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Distribution patterns of rare Kitaibela vitifolia Willd in Turkey: Taxonomy, chorology, and conservation

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Kitaibela vitifolia is a locally rare species known from only one locality in southern Turkey. After the new discovery of Kitaibela vitifolia, it has been recorded from a new locality in Kastamonu province in northern Turkey. Brief history, morphology, chorology, habitat, and ecology of this rare species have been discussed in this research. The conservation status of Kitaibela vitifolia is also reviewed based on the present distribution data.
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ISSN 2226-3063 e-ISSN 2227-9555
Modern Phytomorphology 14: 1–3, 2020
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.200101
© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Andriy Novikov, State Natural History Museum NAS of Ukraine on behalf of Modern Phytomorphology. This
is an open access article under the Creative Commons BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) freely available on
https://phytomorphology.org/.
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Distribution patterns of rare Kitaibela vitifolia Willd in Turkey: Taxonomy, chorology,
and conservation
Tunçkol B 1*, Yaşayacak H 2, Aksoy N 3
1Bartın University Ulus Vocational School Department of Forestry and Forest Products Program, 74100 Bartın, Turkey;
*bilgetunckol@gmail.com
2Küre Mountains National Park Directorate, Bartın 1. Ring Road Avenue Bartın Governor’s Ofce 3. Floor, 74100 Bartın, Turkey
3Düzce University, Faculty of Forestry & DUOF Herbaria Konuralp, 81620 Düzce, Turkey
Received: 18. 11. 2019 | Accepted: 17. 12. 2019 | Published: 01. 01. 2020
Abstract
Kitaibela vitifolia is a locally rare species known from only one locality in southern Turkey. After the new discovery of Kitaibela vitifolia,
it has been recorded from a new locality in Kastamonu province in northern Turkey. Brief history, morphology, chorology, habitat, and
ecology of this rare species have been discussed in this research. The conservation status of Kitaibela vitifolia is also reviewed based
on the present distribution data.
Keywords: Kitaibela vitifolia, taxonomy, chorology, anatolian diagonal, Turkey
Introduction
There are only 2 species of Kitaibela one of them was
Kitaibela vitifolia that was named to honor Paul Kitaibel
a famous Hungarian Botanist and described by him,
in 1800 in Eastern Slovenia (Croatia) and another from
the South West Taurus mountains in Turkey, Kitaibela
balansae, which was described by the Swiss Botanist
Belder 1993; Cullen 1967; Davis 1971; Groom 2010).
These two species of Kitaibela genera belong to the
Malvaceae family which has totally 1500 species. In the
flora of Turkey there was just one species of this genus:
Kitaibela balansae. Then, Kitaibela vitifolia species was
collected by Tugay and et all. The natural habitat of
Kitaibela balansae is Turkey, Syria, and Lebanon. However,
Kitaibela vitifolia is naturally distributed in Yugoslavia,
Kosova, Bosnia Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia,
Macedonia, Serbia, and Albania it has been cultivated in
Hungary and Romania. Kitaibela vitifolia is a rare species,
often has been used as an ornamental plant and it is mostly
under threat. After the plant samples belong to Kitaibela
vitifolia were collected from Mount Amonos by Tugay et
al. for the first time in 2014, they were collected from the
Kastamonu section of Küre Mountains in the personal
field investigations in 2019. This article reports an
additional new locality and population to its distribution
in Turkey. In this study, morphology, chorology, ecology,
habitat, conservation status and distribution of this
species are discussed (Cullen 1967; Davis 1971; Barina et
al. 2013; Ertuğrul et al. 2016; Özhatay et al. 2017; Tomović
et al. 2007).
Materials and Methods
This study was carried out by personal field
investigation, the examination of the specimens kept
in the Herbaria Edinburgh, and extensive analysis of
literature. The identification of the species is based on
personal observations of herbarium materials and living
plants.
The Kitaibela vitifolia plant sample was collected from
Boissier
(
Tunçkol et al.|
Modern Phytomorphology 14, 2020
2
the core zone of the Kastamonu section of Küre Mountains
National Park in 2019. Then, it was determined that these
collected samples are different from the Kitaibela balansae,
and they were identified according to Flora of Europea
and described as Kitaibela vitifolia.
Results and Discussion
Basionym
Malope vitifolia (Willd.) Hegi
Description
Large perennial herbs. Shrub like habit Stem robust,
up to 195 cm, and sparingly branched. Stem petioles and
inflorescence with hispid white hairs. Leaves glabrescent
and long petiolate. Petioles up to 13 cm. Lamina up to 17
cm, rhombic to suborbicular cordate, with 5-7 triangular
dentate lobes. The inflorescence is a cyme with 1-4 flowers
born in mid-summer, in a leaf axis. Epicalyx segments
6-9 slightly connate at the base. The segment is ovate,
acuminate slightly longer and wider than the sepals.
White petals 24 × 20 mm obdeltate cuneate, entire or
slightly retuse. Stigmas filiform and laterally. Schizocarp
fruit, mericarp dark brown hairy and dehiscent (Fig. 1).
