesia can be implemented.
... Lead researchers note that there is no single "best practice" approach for innovation policy that can be applied to any type of region [30] - [32]. An interesting development in the scientific field under consideration is the idea of "smart" specialization [33], [34]. ...
Article
The purpose of this work is to develop proposals for improving the methodology for assessing the innovative development of the socio-economic system of Russian regions based on the achievements of international theory and practice in this field of research. To accomplish the task, the authors considered both conceptual and empirical approaches to the assessment of regional innovation systems in modern conditions of development. The article presents a new structure of the integral innovation index of the regions of Russia based on a critical review of the results of well-known scientific research and approaches that are used by leading development institutions. The authors have proposed the grouping of primary indicators into subindexes, reflecting the potential, conditions for development, activity and effectiveness of the innovation system of the region. The calculation of the value of the final integral index is carried out by taking into account the weights of the subindexes, while the study presents theoretical and practical developments that largely shift the emphasis on the effectiveness and efficiency of innovation activities. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of assessment results. Based on the range of possible values it was proposed to group regions by the identified types of innovation systems. The authors have tested the developed method on the example of the subjects of the Central Federal District of Russia, the results of which are illustrated by the innovation map of the regions. Based on the clustering of assessment results, a typology of regional innovation systems has been developed reflecting their heterogeneity. The work substantiates the need for a differentiated innovation policy for different types of regions, taking into account the complex of identified barriers and weaknesses. This will allow to level the obstacles to regional innovation and industrial growth. Thus, we are talking about the need to form a “smart strategy” of the region’s innovative development.
... The regional focus in the implementation of CP, such as the possibility to select appropriate projects based on regional needs and priorities, has been conceived as a strength following the conceptual and practical upheavals of place-based regional policy (Barca, 2009;Barca et al., 2012;Farole et al., 2011;Partridge et al., 2015) and, more recently, Smart Specialisation (Foray, 2015;Gianelle et al., 2019;McCann & Ortega-Argilés, 2015). However, a large stream of the literature on conditioning factors has found that the responsiveness of regions to CP, in terms of the effect on regional gross domestic product (GDP) per capita or employment growth, is highly heterogeneous Fratesi & Wishlade, 2017). ...
Article
This paper investigates whether territorial characteristics and, in particular, regional administrative capacity influence the effects of European Union (EU) Cohesion Policy support to firms. A novel two-step methodology is applied. First, the effects of Cohesion Policy on employment growth of supported manufacturing firms are estimated separately for the regions of six different EU countries. Second, potential territorial factors influencing these effects are explored using meta-analysis techniques. The empirical results point to a significant relationship between firm-level policy effects and territorial capital, especially mixed-materiality assets, as well as administrative capacity as proxied by citizen engagement and administrative efficiency.
... As part of understanding the general role of governments in effective innovation policy making, it is very useful to know what innovation is, how innovation occur and what triggers successful innovations. Innovation can be termed as the introduction of new ideas with simplified and smart technology (Foray, 2014). According to , further defined innovation as a combination of new ideas with existing knowledge using the firms' resources and implementing new practices. ...
... This is important for place-based policy approaches that aim at mobilizing local actors in the process of designing and implementing regional policies. The most prominent example of such an approach is smart specialization where priority setting is supposed to result from bottom-up participatory process including a variety of actors (Foray, 2015). However, this participatory process is challenging and prone to a number of governance traps (Sotarauta, 2018), and does arguably often fail to produce the desired transformative change (Hassink & Gong, 2019). ...
Article
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The extent to which structures and preconditions stimulate or hinder regional development is of interest in economic geography, as is the renewal of 'left-behind' peripheral regions. However, few studies have addressed how and to what extent peripheral regions differ. To disentangle the notion of peripheral regions as homogeneous and lacking knowledge sources, capital and networks, the paper discusses the characteristics of four types of peripheral regions: resilient regional service centres; locked-in specialized regions; vulnerable rural regions; and locked-in and vulnerable resource-based regions. By detailing the nuances of periphery, we systematize regions' challenges and opportunities and link these to local agency. KEYWORDS regional development; trinity of change agency; non-core regions; lock-in; regional policy JEL R1 HISTORY
... To the extent that a region continues to promote the same inefficient rules, without resorting to institutional change, the self-sufficiency trap that blocks progress and trust in decision-makers will be further eroded, creating a vicious circle, especially in the lagging regions. Against this background and taking into account the ex-ante conditionality related to the access to European Structural and Investment Funds, as a mandatory principle in connection with smart specialization, it is possible that, in some regions, a simulation or an artificial contouring of some possible specialized fields of activity may be generated, which, in fact, do not produce positive effects but could, however, be advanced in order to obtain financial advantages (Foray 2014). Therefore, a fair periodic assessment and an understanding of how to effectively implement S3 is more than necessary. ...
