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The compositional model of Santo Domingo and Cartagena fortifications between old and new world

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The work of the Antonelli family has determined the constructive characteristics of Spanish forti- fications in the new world. Their fame is due to Giovanni Battista, the military and hydraulic engineer of Italian origin, and training in the Spanish Crown service. During the second half of the six- teenth century, he designed and built the defense of the Iberian Peninsula’s borders, taking care of Cartagena’s port city, the coast of the Kingdom of Valencia, and the African ports of Oran and Mazalquivir. An extensive work, whose charac- ters are taken from the younger brother, Battista Antonelli, planned the defensive system of for- tresses and walls in the Caribbean and, more generally, in the Spanish colonies of Central America. In the first decades of the seventeenth century, the New World was a destination for explorations and observations by the great monarchies of the old continent: the English, French, Dutch, and Spanish fought over lands and businesses on a Caribbean sea that became international. In 1586 Philip II of Spain nominated Battista Antonelli as his engineer, with the specific aim of structuring the defense of the lands of the Corona overseas. Over the years, Antonelli inspects and presents design proposals for many cities in Central America, working from Colombia, Panama, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Cuba. The text addresses, in particular, the description of Cartagena de Indias and Santo Domingo, comparing them through the narration of two analysis, training, and docu- mentation projects conducted here by the DAda LAB Research Laboratory.
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volume 13/ n. 25 - December 2020
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DISEGNARECON TRAVELING FROM THE ORIENT TO THE WEST AND RETURN. CITIES, ARCHITECTURE AND RESTORATION. WRITINGS IN MEMORY OF PAOLO CUNEO
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20365/disegnarecon.25.2020.22
Anna Dell’Amico
PhD Student in Architecture,
address in Survey and Rep-
resentation of Architecture and
Environment, since 2015 she
collaborates with DAda Lab
– Drawing Architecture Doc-
umentAction Laboratory. She
participates in national and
international activities, semi-
nars and workshops. Expert in
BIM modeling, she is technical
coordinator of a research mis-
sion in the Alhambra complex
functional to the development
of H-BIM systems in collabora-
tion with University of Granada.
The composional model of Santo Domingo and Cartagena forca-
ons between old and new world
The work of the Antonelli family has determined
the construcve characteriscs of Spanish for-
caons in the new world. Their fame is due to
Giovanni Basta, the military and hydraulic engi-
neer of Italian origin, and training in the Spanish
Crown service. During the second half of the six-
teenth century, he designed and built the defense
of the Iberian Peninsula’s borders, taking care of
Cartagena’s port city, the coast of the Kingdom
of Valencia, and the African ports of Oran and
Mazalquivir. An extensive work, whose charac-
ters are taken from the younger brother, Basta
Antonelli, planned the defensive system of for-
tresses and walls in the Caribbean and, more gen-
erally, in the Spanish colonies of Central America.
In the rst decades of the seventeenth century,
the New World was a desnaon for exploraons
and observaons by the great monarchies of the
old connent: the English, French, Dutch, and
Spanish fought over lands and businesses on a
Keywords:
Fored Architecture; 3D Survey; Cultural Herit-
age; Antonelli; Lan America
Silvia La Placa
PhD student in Design, Mod-
elling and Simulation in En-
gineering, cycle XXXV, her
research is developed in the
field of documentation of ar-
tificial water channels and
representations on a territorial
and architectural scale, with
particular attention to the cen-
sus and processing of digital
databases. She collaborates in
the experimental scientific re-
search activities of DAdA Lab
both in national and interna-
tional projects.
Caribbean sea that became internaonal. In 1586
Philip II of Spain nominated Basta Antonelli as
his engineer, with the specic aim of structuring
the defense of the lands of the Corona overseas.
Over the years, Antonelli inspects and presents
design proposals for many cies in Central Amer-
ica, working from Colombia, Panama, Chile, the
Dominican Republic, Cuba. The text addresses, in
parcular, the descripon of Cartagena de Indi-
as and Santo Domingo, comparing them through
the narraon of two analysis, training, and docu-
mentaon projects conducted here by the DAda
LAB Research Laboratory.
22.2volume 13/ n. 25 - December 2020
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DISEGNARECON DELL’AMICO - LA PLACA
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The compositional model of Santo Domingo and Cartagena fortifications between old and new world
TRAVELING FROM THE ORIENT TO THE WEST AND RETURN
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20365/disegnarecon.25.2020.22
1. FROM EAST TO WEST: A DEFENSE PROJECT
FOR THE COLONIES OF THE CARIBBEAN SEA
Between the 16th and 17th centuries, ships sailed
to the West Indies from the coasts of the Europe-
an continent, to occupy territories and islands to
guarantee prestige and commercial wealth for
the motherland. The navigation from East to West,
along the route leading to the Caribbean Sea
ports, lasted about 14 days. The dispute over the
sea and the coasts find its primary development
in piracy, with the emergence of figures such as
Sir Francis Drake (late 16th century) and Sir Henry
Morgan (17th century). To maintain dominion over
the routes and the conquered areas, the Spanish
Crown starts the construction of numerous coast-
al ports and fortified cities, regulating new river
routes. These systems, connecting the new and
the old continent, have led to the evolution of an
imposing commercial network while promoting
an autonomous cultural and social development
of the colonies. (Parrinello & Picchio, 2017) In
Central America, defensive systems developed
hand in hand with the inhabited nuclei, marking
the shape and image of the cities so that they ap-
peared firm to discourage pirates and invaders
and at the same time underlined the power of the
empire. Characteristic elements of this defensive
jersey were towers and batteries designed to con-
tain and use heavy artillery. For the definition and
positioning of these architectural typologies, the
military engineer meticulously studied the orog-
raphy of the land and the seabed, to make use of
any natural defenses to cope with the attack ac-
Fig. 1 - Historical maps, Siege of Drake in Santo Domingo and Cartagena De Indias, 1586. Source: Library Of Congress - Jay I. Kislak Collection.
