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International Journal of Biology Research

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International Journal of Biology Research

Abstract

Petiole anatomy of 15 mangrove species in Kerala was investigated to identify and determine its systematic significance that may be useful in species identification and classification. Variations in petiole anatomical attributes were obvious that they could be used as systematic evidence to taxonomically delineate these taxa even at species level. The use of petiolar anatomical features in systematic description of mangrove species is maiden and innovative and reported for the first time. Findings in this study have shown some common characters and variations in the petiole anatomical characteristics. Petiole anatomical characteristics observed included petiole outlines, patterns of petiole vascular bundles, presence of sclerenchyma cells, presence of phloem sclerenchyma cells, presence of tanniferous and idioblast cells, presence and types of crystals, presence of lignified parenchyma cells, and presence and types of trichomes. Results showed that petiole anatomical characteristics can be used as additional data in identification and classification of species in the genus.
InternationalJournalofBiologyResearch
78
International Journal of Biology Research
ISSN: 2455-6548, Impact Factor: RJIF 5.22
www.biologyjournal.in
Volume 2; Issue 2; April 2017; Page No. 78-81
Petiole anatomical characteristics of true mangrove species in Kerala
*1 S Surya, 2 N Hari
1 ResearchscholarCMS College Kottayam, Kerala, India
2 Assistant Professor CMS College Kottayam, Kerala, India
Abstract
Petiole anatomy of 15 mangrove species in Kerala was investigated to identify and determine its systematic significance that may
be useful in species identification and classification. Variations in petiole anatomical attributes were obvious that they could be
used as systematic evidence to taxonomically delineate these taxa even at species level. The use of petiolar anatomical features in
systematic description of mangrove species is maiden and innovative and reported for the first time. Findings in this study have
shown some common characters and variations in the petiole anatomical characteristics. Petiole anatomical characteristics
observed included petiole outlines, patterns of petiole vascular bundles, presence of sclerenchyma cells, presence of phloem
sclerenchyma cells, presence of tanniferous and idioblast cells, presence and types of crystals, presence of lignified parenchyma
cells, and presence and types of trichomes. Results showed that petiole anatomical characteristics can be used as additional data in
identification and classification of species in the genus.
Keywords: Petiole, anatomy, mangrove, salt gland, trichome
Introduction
Mangrove form a rather uniform, evergreen fringe of forest
which is most profusely developed on low muddy shores, in
estuaries and lagoons and is less abundant along sandy or
rocky beaches and on old coral reefs covered with a thin sheet
of sand or mud. Plant anatomy, which is a study of
microscopic characteristics of all plant organs using light,
scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques
not only provide data which facilitate problem solving in
plant taxonomy, but would also enhance the understanding of
complex correlations between plant structural anatomy,
physiology and growth functions [1, 2, 3].
Angiosperms are endowed with external morphological
characters of significant taxonomic value which can be easily
observed with the naked eye or with simple hand lens.
Morphological attributes of vegetative organs have often
constituted the mainstay of taxonomic studies in plants [4, 5, 6]
and are very important in classification.
The use of anatomical methods in taxonomic investigations
cannot be over emphasized. Although no character is
absolutely immutable, some are more fixed than the others
and it is on those that are less plastic that the systematic
anatomist rely because they are not really affected by
environmental conditions [7] comparative plant epidermal
studies have been found to be reliable in taxonomy [8, 9, 10, 11]
and systematics have all stressed the taxonomic importance of
anatomical features which along with other characters are
useful for identification and classification of plants [12, 13, 14].
The present study reports on the use of petiole anatomy in
establishing the taxonomic relationships among 15 species of
mangroves in kerala.