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... As part of understanding the general role of governments in effective innovation policy making, it is very useful to know what innovation is, how innovation occur and what triggers successful innovations. Innovation can be termed as the introduction of new ideas with simplified and smart technology (Foray, 2014). According to , further defined innovation as a combination of new ideas with existing knowledge using the firms' resources and implementing new practices. ...
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Medium enterprise is major part of entrepreneurship in Ethiopia by means of generating opportunities for employment, innovation idea, and supporting the country’s economy. Developing countries such as Ethiopia must create a fertile ground for the medium enterprise to improve their productivity and competitiveness in the market specially during pandemic where uncertainty and susceptibility for the enterprise increase. Its highly important for Ethiopia to know the influence medium enterprise face during pandemics so that they can allocate the bounded resource they have to increase their performance. In the light of the current coronavirus crisis, medium enterprise faces a variety of challenges in a complex and fast changing environment. To understand the challenge faced by medium enterprise in Addis Ababa during the COVID-19 the study used quantitative research. Convenience sampling was used to draw 100 medium enterprise for the study which were engaged in manufacturing sector. The study analysed 100 medium enterprise in Addis Ababa between 2019 and 2021 using descriptive statistics. The evidence suggests that the influence of the coronavirus crisis on medium manufacturing enterprise in Addis Ababa during the first year was very strong in terms of loss of monthly sales and net income and employment both permanent and temporary. Surprisingly, the government response to the COVID-19 was swift and efficient based on the tight resource available, instead of locking down the country as most countries did during the pandemic the Ethiopian government used partial lock down and used its limited resource on prevention.
... Wysoka innowacyjność osiągana dzięki dużym wydatkom na badania i rozwój (B+R) jest sposobem utrzymania konkurencyjności gospodarki. Rozwijanie tak zwanych inteligentnych specjalizacji umożliwia zachowanie lub utrwalenie wiodącej pozycji gospodarczej (Foray 2015). Istotne znaczenie ma rozwój tak zwanej klasy kreatywnej (Florida 2010;Erne 2020). ...
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The article deals with the issue of economic dualism in the context of territorial development and is a review of the literature on this subject. The aim of the review article was to systematize the concepts related to the issues of economic dualism and megatrends in the context of their coexistence. An attempt was made to respond to the relationship between dualisms and megatrends occurring in the socio-economic system.
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Subject. This article discusses the balanced economic development of the macro-region industrial complex through the most efficient use of available resources. Objectives. The article aims to assess the diversification of the industrial complex of macro-regions based on calculation of three indices and highlight key areas of perspective specialization of macro-regions. Methods. For the study, I used the Herfindahl–Hirschman index, Hoover–Balassa index, and the relative specialization index in the context of federal districts, or macro-regions. Results. The article finds that many macro-regions have similar comparative advantages, which means interregional synergy and opens up opportunities and potential for strategic cooperation between regions. Conclusions. The revealed comparative advantages of macro-regions can be used to develop a long-term innovation programme for the industrial complex.
Chapter
The connection between medical entrepreneurship and the triple helix model has not been well reported and investigated. This gap inspired the quest to expand the knowledge frontier in this poorly reported field. The chapter therefore investigates the connection between medical entrepreneurship and the triple helix model in the Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. To develop the chapter, a survey research design was adopted, while relying on primary data from stakeholders in the health sector. A total of seven hundred and ninety-four (794) completed and returned questionnaires as the sample size of this research study. The cross-sectional data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression, and correlation coefficients, which revealed that the overall regression model was fit with the aid of SSPS Software. This finding indicates that there is a significant relationship between medical entrepreneurship and the triple helix model. The results show that there is no significant relationship between sensing capabilities and entrepreneurship growth (β = 0.193, t = 5.235, p < .05). The chapter concluded that medical entrepreneurship has long been recognized as an important economic activity because it proactively and innovatively provides unique healthcare products and services to diverse stakeholders in the healthcare sector. The chapter therefore recommends, among others, that the government create an enabling environment and financial support interventions to stimulate new medical-oriented start-ups based on the research findings.
