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Chapter 7: Cybersecurity in Post COVID-19 Digital Era

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Abstract

COVID-19 triggered remarkable changes in both the digital behaviour and the socio-cultural outlook of individuals and organizations. The Cybersecurity domain is a major beneficiary of these changes, which are projected to remain permanent. Notwithstanding the transformation, however, major adjustments are imminent to strengthen the existing protocols and make them suitable to address the emerging technological concepts, given that the existing cyber defence approaches have proved unreliable and insufficient. Chapter seven introduces post-pandemic Cybersecurity projections in artificial intelligence, big data, telemedicine, and aviation. It lays emphasis on the fascinating Cybersecurity research and innovations that will dominate the 2021 to 2025 window.
Cybersecurity in the
COVID-19 Pandemic
Cybersecurity in the
COVID-19 Pandemic
Kenneth Okereafor
First edition published 2021
by CRC Press
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ISBN: 9780367610913 (hbk)
ISBN: 9781003104124 (ebk)
Typeset in Computer Modern font
by KnowledgeWorks Global Ltd.
This book is dedicated in sympathy to all victims of cybercrime during
the COVID-19 pandemic, in condolence to all bereaved families during
the same period, and in goodwill to a global audience that is desirous
of Cybersecurity knowledge.
vii
Contents
Preface xi
Foreword xiii
Acknowledgements xv
About the Author xvii
List of Tables xix
List of Figures xxi
List of Acronyms xxiii
1 Introduction: COVID-19 Pandemic, the Game Changer 1
1.1 COVID-19 Pandemic, the Game Changer 1
1.2 Overview of Cybersecurity 2
1.3 Objectives of the Book 4
1.4 Structure of the Book 5
References 6
2 COVID-19 Background 7
2.1 Nature 7
2.2 Origin 8
2.3 Spread 9
2.4 Global Response 9
2.5 Statistics 11
2.6 Link with Cybersecurity 12
References 13
3 Cybersecurity Roles in a Pandemic 17
3.1 Preventive Roles 18
3.2 Detective Roles 19
3.3 Response Roles 20
3.4 Data Condentiality 24
3.5 Data Integrity 24
3.6 Data Availability 25
3.7 Chapter Summary 25
References 26
viii Contents
4 Cyberspace at Risk 29
4.1 Vulnerabilities and Exposures 32
4.1.1 Vulnerabilities 32
4.1.2 Exposures 32
4.1.3 Exposed Industries 33
4.2 Human Vulnerabilities 34
4.2.1 Human Factor of Security 34
4.2.2 Sympathy and Compassion 35
4.2.3 Urgency and Persuasion 36
4.2.4 Desperation and Confusion 36
4.2.5 Loyalty, Honesty, and Respect 36
4.2.6 Anger and Grief 37
4.2.7 Fear, Worry, and Anxiety 37
4.3 Technical and Operational Vulnerabilities 37
4.3.1 Expired Security Systems 37
4.3.2 Obsolete Operating Systems (OS) and Utilities 38
4.3.3 Capacity Gap 39
4.3.4 Misplaced Priorities 39
4.3.5 Disrupted Procedures 39
4.3.6 Administrative Loopholes 40
4.3.7 Network and Connectivity Exposures 40
4.4 Cyber Threats and Exploits 40
4.4.1 Cyber Threats 40
4.4.2 Perspective of the Digital Threat [27] 41
4.4.3 Threats to Healthcare Data 41
4.4.4 Cyber Exploits 42
4.4.5 Malware 42
4.4.6 Ransomware 43
4.4.7 Computer Virus 53
4.4.8 Adware and Spyware 55
4.4.9 Computer Worm 56
4.4.10 Trojan Horse 56
4.4.11 Logic Bomb 59
4.4.12 Spear Phishing 59
4.4.13 Man-in-the-Middle Attack 63
4.4.14 Cyber Espionage 64
4.4.15 Cyber Bullying 65
4.4.16 Social Engineering 67
4.4.16.1 Lessons from the Twitter incident 70
4.4.17 Password Abuse 71
4.4.18 DDoS Attack 72
Contents ix
4.4.19 Fake Website 73
4.4.20 Website Hijack 74
4.4.21 Insider Collusion 76
4.5 Cybersecurity Impacts Of COVID-19 77