tions in the most appropriate way. This also hap-
pens for Cartagena de Indias and Santo Domingo,
for which Antonelli structures two coeval and yet
very different defensive projects, in response to
orographic and military defense needs (fig. 1).
The redrawing and modernization of the Caribbe-
an fortifications began in the late sixteenth century
when Philip II of Spain entrusted Battista Antonelli
with the defense of overseas colonies. The military
studies and engineering training of Antonelli, ac-
quired by working at the Viceroy of Valencia, pro-
foundly affected the architectural and territorial
planning choices of the Caribbean cities. In 1586,
during his second trip to the New Continent [1],
Antonelli began the inspection of several sites in-
dicated to him by the king. When he returned to
Spain, only in 1588, he got approval to carry out
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The compositional model of Santo Domingo and Cartagena fortifications between old and new world
TRAVELING FROM THE ORIENT TO THE WEST AND RETURN
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20365/disegnarecon.25.2020.22
some of his projects, including the one for Santo
Domingo. Battista’s third journey to America be-
gan in 1589 and lasted ten years. Upon arrival in
Santo Domingo, the first American capital, found-
ed in 1498, had already been subject to the siege
of Drake [2]. To welcome Antonelli on the Ozama
River, the homonymous Fortaleza, built between
1502 and 1507 at the behest of the governor Nico-
las de Ovando to protect the city, the first European
fortress and the first military building in America.
However, the commercial and political importance
of Santo Domingo had waned in favor of new ports,
and the perimeter project for the walls was dispro-
portionate, based on a hypothesis of continuous
urban growth that had not taken place. The first
settlement was located in the eastern area of the
Ozama river, but within a few years, to improve its
defense strategies, the city had been transferred
to the other side, where the main nucleus remains
and where the fortified works persist.
The defensive structures emerge only partially, as
punctual traces, to surround the colonial city, and
the whole design is imaginable only starting from
the remaining portions (fig. 2).
The wall designed by Antonelli was to protect the
city to the North-West from any incursions from
inside the island to the east and south from at-
tacks by river and sea, exploiting where the natu-
ral rock wall is present.
Antonelli rethought the design of the walls, plac-
ing the perimeter on the center of the city and
strengthening its defense with the addition of
bastions, strongholds, and gunboats suitably dis-
tributed. The walls, thus redesigned, were lower
and enriched by an external moat to amplify the
ramparts’ dramatic effect. An alternating series
of watchtowers, bastions for grazing shooting, and
fortified gates leave today only to imagine the over-
all design of the fortified system of Santo Domin-
go. Antonelli did not attend the works, engaged in
the defense works of the other Caribbean coasts.
Nowadays, there is no certainty of which portions
were made on his project and which instead are
remains of defensive systems built-in later eras,
based on the new perimeter defined by the Italian
engineer. The technical parameters and criteria
Fig.2 - Historical map of Santo Domingo. The image shows the two defensive projects, the first larger and the second, more circumscribed, conceived by Antonelli.
of military engineering of that historical moment
were also applied to Cartagena de Indias [3]. The
project consisted of strengthening the entrance
of the bay of Cartagena along the Bocagrande
route, building two forts controlling the ends of the
mouth, one south of Bocagrande, in the site called
Punta de Los Icacos, another in the northern part
of the island of Carex (now Tierra Bomba) (fig. 3).
The system, based on the positioning of forts in
strategic points of action, made it possible to spot
fires in the Bocagrande channel. In 1586 Cartage-
na suffered the same fate as Santo Domingo and
several Spanish colonial ports, being sacked by the
English pirate Sir Francis Drake. The latter leaves
a first description of the post-founding period: “it is
possible to count about 625 lots made up of isolat-
ed buildings and houses built with bahareque walls
or boards, thatched roofs or tiles” [4].
The design of the urban jersey of the city is mod-
ified with the arrival of Battista Antonelli who
elaborates, for the Spanish Crown, a new defense
plan with an “irregular” and “modern” shape (fig.
4). Compared to the Dominican project, the dif-
ferences in terms of sketch quality, disposition of
layouts, plans, cuts, facades, isometric, and per-
spective representation, as well as improved tech-
niques of representation of the city at an aerial
level, are appreciable. Battista Antonelli devoted
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The compositional model of Santo Domingo and Cartagena fortifications between old and new world
TRAVELING FROM THE ORIENT TO THE WEST AND RETURN
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20365/disegnarecon.25.2020.22
himself to designing the walls in 1595, devising a
fortified system, lower than the previous one but
with a robust and irregular section, consisting of
bulwarks, ramparts, and sentry boxes, suitable for
resisting attacks by firearms.