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Purpose of the article is the research of the modern trends of global innovation clusters development in Canada that based on public-private partnership model, and to identify their features during last years. The hypothesis is that it is possible to formulate the hypothesis that at the postwar period, Ukraine would form a new innovation strategy that will push country to become global competitively and innovatively. The methods of scientific research were applied to research the global innovation system of Canada and the development of Canada's superclusters: theoretical generalization, empirical method and methods of statistical analysis. The supercluster is a new initiative promoted by the Canadian federal government to strengthen Canada’s most promising clusters and allow innovative firms to operate more productively in sourcing inputs and accessing information, knowledge, and technology. The Innovation superclusters have many positive characteristics as a new framework to rethink Canada’s innovation strategy based on public-private partnership model. The specific measures for development of industrial clusters in Ukraine at the postwar period, and elaboration of national strategy for the development of innovation system in Ukraine can be research objects in future research.
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We discuss conceptual reasons for and propose public investment in regional infrastructure as a hybrid form of a place-based regional industrial policy aiming to foster the regional economic activity of lagging regions. We present and empirically test a baseline model using data for 14 Indian regions/states over a period of 39 years. Our results show that place-based regional infrastructure investments, particularly in electricity-generating capacity and width-adjusted length of national highways, positively impact the relative number of firms operating in a region and help foster its economic performance.
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This study aims to propose methods for identifying entrepreneurial discovery processes with weak/strong signals of technological changes and incorporating technology foresight in the design and planning of the Smart Specialization Strategy (S3). For this purpose, we first analyse patent abstracts from 2000 to 2009, obtained from the European Patent Office and use a keyword-based text mining approach to collect weak and strong technology signals; the word2vec algorithm is also employed to group weak signal keywords. We then utilize Correlation Explanation (CorEx) topic modelling to link technology weak/strong signals to invention activities for the period 2010-2018 and use the ANOVA statistical method to examine the relationship between technology weak/strong signals and patent values. The results suggest that patents related to weak rather than strong signals are more likely to be high-impact innovations and to serve as a basis for future technological developments. Furthermore, we use latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) topic modelling to analyse patent activities related to weak/strong technology signals and compute regional topic weights. Finally, we present implications of the research.
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Purpose. The aim of the article is substantiation of the use of the importance of the main postulates of the smart specialization mechanism to realize the innovative potential of the regional economy. Methodology of research. The methodological basis of the research is the dialectical method of scientific knowledge. General scientific and special methods were used in the research process, in particular analysis and synthesis, dialectical – to determine the initial conditions and content of smart specialization; analytical – when processing literary and Internet sources; causal – to determine the institutional support of smart specialization; abstract and logical – for delineating the main directions of functioning of smart specialization, forming conclusions and proposals. Findings. The issue of the essence, structure and features of the operation of smart specialization in the EU and Ukraine was investigated; the institutional units ensuring its formation are specified. The peculiarities of the content of smart specialization are considered, and the peculiarities of its components are determined in order to achieve economic, innovative, organizational, technological and social goals. The relevance of the study of issues related to the introduction of smart specialization for the development of the regions of Ukraine based on the recommendations of international organizations and the formation of appropriate normative and legal and innovative support is substantiated. The composition and main problems of innovative provision of smart specialization are formulated, and practical recommendations are given for its adaptation by subjects in the form of recommendations, which will make it possible to increase the efficiency of regional development management. Originality. The substantiation of the newest directions of smart specialization in the Ternopil region on the basis of innovations has been further developed. Practical value. Substantiated research results can be used to create and develop promising industries of the 21st century. Keywords: smart, smart specialization, strategy, innovation, entrepreneurship, energy, regional economy, project.
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Public engagement is viewed as a prominent aspect of responsible research and innovation (RRI) both in academia and policy circles. In our paper, we would like to contribute to refining the notion of public participation as an RRI element by assessing the potential of four domains of participatory R & I theory and practices that have to date received little recognition in the RRI context: 1. Participatory design, 2. user-led innovation, 3. participatory research and 4. systemic R & I policy instruments. We test the usefulness of our concepts with a set of case studies from a recent RRI research project.
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European and national research and innovation (R & I) policies are increasingly oriented towards the task to tackle the unprecedented challenges reflected especially in the United Nations 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the Agenda 2030 that societies face today. Following the need to produce adequate and viable solutions with a strong societal impact and aware of the fact that this impact will strongly affect and depend on the lifestyles, values and attitudes of citizens, there has been a rising attention for the need to better root science, research and innovation in society.