4.5.1 Identity Theft 78
4.5.2 Privacy Issues 79
4.5.3 Data Accessibility Issues 80
4.5.4 Data Loss 81
4.5.5 Reputation Damage 82
4.5.6 Revenue Loss 83
4.5.7 Service Disruption for Organizations 84
4.5.8 Service Disruption for Individuals 84
4.5.9 Crime Escalation 84
4.5.10 Fatality 85
4.6 Chapter Summary 85
References 86
5 Challenges of Managing Cybersecurity at COVID-19 103
5.1 Identity and Access Control Challenges 104
5.1.1 Authentication Challenges 104
5.1.2 Authorization Challenges 104
5.1.3 Accountability Challenges 105
5.2 Incident Management Challenges 105
5.2.1 Incident Response Challenges 105
5.2.2 Incident Handling Challenges 105
5.3 Remote Communications Challenges 106
5.3.1 Work from Home Challenges 106
5.3.2 Telecommuting and Video Conferencing
Challenges 108
5.4 Healthcare Data Management Challenges 108
5.4.1 Value-Based Classication of Healthcare Data 109
5.4.2 Condentiality Challenges 110
5.4.3 Integrity Challenges 112
5.4.4 Availability Challenges 114
5.5 Chapter Summary 116
References 116
6 Cyberattack Mitigations During the Pandemic 119
6.1 Scenario of defense in-depth 119
6.2 Administrative Countermeasures 121
6.3 Physical Countermeasures 121
x Contents
6.4 Technical Countermeasures 121
6.5 Control Knobs 122
6.5.1 Preventive Control 122
6.5.1.1 Zoom preventive intervention 122
6.5.1.2 Anti-malware preventive intervention 123
6.5.2 Detective Control 123
6.5.3 Responsive Control 123
6.5.4 Corrective Control 123
6.5.5 Deterrent Control 123
6.6 Chapter Summary 124
7 Cybersecurity in Post COVID-19 Digital Era 125
7.1 Cybersecurity Projections After the Pandemic 126
7.1.1 Cybersecurity in Articial Intelligence (AI) 127
7.1.2 Cybersecurity in Big Data 128
7.1.3 Cybersecurity in Telemedicine 129
7.1.4 Cybersecurity in Aviation 132
7.2 Chapter Summary 134
References 135
8 Conclusion and Recommendations 139
8.1 Remote Work Comes to Stay 139
8.2 Cryptographic and Steganographic Remedies 140
8.3 New Concept of Monitoring and Surveillance 141
8.4 More Stringent Email Policies 141
8.4.1 Proposed Design Model for Email Security
142
8.4.2 Implementation Strategy for Email Security
Re-engineering 142
8.5 Punishment for Malware-Related Offences 142
8.6 Acculturation of Social Engineering 143
8.6.1 Proposed Implementation Model for Social
Engineering Acculturation 14 4
8.7 Better Management of Digital Identity (DID) 145
8.7.1 Requirements for Better Digital Identity
Management 147
8.8 Last Line 148
References 149
Caveat 151
Glossary 153
Index 161
Re-engineering
xi
Preface
The motivation for this book began shortly after completing my PhD research
at the UNESCO International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Italy
in 2017 when my longing to share technology knowledge and cause posi-
tive change transformed into a passion, upon realizing that many people only
view Cybersecurity as a mirage, an enigma, something to be dreaded. I had
longed for the opportunity to demystify many of the Cybersecurity concepts,
and I wanted real-world scenarios that people can comfortably relate with.
The opportunity nally came amid the mandatory lockdown that forced
everyone to work from home as a precautionary measure to control the spread
of the novel coronavirus disease that was later codenamed COVID-19 by the
World Health Organization (WHO) on the 11th of February 2020. At that
point I knew the time was ripe to put pen to paper and capture the bubbling
cyberspace activities, most of which manifested as various levels of vulner-
abilities and exposures to cyberattacks.