The essence of Antonelli’s thought is reflected in
the defensive proposed for the stronghold, which
consists in surrounding the city with a wall made
up of twelve bastions. The Italian engineer decides
to use all the already erected fortifications and
with them tries to form a fortified square inscribed
in a regular polygon with twelve sides. However, in
Fig.3 - Plan de la ville et rade de Cartagene et de ses Forts, Paris 1698. Source: Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Inc.
adapting his project to existing blocks and roads,
an irregular polygon limited to the city resulted.
The construction work on the walls began only in
1608 with the construction site of the San Felipe
Bastion, today known with the name of Santo Do-
mingo bastion, and with the ramparts of Santiago
and the Holy Cross. The reconstruction was en-
trusted to Cristoforo Roda, Battista’s grandson,
according to the new design that the engineering
Tiburzio Spannocchi had adapted to Antonelli’s
previous one. The wall structure, composed of ho-
mogeneous blocks in rusticated local stone called
“caliza”, encompassed the entire city. Between
1614 and 1630 the ramparts of Santo Domingo,
the Baluarte of Santiago Apostol, and the Baluarte
of Santa Cruz were built on one side to defend the
Boca Grande peninsula; on the other, the Baluarts
of Santa Catalina and San Lucas, implementing a
modification to Antonelli’s original project.
The walls which, along the stretch that included
the bastion of Santa Catalina and the bastion of
San Lucas, from the project followed the perim-
eter line, were advanced, increasing the fortified
surface, annexing a portion of fertile soil useful for
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The compositional model of Santo Domingo and Cartagena fortifications between old and new world
TRAVELING FROM THE ORIENT TO THE WEST AND RETURN
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20365/disegnarecon.25.2020.22
Fig. 4 - Some historical drawings of Cartagena de Indias made by Battista Antonelli. 1594. Archivo General de Indias, Siviglia.
and the homonymous Rivellino, which, at the time,
was the only point of access and contact between
the city and the mainland. In 1636, with the death
of De Murga, the idea of fortifying the Cerro di San
Làzaro was born, moreover, the elevation of the
land at Bocagrande changes the defense project
of the Bay, going to secure the new access point
in the area of Boca Chica. In 1656 a second wall
was built to defend the Jesuit college. La Boca del
Puente was destroyed in 1697 following a battle
and later rebuilt with more elegant lines. Between
1741 and 1798, after San Felipe was finished, the
any livelihood during the siege periods. The only
access to the city was located between the Bastion
of San Juan Evangelista and San Pedro Apostol.
There was a drawbridge near the Boca del Puente,
the gateway to the town. In 1631, with Francisco De
Murga, the original design was further modified,
along the stretch between the Baluarte of St. Fran-
cisco and St. Ignatius. The construction of a Jesuit
college was allowed by ignoring part of the walls
and compromising the defensive effectiveness of
the wall. In the stretch between San Josè and San-
ta Barbara, there was the Puerta de la Media Luna
layout of the San Carlos bastion was modified be-
cause the sea’s repeated action had degraded the
walls. The Rivellino del Cabrero and a breakwater
perpendicular to the existing masonry of the Bal-
uarte of St. Catalina, later called “La Tenaza”, are
built, to strengthen the defense and attenuate the
action of marine motions on the walls. In 1798, with
Las Bóvedas de St. Clara, the wall perimeter was
finished, and the city was impregnable. In 1810
there was a turnaround: the Colombian people
began an act of rebellion from the Spanish dom-
ination seeking independence, a clash against the
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The compositional model of Santo Domingo and Cartagena fortifications between old and new world
TRAVELING FROM THE ORIENT TO THE WEST AND RETURN
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20365/disegnarecon.25.2020.22
Fig. 5 - Carrying out of survey activities with Laser Scanner and drones at the Antonellian defense system. From left: low battery of the
Fortaleza de Ozama
, the Fuerte de la Conception, the “walled garden” of the
Fortaleza de Ozama
.
torical heritage. UNESCO has recognized the for-
tification systems of overseas colonies as a World
Heritage Site. In 1984 the Cartagena system was
recognized, and in 1990 the Colonial area of Santo
Domingo was the only area where the original de-
sign of the defensive system remains.
2. READING METHODOLOGIES OF THE ANTONEL-
LIAN FORTIFIED SYSTEMS OF SANTO DOMINGO
AND CARTAGENA DE INDIAS.
Knowing and documenting the architectural her-
itage in Central America today takes on particular
importance in consideration of two factors. First
of all, from the study of fortified architecture it is
possible to read the historical and urban evolution
of colonial centers; secondly, having taken note
of the unsuitable state of conservation of some
of these monuments, it seems more significant
than ever to be able to pass these identity places
on to the generations to follow. In response to this
documentary need, the research projects dealt
with see the first phase of the archival study and
a second application on the field of drawing and
survey tools. In this sense, the digital transposi-
tion of the heritage, in its current maintenance
conditions, through metrically reliable three-di-
Crown that lasted until 1820 when the independ-
ence of Colombia was proclaimed. In the subse-
quent Republican period, the fortifications were
wrapped in a dichotomy of love and hate. After the
first phase of independence in 1811, the emancipa-
tion from the Spanish Crown began, which lasted
from 1821-1823, culminating in the second defin-
itive independence of New Granada. At that time,
the fortresses, which until then had been a symbol
of security, again identified the Iberian power, the
population wanted to demolish them as a testi-
mony of a past to be forgotten. The importance of
their legacy persists since it is deeply correlated
to the architectural complex’s value that has pro-
tected a population for almost five hundred years.
