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DEGRADAÇÃO DOS SOLOS – ABORDAGENS TEÓRICAS E ESTUDOS DE CASOS, AO LONGO DE 25 ANOS (1994–2019), NO ÂMBITO DO LAGESOLOS

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DEGRADAÇÃO DOS SOLOS – ABORDAGENS TEÓRICAS E ESTUDOS DE CASOS, AO LONGO DE 25 ANOS (1994–2019), NO ÂMBITO DO LAGESOLOS

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Abstract

Esse artigo aborda erosão e degradação dos solos, geoturismo, geodiversidade e geoconservação, desenvolvidos pelos membros do LAGESOLOS (Laboratório de Geomorfologia Ambiental e Degradação dos Solos), nos últimos 25 anos. Algumas áreas de 10 estados foram pesquisadas, até o momento, levando em consideração diferentes técnicas e metodologias, para investigar erosão dos solos, estações experimentais, uso de estacas, colocadas ao redor das voçorocas, para monitorar o seu recuo e, atualmente, temos usado os VANTs, para monitorar voçorocas e ravinas. Todas essas pesquisas nos levaram a publicar mais de 100 artigos, em periódicos nacionais e internacionais, mais de 20 livros, e mais de 40 capítulos em publicações nacionais e internacionais, além de mais de 100 artigos em Anais de Conferências e Simpósios nacionais e internacionais. Mais recentemente, temos também pesquisado sobre geoturismo, geodiversidade e geoconservação, o que nos tem levado a compreender e contribuir nesse campo de conhecimento, na Geografia; tudo isso em parceria com pesquisadores brasileiros e de outros países. ABSTRACT This paper addresses soil erosion, land degradation, geotourism, geodiversity and geoconservation, carried out by LAGESOLOS members (Laboratory of Environmental Geomorphology and Soils Degradation), in the last 25 years. Some sites within 10 states have been surveyed, so far, taking into consideration different techniques and methodologies, to investigate soil erosion, such as experimental stations, stakes placed around the gullies, to monitor their retreat, and currently we have been using modern techniques, such as VANTs, to monitor gullies and rills. These investigations have led us to publish over 100 papers, in national and international journals, over 20 books and over 40 chapters in national and international publications, besides over 100 papers in Brazilian and International Conference and Symposium proceedings. More recently, we have also been looking at geotourism, geodiversity and geoconservation, which has led us to understand and to contribute towards this new field, within Geography; everything in partnership with Brazilian and oversea researchers.

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Thesis
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A maioria dos resultados apontou solos de textura franco arenosos para camadas mais profundas, e franco argilo arenosos, para camadas mais superficiais. Isso demonstrou que os teores de silte são mais elevados em subsuperfície, principalmente somados aos altos teores de areia fina, conferindo alta erodibilidade a esses materiais, e maior suscetibilidade em caso de serem expostos aos agentes erosivos. Os monitoramentos das bordas e dos pinos de erosão se mostraram potencialmente complementares. Por estes, chegou-se a taxas de erosão de 2,49 toneladas de massa de solo, algo em torno de um ano de estudos. Considerando o tamanho da área a que se referem tais taxas, que foram mensuradas na menor voçoroca da área, a erosão poderia chegar a 100 toneladas por hectare. 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The first part of this book deals with the distribution and frequency of erosion, the mechanics of the various processes of erosion, and the techniques used to predict erosion rates and to measure erosion. In the second part the author discusses the strategies for erosion control and the wide range of conservation practices.-R.A.H.
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The book introduces soil management issues and is suitable mainly for second and third year students on degree courses in Environmental Sciences, Geography and Agriculture. While teaching soil management courses, both authors noted that no single book covered all the main aspects of soil management. In the early 21st century, society faces many problems and challenges associated with soil management, which need practical and sustainable solutions. This book develops an overview of problems of soil management and strategies for their solution. Such a broad remit does not permit detailed reviews. However, each Chapter concludes with references and suggestions for further reading and so provides pathways to more detailed and advanced studies. Chapter 1 reviews the scale and nature of soil management problems. In Chapter 2 patterns and processes of water and wind erosion are examined, along with techniques for soil conservation. Chapter 3 addresses the inter-related problems of desertification and salinization of arid soils. This includes a review of the extent and severity of the problems and the relative importance of human and natural causes. The issue of the amelioration of arid soils is considered, including the feasibility of desert reclamation and soil desalinization. Optimal use of soil requires careful consideration of soil water and in Chapter 4 soil water management issues are investigated, specifically irrigation, drainage and their environmental consequences. Chapter 5 explores the related problems of chemical pollution of soil, water and the atmosphere. These include agricultural and industrial sources of pollution. The problems posed by nitrate, phosphate, pesticides and pathogenic micro-organisms are also reviewed. Chapter 6 considers the various natural and industrial causes of soil acidification, and the effects of acidification on plant, animal and human health. The Chapter concludes with a review of procedures to combat acidification. Chapter 7 considers the nature of soil structure and how it can be modified. This includes discussion of the benefits and problems of zero and conventional tillage practises. The problems of soil compaction and the reclamation and restoration of quarries, landfill sites and mine-spoil are also considered. Chapter 8 considers the importance of soil organic matter conservation, including the dynamics of organic matter in soils, its loss through agricultural activities and methods of increasing its abundance in soil. The value of crop residues and implications of peat wastage are also considered. Climatic change is currently receiving intense investigation and soils play an important role, as discussed in Chapter 9. Soils affect the global carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide cycles and budgets, and possibilities for managing soils to minimize emissions of these ‘greenhouse’ gases are discussed. However, the history and likely causes of recent and earlier climate change in the past suggest that our future climate may well be influenced in unexpected ways by natural factors as well as by increasing greenhouse gases. The concluding Chapter 10 summarizes the prospects in the 21st Century, in particular the changing problems and solutions in the face of growing global population and global warming. The effects of urbanization on the extent and quality of soils and suitable techniques for soil reclamation, rehabilitation, restoration and recreation are examined. The Chapter concludes with a consideration of relationships between soils and environmental health and the potential for improved soil management for habitat creation. The soil is a fundamental constituent of the Earth’s system, maintaining a careful state of equilibrium within the biosphere. However, this natural balance is being increasingly disturbed by a variety of anthropogenic and natural processes, leading to the degradation of many soil environments. Soil Management provides a comprehensive and authoritative introduction to the many problems, challenges and potential solutions facing soil management in the twenty-first century. Covering topics such as erosion, desertification, salinization, soil structure, carbon sequestration, acidification and chemical pollution, the book also develops a prognosis for the future of soil management faced with growing populations and global warming. Written with the needs of students in mind, each chapter provides a broad overview of a particular problem, approaches to its solution and concludes with references and suggestions for further reading, so providing a pathway to more detailed and advanced study.
Delimitação de unidades ambientais na bacia do rio Cuiabá (Petrópolis -RJ), visando o planejamento do uso do solo. Dissertação de mestrado do Programa de Pós-graduação em Geografia
  • R G M Botelho
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