Key to closely related Kitaibela vitifolia
1. Leaves 5-7 lobed. Cymes 1-4 flowers. Petals white…
……K. vitifolia
1. Leaves +/- triangular. Cymes solitary. Petals red…
………K. balansae
Examined specimens
Examined specimens of Kitaibela samples were
collected from the western part of The Black Sea Region
A4: Kastamonu; Küre Mountains National Park (B.
Tunçkol 4501, DUOF 1941).
Distribution
Turkey (Western Black Sea Region), A4 Kastamonu,
Küre Mountain National Park, 100-1100 m, near the
stream, grassland. Some parts of Europe Yugoslavia,
Kosovo, Bosna and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia,
Macedonia, Serbia and Albania (Cullen 1967; Davis 1971;
Barina et al. 2013; Ertuğrul et al. 2016; Tomović et al.
2007), (Fig. 2).
Taxonomic treatment
This species determination point is the core zone of
the Kastamonu section of Küre Mountains National Park,
so it’s very pleasing for this species continuity.
Habitat and ecology
In Kastamonu, it occurs at elevations between 1000-
1100 m. It grows with Fagus orientalis Lipsky, Buxus
sempervirens L., Carpinus betulus L., Salix alba L., Lonicera
caucasica Pall., Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn., Pteridium
aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh.,
Cirsium canum (L.) All., Inula helenium L. subsp. orgyalis
(Boiss.) Grierson, Galeopsis bifida Boenn., Senecio aquaticus
Hill subsp. erraticus (Bertol.) V.A.Matthews and Galega
officinalis L.
It was collected from the clearing of the pine forest
in a narrow area in Mount Amanos. However, in the
Kastamonu region, it was collected from damp grassland
near the brook. In addition to that, in Europe it was found
in damp thickets and grassland.
Conclusion/Chorology of the Species and Origin
of the Turkish Population
The Irano Turanian flora region is divided into two
by Anatolian Diagonal that begins from Gümüşhane-
Bayburt and bifurcates through Anti Taurus in the
southwest (Davis, Harper & Hedge, 1971). There are 550
taxa in this region and it has been determined that almost
135 of it does not distribute on the west of diagonal and
228 of it not distribute on the east. In the ice age, plants
that have Euro Siberian characteristics in North Anatolia
Figure 1. The general appearance of Kitaibela vitifolia Willd. (A. habitus,
B. Inflorescence, C. Inflorescence, and Petioles).
A
BCFigure 2. Distribution map Kitaibela vitifolia in Turk e y (new localities
and other location ).
Ο
Ο
Distribution patterns of rare Kitaibela vitifolia Willd
Modern Phytomorphology 14, 2020
|3
(Fagus orientalis Lipsky, Buxus sempervirens L., Carpinus
betulus L., Ostrya carpinifolia Scop., Taxus baccata L., Ilex
colchica Pojark., Corylus avellana L., Corylus colurna L.,
Lonicera caucasica Pallas ssp. orientalis (Lam.) Chamb
et Long, Sambucus ebulus L.), moved to South Anatolia
because of Anatolian Diagonal. So, especially in the region
of Mount Amanos and Gavur Mountains, it is seen mixed
forests under the dominance of Fagus orientalis L. that
belongs to the sub-Euxine part of Euro Siberian floristic
region. The distribution of Kitaibela vitifolia in Küre
Mountains is connected with its distribution in Middle
West Europe and Balkans and it is understood that origin
and characteristics of this plant belong to sub-Euxine
part of Euro-Siberian floristic region. Kitaibela vitifolia,
collected by Tugay et al. from Osmaniye in 2014 is not a
plant that has Mediterranean origin. On the contrary it is
originated in Euro Siberian as it is mentioned above, and
it was found in Osmaniye due to Anatolian Diagonal (Avcı
1996; Ekim & Güner 1986; Webb 1976.).
It was observed differences when the samples of
Kitaibela vitifolia collected from the Kastamonu region
compared with the samples distributed in Europe (RBGE,
Edinburgh). There are especially some differences on the
leaf size and pubescence characteristics of the samples.
Kitaibela vitifolia can probably be discovered in the
different regions of Turkey with extensive field studies.
This species that distributes on Kastamonu and
Mount Amanos, has a few individuals in Küre Mountains
National Park. It is pleasing that this species distributes
in Core Zone and there is no construction in its
surroundings. Yet it is very important that it should
be taken under protection by General Directorate for
National Parks for its continuity. It has been the subject of
various studies, and it deserves to be more widely grown.
So, when it’s considered its narrow distribution in Turkey
and the importance of it in Europe, it is suggested that its
conservation status should be Vulnerable (VU).
Acknowledgments
This study is supported by Bartın University (BAP),
Project number: 2019-Fen-B-005.d.
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Mysterious Kitaibelas
  • J D Belder
Belder J.D. 1993. Mysterious Kitaibelas. Karaca Arbor Mag. 2: 29-32.
Distribution patterns in Anatolia with particular reference to endemism. Food and Agri Org UN
  • P H Davis
  • P C Harper
  • I C Hedge
Davis P.H., Harper P.C., Hedge I.C. 1971. Distribution patterns in Anatolia with particular reference to endemism. Food and Agri Org UN. 15 -27. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search. do?recordID=US201302308461