Therefore, they embody an ordinary meaning in
the collective imagination. It is essential to under-
stand the theme of the fortifications of Cartagena
de Indias to understand that all the fortifications
were adapted in their historical moment to defined
parameters and polymorphic concepts. The dem-
olition of the bulwarks, as well as new buildings
and adjustments along the walls, reflect changes
in urban dynamics and historical processes no
longer compatible with the old fortified system.
From the second half of the twentieth century, the
restoration works of the walls began as local his-
mensional models, is made possible by the stud-
ied use of diversified detection instruments. The
two case studies treated by the researchers of
the DAda LAB laboratory of the DICAr,, differing
in size and architectural typologies present, were
evaluated with suitably diversified methodologies.
In consideration of the morphology, surface, time
of the mission, but above all of the set goals, an
integrated survey was carried out for both, us-
ing range based tools [5] and SfM methodologies
with the use of remote piloted systems [6]. The
acquisition of data has made it possible to define
knowledge and management products for com-
plex environments or structures included within
an uncontrolled urban sprawl. The investigations
conducted thus led to the definition of a digital da-
tabase of the fortified heritage created by Battista
Antonelli in the two sites. This digital heritage is
applied, as well as for the deepening and histor-
ical-architectural analysis, in the support for the
determination of development strategies related
to its knowledge, safeguard, and enhancement.
The research activities in Santo Domingo started
from the testing of technologies for the survey to
the architectural and landscape representation,
concerned certain portions of the colonial de-
fense system, chosen for historical importance
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The compositional model of Santo Domingo and Cartagena fortifications between old and new world
TRAVELING FROM THE ORIENT TO THE WEST AND RETURN
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20365/disegnarecon.25.2020.22
Fig. 6 - Point cloud obtained from the acquisition with TLS systems.
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The compositional model of Santo Domingo and Cartagena fortifications between old and new world
TRAVELING FROM THE ORIENT TO THE WEST AND RETURN
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20365/disegnarecon.25.2020.22
Fig. 7 - Point cloud obtained from the acquisition with UAV systems. Above the
Fortaleza de Ozama
, below: on the left the
Bastion of the Invincible
, on the right
the
Fuerte de la Conception.
and distribution on the city perimeter, to under-
stand better the effective measure of the wall de-
signed by Antonelli. The documentation project
[7] digitally reconstructed the phantom perime-
ter of the defensive wall: in a clockwise direction,
starting from the southeast, the various fortified
structures present were found. The first to be
encountered, by order and date of construction,
is the Fortaleza de Ozama, erected in the early
16th century near the mouth of the river to defend
the southeast entrance to the colonial city. At the
expense of changes and extensions, the “medi-
eval character” of the structure remains intact,
making it unique among the fortresses of Cen-
tral America. The complex is structured on sev-
eral levels: the main building insists on a natural
rock wall, elevating it from the river. A stone wall
separates the latter from the low battery, locat-
ed to the right of the fortress, and connected to it
by a large ramp that runs linearly to the island’s
rocky profile. Upon further closure of the complex,
around 1950, the battery was separated from the
riverbed by a concrete curtain, responding to the
taste of the time and needs of its use as a prison.
The main body consists of thick walls made of lo-
cal coral stone and develops on three levels with
different lookout points. Above all, touching the
18 meters, the crenelated structure of the Torre
del Homenaje (Tower of Homage), from which
ships entering the port were greeted. Behind the
fortress building, there is a large fenced green
area, which divides the military complex from the
urban core, except for the Puerta de Carlos III,
only access built-in 1797. This “walled garden”
is equipped with a series of stations for cannons,
in superior defense of the battery. The detection
methods were defined by the distribution of the
complex over several heights, the extension, and
the desire to obtain a faithful reproduction from a
colorimetric point of view. The Fortress has been
documented with over 60 scans, performed with
the FARO CAM2 S150 set with an active color pro-
file, for the definition of a point cloud capable of
restoring the material aspect as well (fig. 5). To
integrate this data, a photogrammetric campaign
was conducted with DJI Phantom 4 Pro drone [8].
Continuing from the Fortress along the course of
the Ozama river and then parallel to the coast,
you will find portions of walls and bastions of the
colonial city, not richly documented as the For-
taleza and therefore not precisely datable.