Materials and methods
Transverse sections of the petiole of Acanthus ebracteatus
Vahl., Acanthuus ilicifolius L., (Acanthaceae), Aegiceras
corniculata (L.) Blanco., (Myrsinaceae), Avicennia marina
(Forssk.) Vierh., Avicennia officinalis L., (Avicenniaceae),
Bruguiera cylindrica (L.) Blume., Bruguiera gymnorrhiza
(L.) Lam., Bruguiera sexangula (Lour.) Poir., Kandelia
candel (L.) Druce., (Combretaceae) Rhizophora apiculata
Blume., Rhizophora mucronata Lam., (Rhizophoraceae),
Excoecaria agallocha L., (Euphorbiaceae), Sonneratia alba
Sm., Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engl. (Sonneratiaceae) were
taken and stained with Toluidine blue 0.Microscopic
observation by trilocular Labomed compound microscope
model No. 100934409 and images were photographed
Olympus digital camera.
Result and Discussion
In S. alba adaxial outline were concave surface and convex in
abaxial side. The epidermis was uniseriate, very small cells
and highly cutinized. The hypodermis and cortex were not
clearly differentiated. The cells were round, thin walled
parenchyma. The outer layer of ground tissue showed the
presence of phenolic depositions. Numerous vascular bundles
were present, amphicribal, arranged in the form of arc and it
consists of crystalliferous cells. The pith consists of thin
walled parenchyma, idioblast with phenolic depositions. The
metaxylem and protoxylem vessls were arranged radially. The
starchy phloem is seen around the xylem. Distinct lacuna
present in pith. (Plate A)
In S. caseolaris adaxial outline were concave surface and
convex in abaxial side. The epidermis were uniseriate, very
small cells and highly cutinized. The hypodermis and cortex
were not clearly differentiated. The cells were round, thin
walled parenchyma. The outer layer of ground tissue showed
the presence of phenolic depositions. Numerous vascular
bundles were present, amphicribal, arranged in the form of
arc. The pith consists of thin walled parenchyma, idioblast,
and crystalliferous cells with phenolic depositions. The
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metaxylem and protoxylem vessls were arranged radially. The
starchy phloem is seen around the xylem. Distinct lacuna
present in pith. (Plate B)
In B. cylindrica adaxial outline were concave surface and
convex in abaxial side. The epidermis was uniseriate, very
small cells and highly cutinized. The hypodermis and cortex
were not clearly differentiated. The cells were round, thin
walled parenchyma with numerous lacuna. Numerous
vascular bundles were present, amphicribal, crescent shaped
and it consists of crystalliferous cells. The pith consists of
thin walled parenchyma, with phenolic depositions. The
metaxylem and protoxylem vessls were arranged radially. The
starchy phloem is seen around the xylem. (Plate C)
In B.gymnorrhiza arc shaped in outline. Adaxial outline were
concave surface and convex in abaxial side. The epidermis
was uniseriate with phenolic depositions, very small cells and
highly cutinized. The hypodermis and cortex were not clearly
differentiated. The cells were round, thin walled parenchyma
with numerous lacuna. The outer layer of ground tissue
showed the presence of phenolic depositions. Numerous
vascular bundles were present, amphicribal, crescent shaped
and it consists of crystalliferous cells. The pith consists of
thin walled parenchyma, with phenolic depositions. The
metaxylem and protoxylem vessls were arranged radially. The
starchy phloem is seen around the xylem. (Plate D)
In B. sexangula, adaxial outline were concave surface and
convex in abaxial side. The epidermis was uniseriate with
phenolic depositions, very small cells and highly cutinized.
The hypodermis and cortex were not clearly differentiated.
The cells were round, thin walled parenchyma with numerous
lacuna. The outer layer of ground tissue showed the presence
of phenolic depositions. Numerous vascular bundles were
present, amphicribal, crescent shaped and it consists of
crystalliferous cells. Centre portion of vasculature possess
groove because of curving nature. The pith consists of thin
walled parenchyma, with phenolic depositions. The
metaxylem and protoxylem vessels were arranged radially.
(Plate E)
In K. candel adaxial outline were concave surface and convex
in abaxial side. The epidermis was uniseriate with phenolic
depositions, very small cells and highly cutinized. The
hypodermis and cortex were not clearly differentiated. The
cells were round, thin walled parenchyma with numerous
lacuna. The outer layer of ground tissue showed the presence
of phenolic depositions. Numerous vascular bundles were
present, amphicribal, vasculature arc shaped with one end
very much incurved and it consists of crystalliferous cells.