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The European Commission’s pursuit of “Responsible Research and Innovation” (RRI) and its implementation in the European Research Area serve to investigate how ambitious policy goals can be conveyed into action. Challenging about implementing policy is the need to foster coherence in the interpretation of policy goals while coordinating their elaboration in practice. This chapter identifies the European Commission’s approach to implementing RRI as a case of New Public Management, and contrasts this with efforts at ‘bottom-up’ RRI implementation. Experiments with involving researchers and other stakeholders in designing and executing concrete RRI actions that fit their professional setting are understood as manifestations of a New Public Governance approach to implementing RRI policy. It is found that such deliberation of policy concepts and goals, and their concretization in a context-specific learning-by-doing approach practically enables the uptake of normative policy ambitions in networks of interdependent, non-hierarchically related actors across diverse substantive and administrative contexts.
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The “innovation divide” has been a common and persistent problem since the onset of Framework Programmes for Research and Innovation. Especially, for the group of countries that joined the European Union after 2004. Several initiatives have been implemented by the Union for encouraging the participation of these countries in these collaborative programmes, trying to maximize and extend the benefits of a knowledge economy across the EU. In this chapter, we explore how these instruments have been deployed paying special attention to the origins of “Spreading Excellence and Widening Participation” Horizon 2020 Work Programme. We explore its objectives and rationale, and we address some of its weaknesses and pitfalls. We argue that the “innovation divide” is not only a matter of providing adequate resources and encouraging participation for these countries and they cannot be treated as a homogeneous group. Particularly, in a moment of transition regarding innovation policies.
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Research has provided ample evidence for the performance-enhancing effect of diversity on a wide range of organizational outcomes (Terjesen et al. 2009). The positive effects are manifold and range from better decision-making and corporate governance through better financial performance (Post and Byron 2015), more creativity and innovativeness to more responsible and ethical business conduct (Pechersky et al. 2016). In the context of Research & Innovation (R & I), the cooperation of a diversity of stakeholders has been shown to promote more responsible or ethical business practices (Wood 2002).
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The concept of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) revolves around stakeholders of research and innovation aiming for societal desirability of the innovation process. In practice, it is often not clear, however, why one instead of another stakeholder-(group) is invited and for which purpose (Repo and Matschoss 2019). In most of the RRI discourse, ‘stakeholders’ are used as a catchall phrase denoting societal actors without actually pointing to who they are, why their participation is important, what exactly they contribute and why they should be involved in the R & I processes. In the case of citizen engagement, a typical bias emerges around the inclusion of easily accessible groups of publics. In this chapter we look at stakeholder theory as it has been developed and used for strategic business purposes from the mid 80’s and suggest how stakeholder theory may be combined with RRI, RI and QH approaches and applied to research and innovation. We argue that moral, epistemic and power diversity and balance is key to a stakeholder theory of RRI in order to facilitate a democratic debate amongst a wide group of stakeholders in a specific R & I endeavor in order to arrive at outcomes that are appropriate, legitimate, and desirable.
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Disruptive societal changes following from emerging science and technology have recently led to a growing interest in developing ethical frameworks. Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is such a framework that aims to improve the relationship between science and society. Now a decade after its conceptualization, it still seems to suffer from conceptual unclarity and lack of implementation. Since responsibility in research and innovation practice remains as important as ever, we propose to revive the normative potential of RRI by approaching it as a matter of collective democratic experimentation. To further develop this approach, we propose a pragmatist conceptualization inspired by John Dewey, his work on democracy as an ethical way of life and his attention to the contextual nature of responsibility. Furthermore, we show how his interest in social inquiring publics provides a particularly apt foothold from which to operationalize collective democratic experimentation with RRI. We will illustrate the utility of this approach, with specific attention to the social, experimental and public character of social inquiry, by connecting it to the recent call to use social labs methodology to experiment with RRI. From this we draw lessons for future collective democratic experimentation with responsibility in research and innovation practice.
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This article examines the relationship between regional assets and value capture with a focus on knowledge and intellectual property assets. It traces, over an extended time horizon, the upgrading and later downgrading path of a single supplier firm in a peripheral location to illuminate the degree to which value capture trajectories are shaped by the power geometries of regional, network, and macroeconomic forces. The analysis suggests that functional upgrading does not insulate firms from the risk of downgrading and exclusion, but rather that it changes the nature of their vulnerabilities. In this case, functional upgrading was associated with ownership changes, a progressive disassociation of intellectual property assets from their underlying regional knowledge resources, the relocation of production activities to hubs in global networks, and eventually to the redirection of captured value from the region. The analysis contends that regional assets are assets that capture value in the region, and that when knowledge-based regional assets are created by interactions within firms, firms should be considered as regional assets. The conclusion considers the implications for regional development.
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Research and research programmes have explicitly demanded to seek solutions to today’s societal challenges and have emphasised the importance of addressing societal needs and ethical questions in research and development (e.g. Owen and Pansera 2019). Since new sciences and emerging technologies are mostly embedded in fields of conflicting interests and are of high complexity, there is a need for multi-actor decision processes, including actors of the wider public (e.g. Chilvers and Kearnes 2016).