Imagining to move above the perimeter of Battis-
ta Antonelli, near the Fuerte de San Gil, this fold
to the north. The trace of the walls can be seen
alternately, up to the Puerta de la Misericordia
which maintains its connection with the Fuerte de
la Concepción thanks to the sign of the walls left
visible on the driveway. The Fort looks like an iso-
lated monument between busy streets, protected
by a low fence that does not, however, exempt
it from improper use. The detection operations
were carried out with TLS instrumentation, posi-
tioning the laser to form two circuits, one above
the monument to cover its surface and a wider
one all around. This method has been defined to
minimize the drift error in the post-production
phase. The Fort was simultaneously detected also
with UAV systems [9], to integrate and compare
the acquired data, always with a view to a reliable
and high metric quality material return. Continu-
ing east, the wall becomes visible near the Rui-
nas de La Caridad. The bastion was connected to
nearby San Miguel by a section of walls of which
the whole lower portion remains intact. A series
of residential buildings have been added to this,
as well as to the two bastions, which is why the
detection operations have insisted in particular
on the side of access to the ramparts, left free
despite urban transformations. Continuing along
the phantom wall of Antonelli, the fortified route
becomes appreciable again near the Ermita de
San Antón. Over the years, the same name’s bas-
tion has been flanked by a reconstruction of the
walls that bind it to the Catedral Castrense San-
ta Bárbara. Battista’s project continued from the
Cathedral to the Ozama River, defining a ring of
curtains, small forts, and doors, which were only
partially preserved.The methodological and in-
strumentation choices, applied on a case by case
basis to the surveying actions, were both an op-
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The compositional model of Santo Domingo and Cartagena fortifications between old and new world
TRAVELING FROM THE ORIENT TO THE WEST AND RETURN
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20365/disegnarecon.25.2020.22
Fig. 8 - The fortified system of Cartagena de Indias.
Fig. 9 - Cartagena walls survey acquisition project.
portunity for research and training. The docu-
mentation project developed on the Antonelliana
wall was a reason for cultural exchange and in-
tegration between teachers and students of two
Universities, which made very distant cognitive
panoramas a point of strength and interaction.
As well as for the acquisition phases in the field,
a profitable comparison on the diversified use of
software and their integration was also possible in
the subsequent processing of the data (fig. 6). The
point cloud obtained by the laser was recorded
with the SCENE program, in automatic and manu-
al mode, when the complexity or extension of the
environments required the operator’s precision.
The maximum error found was always less than
1 cm, thus responding to the predetermined initial
need to obtain a qualitatively valid product as well
as aesthetically faithful to reality.
The data acquired with the two drones were in-
stead handled in parallel with different programs
[10], thus allowing a significant comparison to be-
ing made in terms of timing and metric and color-
imetric quality of the elaborate (fig. 7).
Unlike the Dominican city in Cartagena de Indias,
the traces of the historical system of the fortified
system are still a distinguishable sign by observ-
ing the urban plan (fig. 8). The fortified system has
become an integral part of the city, changing its
destination from a defensive system to a delimita-
tion and access system to the historic center.
The digital acquisition project [11] was based on
the extensive nature of the 5 km route that sur-
rounds the city. They have been carefully evaluat-
ed which technologies could be the most effective
to obtain, in a few operating days, a result capable
of describing the walls at different levels of detail:
territorial-architectural scale, and the detail of
the wall texture (fig.9).
Based on a comparison between the size of the
data to be collected and the time available for the
recovery actions, a flexible fast recovery system
was chosen: a mobile laser scanner which used
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Fig. 10 - Recording results of the entire wall city perimeter data acquired with the mobile laser scanner Stencil KAARTA, some views of Torre del Reloj and the area between St. Domingo and St. Catalina bastions.
the KAARTA Stencil model [12]. Before starting
the acquisition operations with mobile laser, the
macro-system, object of the survey, was defined.
The walls were ideally broken down into subsys-
tems, which were detected as individual units. The
routes, to be carried out, were identified through
the study of the morphology of the fortified sys-
tem, analyzing the physical limits and permeable
points (such as the presence of the access gates
to the city, or the breaches in the curtain walls).
Twelve portions were identified, crossed by three
macro paths based on which the secondary cir-
cuits, aimed at integrating the data acquisition,
were then inserted (fig. 10).
The first route follows the external perimeter
of the walls, the second runs along the internal
boundary, and finally, the third follows, where
possible, the walkway above the walls. During the
subsequent data recording phase, the connection
between the different portions was guaranteed,
providing for the acquisition phase an overlap of
Fig. 11 - Recording results of the data acquired with the FARO S150 of St. Catalina and St. Lucas bastions.
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Fig. 12 - Acquisition and shooting methods with UAV systems of St. Catalina bastions.
about 20% between the adjacent portions. The
use of the mobile laser imposes the need to pay
particular attention to the surveyed area’s climat-
ic and environmental conditions. Direct sunlight
during the hours of highest intensity or the pres-
ence of ponds, as in Cartagena de Indias, can lead
to acquisition errors. The data may be replicated,
causing a registration error. In these cases, the
instrument signals this through the blocking of
the recording but there is a risk of compromising
the accuracy of the metric data during the align-
ment of the scans. The acquisition operations
were carried out by a single operator during three
working days, for a total of 15 h of data acquisition
in the field. A total of 113 scans were acquired,
subsequently processed with software dedicated
to recording point clouds [13]. This data recording
process has enabled us to obtain a complete de-
scriptive database of the entire route that delimits
the perimeter of the city of Cartagena with a maxi-
mum registration error of the order of 10 cm.
The portion of walls between the Bastione di
San Lucas and the Bastione di Santa Catalina
was also the subject of a detailed integrated
survey using UAVs and TLS acquisition sys-
tems. The laser scanner acquisition campaign
was operated through the FARO S150 series in-
strument, through an acquisition project based
on the structure’s morphology. The acquisition
with a total of 244 scans, without the colori-
metric data, including the entire complex of the
bastion of Santa Catalina and San Lucas that
were recorded, with a measurement error of
less than 4 mm, through the use of the proprie-
tary software FARO SCENE (fig. 11).