Following numerous feedback I received after my rst COVID-19 pub-
lication in February 2020 titled: “Tackling the Cybersecurity Impacts of the
Coronavirus Outbreak as a Challenge to Internet Safety”, I was convinced
that the stage was set to pursue my passion and full a destiny.
Today, the rest is history as I present Cybersecurity in the COVID-19
Pandemic as a legacy to everyone who relies on online services and digital
assets for communications, interactions, information exchange, leisure, busi-
ness, education, and worship.
I hope the book helps the reader to earn a better understanding of how
best to prevent, detect, and respond to cyber attacks as we interact with digital
resources in our daily personal and corporate lives, particularly in the post
COVID-19 digital era.
Kenneth Okereafor
xiii
Foreword
Kenneth Okereafor is a Nigerian whose intellect and drive inspire hope that a
better tomorrow is possible for all of us, especially for the upcoming genera-
tion. Kenneth’s lucid writing style eases the reader into a variety of important
issues that encompass Cybersecurity and COVID-19 Pandemic.
Cybersecurity in the COVID-19 Pandemic is an excellent contribution
from a serious Cybersecurity researcher, biometric expert, and cyberspace
defender. Each part of the eight-chapter book introduces and outlines impor-
tant Cybersecurity concepts using real-world illustrations from the pandemic
to make the narrative engaging, educative, and impactful. Kenneth succinctly
outlines the online breaches and Cybersecurity incidents observed during the
pandemic and highlights the relevant Cybersecurity lessons.
Cybersecurity in the COVID-19 Pandemic is a useful Cybersecurity
companion that should be in the library of strategic decision makers, techni-
cal, operational and administrative managers, students of technology, seekers
of knowledge, and those who are responsible for managing, or those signi-
cantly impacted by, technology risk.
I recommend Cybersecurity in the COVID-19 Pandemic.
Abdul-Hakeem Ajijola,
Chair, Consultancy Support Services Ltd,
NIGERIA.
info@consultancyss.com
xv
Acknowledgements
My utmost gratitude goes to God Almighty for igniting my passion, provid-
ing my strength, and sustaining my health throughout the rigours of the book
project, from start to nish. I sincerely appreciate my family members for
their patience, understanding and emotional encouragement; and I am grate-
ful to friends and professional colleagues for their intellectual support.
Special than ks to Ms. Gabriella Williams, Editor, and Mr. Daniel Kershaw,
Editorial Assistant at CRC Press who arranged the initial manuscripts, pre-
pared drafts, and coordinated the reviews and administrative support.
I wish to acknowledge and appreciate the kind contributions and support
of the following individuals and organizations towards the success of this book.
Prof. Oliver Osuagwu, Professor of Computer Science, Imo State
University, Nigeria.
Mr. Abdul-Hakeem Ajijola, Chair, African Union Cyber Security
Expert Group, Chair Consultancy Support Services Ltd, Nigeria.
Prof. Raymond Akwule, Emeritus Faculty, George Mason
University, Washington DC, US.
Prof. Anil Jain, Professor of Computer Science, Michigan State
University, US.
Prof. Alvin B. Marcelo, Professor of Surgery and Health
Informatics, University of the Philippines, Manila.
Prof. Mohammed N. Sambo, Professor of Health Policy and
Management, Executive Secretary, National Health Insurance
Scheme (NHIS), Nigeria.
Mr. Nasiru Ikharo, General Manager, Department of Information
and Communications Technology, National Health Insurance
Scheme (NHIS), Nigeria.
Dr. Jonathan Eke, General Manager, Formal Sector Department,
National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), Nigeria.
Uche M. Mbanaso, PhD, Executive Director, Centre for Cyberspace
Studies, Nasarawa State University, Kef, Nigeria.
Mr. Adelaiye Oluwasegun, Department of Computer Science,
Bingham University Karu, Nigeria.
O. Paul Isikaku-Ironkwe, Director, B. T. Matthias Labs, RTSD
Technologies, San Diego, California 92101, US.
xvi Acknowledgements
Mr. Chike Onwuegbuchi, Deputy Editor-in-chief, Nigeria
Communications Week.
Dr. Olajide Joseph Adebola, Chief Technology Ofcer/Partner,
Home Plus Medicare Services Ltd. Abuja, Nigeria.