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This Open Access book builds on the experiences of one of the largest European projects in the domain of responsible Research and Innovation: NewHoRRIzon. It highlights the potential of and opportunity in responsible R&I to conduct innovation in a socially responsible way. Employing the methodology of Social Labs, the book analyses responsible R&I from an experience-based viewpoint and further explores the application of responsible R&I beyond scholarly and industrial interests. The contributors analyze the current European R&I landscape, provide reflection and reconceptualization of its core concepts, and project future challenges in relation to responsible R&I. The book complements the readers' line of work by providing insights on how responsible R&I can be applied by the audience, for example, in their decision-making processes.
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With new and emerging technologies, process of Research and Innovation (R & I) changed. Some point out an “increasingly growing complexity” (Gianni 2020: 14) that needs to be addressed. Other scholars note that “the pace of technological change has increased dramatically” (Gould 2012: 2) This complexity requires new modes of engaging stakeholders to the R & I process. As mentioned in Chap. 1 of this book, the concept of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) (von Schomberg 2013) was created as a way to better engage stakeholders and their needs.
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This contribution addresses the question why Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is facing problems to succeed as concept for research and innovation policy in the European Commission, despite the EC’s 20 years of history of funding research activities and coordination and support actions that address science and society relations. Our analysis highlights four interrelated elements that contribute to the instability of RRI as policy concept, i.e. semantic, legal, financial and institutional fragility. We use Sabatier’s advocacy coalition approach (1998) to explain how these elements of fragility developed and how the ups and downs of RRI as policy concept played out. We identify three opposing advocacy coalitions with regards to RRI and analyze their belief systems and resources.
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In this concluding chapter, we want to take a broader perspective and, based on the contributions to this book, identify the key lessons from the NewHoRRIzon project about RRI implementation in general and via Social Labs in particular. From a bird’s eye perspective, the NewHoRRIzon Social Labs can be seen as interventions that depend on and are affected by several interrelated levels which might be separated roughly in the micro-level of Social Labs, the meso level of organisations, and the macro-level of national and European research and innovation systems and policy making.
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Conceived in the framework of regional studies on Smart Specialisation Strategy (S3) development, this special issue strengthens research efforts oriented towards assembling a technology-enhanced approach to S3 policymaking. First, it sheds light on fundamental methodological limitations that affect S3 development and reports on the digital support tools currently available. Second, it offers a knowledge base for producing novel digital applications that align with the overlooked needs of S3 orchestrators. Third, it complements this practical input with theoretical advancements in regional innovation studies by addressing intellectual questions and policy issues of pivotal importance for the S3 debate.
Technical Report
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This is an exploratory study, commissioned to develop an understanding of the way(s) in which the knowledge exchange activities of higher education providers (HEPs) and place interact. This includes examinations of if and how place drives particular knowledge exchange activities, and what the potential place impacts of knowledge exchange might be.
Article
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Universities have long been considered key players in regional innovation systems and innovation‐driven regional development. In addition, as part of the quadruple helix, they can play a major role in RIS3 design and implementation by acting as civic universities. This contribution differs depending on external and internal factors as well as their interaction. This paper aims to shed light on the main challenges and drivers experienced by five universities whilst taking part in an Erasmus+ project. Adopting a reflexive narrative approach, it investigates to what extent and how they acted as Civic Universities and what they could learn from this quadruple helix interaction. The results show that, even in their diversity, all universities perceived themselves to have acted as CUs in the context of the project.
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This research tries to capture the dynamics behind the municipality’s strategic design and implementation of smart initiatives. There are different types of municipalities in Greece, which translates to different needs motivating each to invest in smart initiatives. In parallel, cities always try to position their smart transformation in comparison with others. Along these lines, this research aims at mapping the adaptation process of a smart city strategy. The comparison is based on the unique characteristics the municipalities have. By using a unique, tailor-made questionnaire and advanced statistical techniques, PLS-SEM, the chapter identifies and analyses the unique characteristics of each type of municipality in different thematic areas of action during the strategic design and implementation of smart initiatives. Results show that most cities have embedded various forms of smart projects in their strategies with rather a partial implementation. Furthermore, we identify the characteristics of the variations in the implementation of a strategy, thus helping form policies and more efficient strategies. By mapping the crucial factors, it may open to successful mechanisms in developing smart strategies and help municipalities speed their smart transformation.KeywordsSmart city modelSmart strategic planningSmart city ecosystemSmart urban policySmart strategy
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