To describe the texture of the building blocks,
an aerial photogrammetric survey of the area in
question was carried out. The area was acquired
by planning two different acquisition paths: one
based on a planar flight plan set on a routing grid,
the other based on a helical flight plan referred to
the setting of a point of shooting interest. A flight
plan was set up both for the portion of the bastion
of Santa Catalina, which counted the acquisition
of 401 photographs and for the bastion of San Lu-
cas, for which 561 photographic shots were taken
(fig. 12). The two models were developed with the
Metashepe software, with an alignment error of 6
mm (fig. 13) (Parrinello et al., 2019).
3. SIGNS AND TRACES OF THE ANTONELLIAN
ARCHITECTURAL IDENTITY IN THE DEVELOP-
MENT OF THE MODERN CITY
Places of economic as well as cultural encoun-
ters, the fortified colonial cities of Antonelli still
live a peculiar dimension, isolated and at the
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20365/disegnarecon.25.2020.22
Fig. 13 - St. Catalina and St. Lucas bastions in a comparison of different level of point cloud detail: TLS, SLAM and UAV acquisition.
same time centralizing, concerning the housing
and identity expansion that has grown around it.
Both projects are developed based on the idea of
generating or recovering a cultural connection,
manifested in the architectural identity of these
sites, between east and west (fig. 14). Hence the
importance of exchange actions not only scientific
and research, but of training and teaching. Now-
adays, the walls in both cities constitute a real
filter of urban permeability, and through their
conversion, they identify themselves not only as a
tourist attraction but also as a place of socio-cul-
tural aggregation for the local population. In the
case of Cartagena, the city walls contributed as a
catalyst for tourist flows. In Santo Domingo, the
uncontrolled growth of hotels and infrastructures
for mass reception has incorporated and put the
perimeter of the colonial city at risk.
Thus, it becomes increasingly important to con-
sider the development of fortified architecture
models, to safeguard and enhance them through
knowledge. Of the defensive systems of Santo
Domingo, only the Ozama Fortress is maintained
with a spirit of safeguard. Used for different uses
until the end of the 1960s, it has since been visit-
ed and hosts cultural and educational events in
its spaces. To the detriment of its conservation, a
museum or enhancement project that guides the
tourist in the various environments and knows
how to communicate the importance of this
work for Central America is lacking for it. Ram-
parts and fortified portions north-west of the city
walls (Ruinas de la Caridad, San Miguel, and San
Antón), on the other hand, require greater pre-
cautions, hence the desire to develop integrat-
ed systems for the protection of the artistic and
cultural heritage. The population does not know
them as monuments of historical and architectur-
al value, ending up making an improper and even
harmful use for their maintenance. The bastion
of San Antón, raised above the road and hollow at
various points, due to the wear and tear of time, is
used as an open-air deposit of waste material. No
different is the case of the reconstruction of the
section of walls that leads to the Catedral Cas-
trense Santa Bárbara. However, other portions
have had better luck, becoming an occasion for
bivouac and illicit exchange (Fuerte de la Concep-
ción). An excellent example of architectural reuse
is the pentagonal bastion of San Miguel. Favored
perhaps by its position and the altitude equal to
the driveway, San Miguel has been transformed
into a basketball court by local children. The con-
tinuous presence of young people redevelops its
architecture, preventing it from being vandalized
or forgotten. The neighborhood had already ex-
perienced the importance of a shrewd residential
design, dating back to the 80s when the construc-
tion of a series of condominiums set back from
the road had allowed the maintenance of a low
portion of the walls. Unlike the Dominican case in
Cartagena, walking through the streets, one can
still perceive how much the defensive system is
the city’s identity, recognized by the local admin-
istration and citizens. Today’s walls delimit access
to the historic center of the city, dividing it from
the neighborhoods that were born following the
urban expansion of the last few years. This devel-
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20365/disegnarecon.25.2020.22
Fig. 14 - Santo Domingo (on top) and Cartagena De Indias (on bottom): tourist flows and unregulated urbanization.
oped along the Troncal del Caribe communication
corridor, which connects Cartagena with Turbo
in Antioquia and Paraguachón on the border with
Venezuela. However, the entire defensive system
is accessible and can be visited along its entire
route without any information tourist signs. This
means that the tourist flows are not homogene-
ous along the whole route of the walls, generating
more degraded sections. Tourists are catalyzed in
the sections of walls that have been re-function-
alized with commercial activities in places of so-
cio-cultural aggregation. The Plaza del Torre del
Le Reloj, the gateway to the historic city, is the
stretch where the flow of people during the day
is most dense. Once past the Santo Domingo bas-
tion, the flow tends to decrease until it stops and
then returns to repopulate near the Baluarte de
Santa Catalina, where there are some commer-
cial activities and where the only museum was set
up along the path dedicated to fortress history.
The rest of the route winds along the edge of the
city, losing the capacity of tourist attraction that is
found once you reach the fortress of San Felipe,
which has become one of the must-see tourist
destinations in the city. The two cases highlight
how, to promote the entire building route, the
city’s historical heritage, and an analysis of the
fortified system’s components is necessary. This
becomes an essential basis for the design of new
attractive poles that can generate a network of
paths for the promotion of the system, the redis-
tribution of tourist flows, and citizen’s education
in the value of the historical heritage.
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Fig. 15 - Cultural exchange activities in Santo Domingo and Cartagena de Indias.