The pith consists of thin walled parenchyma, with phenolic
depositions. The metaxylem and protoxylem vessls were
arranged radially. (Plate F)
In R. apiculata adaxial outline were concave surface and
convex in abaxial side. The epidermis was uniseriate with
phenolic depositions, very small cells and highly cutinized.
Cork warts present in adaxial and sclereids present in abaxial
side. The hypodermis and cortex were not clearly
differentiated. The cells were round, thin walled parenchyma
with numerous lacuna. The outer layer of ground tissue
showed the presence of phenolic depositions. Numerous
vascular bundles inward in nature amphicribal, and it consists
of crystalliferous cells. The pith consists of thin walled
parenchyma, with phenolic depositions. The metaxylem and
protoxylem vessls were arranged radially. (Plate G)
In R. mucronata adaxial outline were concave surface and
convex in abaxial side. The epidermis was uniseriate with
phenolic depositions, very small cells and highly cutinized.
Cork warts present in adaxial and sclereids present in abaxial
side. The hypodermis and cortex were not clearly
differentiated. The cells were round, thin walled parenchyma
with numerous lacuna. The outer layer of ground tissue
showed the presence of phenolic depositions. Numerous
vascular bundles inward in nature amphicribal, and it consists
of crystalliferous cells. The pith consists of thin walled
parenchyma, with phenolic depositions. The metaxylem and
protoxylem vessls were arranged radially. (Plate H)
A study on petiole anatomy of the three species of
Rhizophoraceae in Nigeria to find out stable characters for
delimiting the species. Study showed three taxa show generic
closeness. The species were discriminate based on the number
of the vascular bundles of the petiole are distinct for each
species [15].
A study on petiole anatomical characteristics of seven
members selected Rhizophoraceae in Malaysia revealed
anatomical characters can be very useful in to prove the
relationship between plant species and its extreme climate and
exposed environment such as presence of aerenchyma cells,
cutinized epidermal cells and variations in the presence of
parenchyma cells which occurred fairly uniformly among all
the species studied [16].
In E. agallocha adaxial outline were concave surface and
convex in abaxial side. The epidermis was uniseriate, very
small cells and cutinized. The hypodermis and cortex were
not clearly differentiated. The cells were round, thin walled
parenchyma. Numerous vascular bundles were present,
amphicribal, arranged in the form of arc and it consists of
crystalliferous cells. The metaxylem and protoxylem vessls
were arranged radially. The starchy phloem is seen around the
xylem. (Plate J)
In A. corniculata arc shaped in outline. The epidermis was
uniseriate with phenolic depositions, very small cells and
highly cutinized. The hypodermis and cortex were not clearly
differentiated. Ground tissue consists of tannins, brachy
sclereids. Pericycle consists of isolated arches of
sclerenchymatous fibers. Numerous vascular bundles inward
in nature, amphicribal, and crescent shaped and it consists of
crystalliferous cells. The pith consists of thin walled
parenchyma, with phenolic depositions. The metaxylem and
protoxylem vessls were arranged radially. (Plate I)
In A. ebracteatus slightly concave at the adaxial side and
convex at the abaxial side, epidermis uniseriate. Circular
arrangement of vascular bundles, amphicribal, arranged in the
form of an arc, endodermal and pericylic differentiation not
prominent. Lateral bundle observed in a clear circular fashion,
it clearly delimited with endodermis and pericyclic and cells
showing brachy sclereids in the periphery. Central portion
occupy with more xylem elements and were slightly
modulated. Peripheral phloem showing presence of phenolic
depositions. Glandular trichomes and simple, uniseriate
multicellular hairs present. Pith consists of thin walled
parenchyma cells. (Plate K)
In A. ilicifolius, slightly concave at the adaxial side and
convex at the abaxial side, epidermis uniseriate, cortex
composed of 7-8 layers of polygonal angular collenchymas
and chlorophyllated thin walled parenchyma cells. Circular
arrangement of vascular bundles, amphicribal, arranged in the
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form of an arc. endodermal and pericylic differnation not
prominent. Lateral bundle observed in a clear circular fashion,
it clearly delimited with endodermis and pericyclic and cells
showing brachy sclereids in the periphery. Central portion
occupy with more xylem elements and were slightly
modulated. Peripheral phloem showing presense of phenolic
depositions. Glandular trichomes and simple, uniseriate
multicellular hairs present. Pith consists of thin walled
parenchyma cells. (Plate L)
In A. marina outline was wavy with thick cuticle intermittned
by salt glands. Pinnate like expansion contains chlorenchyma
and separate bundles present in adaxial side. Non -glandular
trichomes and extra floral nectarines present in abaxial side.