4. CONCLUSIONS
In addition to addressing scientific and cultural as-
pects, the two research projects had a purely edu-
cational and academic nature (fig. 15). The partici-
pation in the surveying activities of the students of
the Universidad Nacional Pedro Henríquez Ureña
(Santo Domingo) and the organization of a sem-
inar involving Italian and Colombian students,
researchers and doctoral students (Cartagena
de Indias), motivated the interest on the topics of
the fortified architecture, arousing curiosity in the
representation, study, and conservation of the ar-
chitectural heritage.
This condition becomes more important than ever,
manifesting itself in meetings with Universities,
research centers, and public institutions in Cen-
tral America, especially with a view to future de-
velopment, which may include joint projects with
the European reality and openings and connec-
tions renewed starting from the common thread
of architecture. The punctual and extensive acqui-
sition activities and the subsequent stages of pro-
cessing and returning the data made it possible to
appreciate the planning, the geometries, and the
links between the defensive architectures. In this
sense, the drawing and survey tools are among
the most valid systems of representation and pro-
motion of monumental complexes. Urban growth
and uncontrolled social evolution support the
need to safeguard the historical, identity, and cul-
tural traces, which are being lost within the city’s
macro development. Opening the first dialogue on
the design of diversified safeguard actions aimed
at both knowledge of the entire defense system
and territorial promotion.
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NOTE
[1] Antonelli went to the New World
for the first time, to Brazil, in 1581
with the fleet of Admiral Álvaro
Flores de Valdés. However, the
mission proved to be a failure due
to various difficulties that arose
during the long journey (see an-
tonelligatteo.altervista.org).
[2] In 1586 the island had been
invaded by the English pirate
Francis Drake, who razed the city
to the ground (see Sánchez Mulet
E., Yoni C. 2002).
[3] The city, founded by Pedro de
Heredia in 1533, takes its name
from the homonymous town in
Spanish Murcia.
[4] Cfr. Cabrera Cruz, A. R. (2017).
El patrimonio arquitectónico y for-
tificaciones en Cartagena de Indi-
as. Identidad, significado cultural
y prospectiva. (Doctoral disserta-
tion). University of Granada, Spain.
[5] In particular: a FARO Cam 2 Fo-
cus S150 terrestrial laser scanner
(TLS) for the acquisition of point
clouds with high precision and
data quality and a mobile laser
(MLS), with KAARTA Stencil tech-
nology (SLAM), for localization and
simultaneous mapping and for rap-
id coverage of large areas. Both in-
struments were made available by
the PLAY Laboratory, DICAr (Unipv).
[6] UAVs tools were used for aerial
shots of the fortresses of Santo
Domingo and Cartagena de Indias:
DJI Phantom 4 Pro, made available
by the Universidad Nacional Pedro
Henríquez Ureña of Santo Domin-
go, and DJI Mavic of the DAda LAB
Laboratory, DICAr of the University
of Pavia. For the photogrammetric
shots of the Bastion of St. Catali-
na and St. Lucas in Cartagena, DJI
Phantom 4 Pro, and DJI Spark were
used, made available by the DAda
LAB Laboratory, DICAr (Unipv).
[7] The project was conducted in
January 2020, on the occasion of
the conference “Experiencias de
investigation of the experimental
laboratory Dada LAB de la Univer-
sidad de Pavia: La documentacion
y mejora del Patrimonio Arquitec-
tonico y el estudio de trabajo de
Gli Antonelli en America Central”
held by Prof. Parrinello at the Uni-
versidad Nacional Pedro Henríquez
Ureña. The detection actions were
carried out under the responsibility
of Prof. Parrinello and PhD student
Silvia La Placa (Unipv), with the
participation of students from the
University of Santo Domingo.
[8] The UAVs survey was conduct-
ed by the student Anderson Batista
(UNPHU), under the supervision of
Prof. Parrinello (UNIPV).
[9] In particular, two DJI instruments
were used: the Mavic 2 Pro (UNIPV)
and the Phantom 4 Pro (UNPHU).
[10] The photographic images have
been processed with the Pix4D-
mapper and Agisoft Metashape
programs. The latter has proven
faster and more manageable and
has produced better quality results.
[11] The survey activities were
conducted by the staff of the DAda
LAB laboratory on the occasion
of the II International Seminar
SiLepArq 2019. In particular, the
activities were coordinated by
Prof. Sandro Parrinello, while Prof.
Francesca Picchio was responsi-
ble for the survey through remote
piloting UAVs, Ph.D. stud. Anna
Dell’Amico was responsible for
the SLAM survey and Ing. Chiara
Malusardi was responsible for the
TLS survey. The seminar was or-
ganized by Prof. Massimo Leserri,
University of Bolivarian Pontifical
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Article
Full-text available
Procedure di analisi e modellazione urbana per la gestione dei centri storici. Betlemme, Solikamsk, Cattaro e Santo Domingo. Il tema della documentazione dei centri storici viene affrontato e declinato mediante una riflessione volta a definire banche dati affidabili e strumenti rappresentativi in contesti territoriali profondamente diversi tra loro. L'internazionalizzazione della ricerca viene messa in opera attraverso alcune applicazioni sul campo condotte su contesti e casi studio culturalmente differenti e geograficamente distanti, nei quali il disegno deve rispondere alla complessa esigenza di rappresentare patrimoni storici architettonici diffusi tra America Latina, Europa e Medio Oriente. The theme of the documentation of historic centres is analysed and declined through a reflection, which aims to define reliable databases and representative instruments in wide different territorial contexts. The internationalization of research takes place through some on-site applications, conducted on culturally different and geographically distant contexts and case studies. In such cases, the drawing must respond to the complex need of representing historical architectural heritages spread among Latin America, Europe and Middle East. https://www.paesaggiourbano.org/2020/07/01/procedure-di-analisi-e-modellazione-urbana-per-la-gestione-dei-centri-storici-betlemme-solikamsk-cattaro-e-santo-domingo/
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cartagena de Indias, one of the main Spanish commercial ports in the Caribbean Sea, was strategically built on a system of islands and peninsulas that formed a lacustrine system along the coast of Tierra Firme, known today as Colombia. For several centuries, Cartagena fortifications have been at the forefront of Spanish military technologies. This site became the scene of action of the main military engineers at the service of the Spanish crown. In 1586 Battista Antonelli received from King Philipe II the task to design this monumental defensive system. The first project for the Cartagena wall enclosure (1595) is due to Battista and it was continued and modified by his nephew Cristoforo Roda. Nowadays, Antonelli walls still fit into the urban fabric of the city and delineate the perimeter of the historic city. The research project follows the previous research experiments conducted by the Lab DAda-LAB of the University of Pavia in the territory of Panama for the study of the Antonelli fortifications systems of Portobello and San Lo-renzo del Chagres. It concerned an extensive action aimed at the documentation and to the study of the entire fortified system of the historic center of Cartagena. The perimeter walls of the old city and the fort of San Felipe de Barajas have been documented through the use of a mobile laser scanner that uses SLAM technology, evaluating the most effective performed strategies for fast survey activities. In parallel, a more specific action was conducted on the portion of the Baluarte of Santa Catalina walls, where it was possible to give a comparison between different methods and instruments, in order to verify the reliability of the 3D databases. Analysis protocols have been developed for the documentation and study of the defensive system. The paper will highlight the construction technologies that qualify the fortresses of Cartagena de Indias and the results obtained by the comparison between different data acquisition technologies to evaluate the quality of the models for the development of documentation strategies for heritage enhancement and protection.
Article
Full-text available
p>El presente estudio está centrado en uno de los simbolos arquitectónicos más importantes de la Ciudad de Cartagena de Indias y es resultado de un proyecto de investigación 1 internacional perfeccionado en la Universidad Colombiana de la Pontificia Bolivariana sobre el Patrimonio Arquitectónico del Caribe colombiano. El casco histórico de Cartagena de Indias, declarada patrimonio de la Humanidad por lo UNESCO 2 (1984), es la suma de varios elementos distintivos que le dan la identidad a la Ciudad amurallada, como La Torre del Reloj y la Puerta principal de la muralla, sobre la que está asentada. El objetivo de esta investigación es indagar el artefacto a través de un estudio integrado donde se cruzan el levantamiento arquitectónico de la realidad existente y un estudio sobre todos sus elementos desaparecidos, o sea el análisis del conjunto de trazas superpuestas a lo largo de su historia para reinterpretarlas y quizás completar el conocimiento sobre esta arquitectura.</p
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Full-text available
The paper is a summary of some studies that have focused on the documentation for the restoration and enhancement of the Fort San Lorenzo el Real del Chagres in Panama. The aim of the project is to develop an experimental methodology for the creation of descriptive atlases with an informative and reliable metric survey systems; a documentary corpus necessary for the understanding of the historical events which have affected this place, today declared UNE-SCO heritage, and for the definition of guidelines for restoration and enhancement. The monument is unique for both the special relationship with the surrounding context for defensive strategies terms, and for the deep connection with the events that have affected not only the colonization and development of Panama, but the entire Central America. From the first project of a "Castillo" to the creation of present's fortified fortress overlooking the outfall of the Cha-gres River, the paper is going to explain the major historical events that have influenced the image of the building, illustrating the documentation and the recovery project.
Modelli compositivi per la difesa alla moderna
  • S Bertacchi
Bertacchi, S. (2012). Modelli compositivi per la difesa alla moderna.
Between Est and West. Transportation of Cultural System and Military Technology of Fortified Landscapes
  • S Bertocci
  • S Parrinello
  • G Pancani
Bertocci, S., Parrinello, S., & Pancani, G. (2012). Between Est and West. Transportation of Cultural System and Military Technology of Fortified Landscapes. Firenze: Edifir.
III Architetti e architetture militari, III, Gli architetti militari italiani nella Spagna
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Maggiorotti, L.A. (1939). L'opera del genio ital. all'estero. Vol. III Architetti e architetture militari, III, Gli architetti militari italiani nella Spagna, nel Portogallo e nelle loro colonie. Roma: Libreria di stato.
Un progetto di documentazione per la tutela del patrimonio e lo sviluppo di siti UNESCO
  • Le Fortezze Di Portobello E Del Rio Chargres A Panama
Le fortezze di Portobello e del Rio Chargres a Panama. Un progetto di documentazione per la tutela del patrimonio e lo sviluppo di siti UNESCO. Firenze: Edifir.
Fragmentos de patria
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Santo Domingo. Fragmentos de patria. Santo Domingo: Editora Universal.