Trichomes were consists of small stalk cell and large terminal
cell. Outer phloem with sclereids. Vascular bundles were
medulatted. Pith were consists of thin walled parenchyma and
large sclereids delimited with endodermis. (Plate M)
In A. officinalis outline was wavy with thick cuticle
intermittned by salt glands. Non -glandular trichomes and
extra floral nectarines present in abaxial side. Trichomes were
consists of small stalk cell and large terminal cell. Outer
phloem with sclereids. Pith were consists of thin walled
parenchyma and large sclereids delimited with endodermis.
(Plate N)
Sonneratia alba Sonneratia caseolaris Bruguiera cylindrica
Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Bruguiera sexangula Kandelia candel
Rhizophora apiculata Rhizophora mucronata Aegiceras corniculata
Plate A - Sonneratia alba, (10X) Plate B - Sonneratia caseolaris,(10X) Plate C- Bruguiera cylindrica,(10X) Plate D - Bruguiera gymnorrhiza
(10X) Plate E- Bruguiera sexangula (10X) Plate F - Kandelia candel(10X) Plate G- Rhizophora apiculata (10X) Plate H- Rhizophora
mucronata (10X) Plate I- Aegiceras corniculata (10X) CF-Crystalliferous cell, PAR-Parenchyma, PH-Phloem, BS- Brachy sclereids, XY-
Xylem, CU-Cuticle, AS- Air space, EP-Epidermis, HP- Hypodermis, PAR-Parenchyma, BS- Brachy sclereids, SCL-Sclrenchyma, COR-
Cortex,PI-Pith
Excoecaria agallocha Acanthus ebracteatus Acanthus ilicifolius
ABC
DEF
GHI
JK L
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Avicennia marina Avicennia officinalis
Plate J- Excoecaria agallocha, (10X) Plate K- Acanthus ebracteatus, (10X) Plate L- Acanthus ilicifolius, (10X) Plate M- Avicennia marina,
(10X) Plate N- Avicennia officinalis (10X).
Conclusion
Leaf petiolar features that disclosed somewhat close
relationship among mangrove taxa. Members of
rhizophoraceae cortex region consists of numerous
aerenchyma cells, cutinized epidermal cells and variations in
the presence of parenchyma cells showed that some
anatomical modification had appear in reaction to adverse
climate and bare environment. In Acanthaceae both the taxa
possess uniseriate unbranched trichomes. A. marina and A.
officinalis have outgrowth of glandular and non-glandular
trichomes; presence of extra floral nectarines were the main
features.
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Integrative Plant Anatomy
  • W C Dickinson
Dickinson WC. Integrative Plant Anatomy. Harcout Academic Press, San Diego. 2000, 530.
Pollen morphology of the three species of the genus Emilia Cass. (Asteraceae) from Nigeria
  • O Adedeji
Adedeji O. Pollen morphology of the three species of the genus Emilia Cass. (Asteraceae) from Nigeria. Thaiszia -J. Bot. 2005; 15:1-9.
Diagnostic value of trichomes in some Nigerian species of OcimHyptisJazq and Tinnea kotschyand Peys (Lamiaceae)
  • Atj Ogunkunle
  • F A Oladele
Ogunkunle ATJ, Oladele FA. Diagnostic value of trichomes in some Nigerian species of OcimHyptisJazq and Tinnea kotschyand Peys (Lamiaceae). J. Appl. Sci. 2000; 3:1163-1180.