Mr. Phil Manny, Director West Africa – Alliance Media Group,
Founder & Director, Agora Nexus.
Engr. Rania Djehaiche, Mohamed El Bachir El Ibrahimi University
of Bordj Bou Arreridj, Algeria.
For all individuals and organizations whose constructive critiques helped to
improve the quality of this book, I thank you most sincerely.
xvii
About the Author
Kenneth Okereafor holds a PhD in
Cybersecurity & Biometrics from Azteca
University Mexico, and an MSc in Computer
Security and BSc in Computer Information
Systems from American Heritage University of
Southern California, US. As a Deputy General
Manager at Nigeria’s National Health Insurance
Scheme (NHIS), he currently coordinates data-
base security and health informatics, develops and
facilitates Cybersecurity education curriculum,
and leads the enterprise software security team.
A United Nations–trained expert in threat mitigation technologies with
over 25 years global experience in Cybersecurity & Biometrics across indus-
try, government, and academia, Kenneth has developed and implemented
Cybersecurity processes and curricula for preventing cybercrimes, detecting
cyber threats, and responding to cyber breaches within the Nigerian health
insurance ecosystem, resulting in superlative improvements in the safe man-
agement of sensitive healthcare data and digital identities among stakeholders.
As a Cybersecurity expert, he participated in the three-year development of
Nigeria’s rst eHealth Strategy which was completed and adopted for operation-
alization in 2016, and he has since remained actively involved in its implementa-
tion, particularly in developing sound Cybersecurity protocols for stakeholders
involved in the generation, use, and exchange of sensitive healthcare data.
A former employee of the US Department of State, and an alumnus sci-
entist of the UNESCO International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in
Italy, Kenneth chairs the Technical Committee & National Mirror Committee
(TC & NMC) of the International Organization for Standardization
ISO-TC/215 Health Informatics Working Group 4 – Security and Privacy,
in Nigeria, developing Cybersecurity standards for Nigerias eHealth sector.
Kenneth possesses a second PhD in the Administration & Management
of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) from Central
University of Nicaragua, and has published several peer reviewed papers
on Cybersecurity and Socio-technical impacts, Data Protection, Biometric
Liveness Detection, Digital Forensics, Electronic Health, and Telemedicine.
xix
List of Tables
4.1 Cybersecurity threats and risks associated with COVID-19
interventions 30
4.2 Popular malware threats that dominated COVID-19 pandemic 44
5.1 Cybersecurity protection required for various healthcare data 112
5.2 Description of unauthorized modications of healthcare data 113
5.3 The need for health data and medical statistics during the
pandemic 115
6.1 Defense in-depth Cybersecurity mitigation approach using
sample scenario 120
xxi
List of Figures
1.1 Impacts of COVID-19 on data privacy. 2
3.1 Data life cycle protected by the CIA triad. 21
4.1 WannaCry ransomware extortion message. 46
4.2 Cerber ransomware extortion message. 47
4.3 Bad Rabbit ransomware extortion message. 48
4.4 Spear phishing samples. 62
4.5 Screenshots showing hacks on Twitter accounts of Bill Gates
and Elon Musk. 69
5.1 Protected Health Information (PHI) identiers. 111
7.1 Future drivers of post COVID-19 telemedicine. 131
xxiii
List of Acronyms
2FA Two-Factor Authentication
9/11 September 11, 2001 terrorist attack
AI Articial Intelligence
AIC Availability, Integrity, and Condentiality
ATM Automated Teller Machine
BAS Biometric Authentication System
BD Big Data
BEC Business Email Compromise
BSSN Badan Siber dan Sandi Negara (Indonesia’s National Cyber
and Encryption Agency)
BTC Bit coin
CANSO Civil Air Navigation Services Organization
CCTV Closed Circuit Television
CDC Centers for Disease Control
CEO Chief Executive Ofcer
CERRT Computer Emergency Readiness and Response Team
CIA Central Intelligence Agency
CIA Condentiality, Integrity, and Availability
CIR Computer Incident Response
CoV Coronavirus family
COVID-19 Coronavirus disease
DDoS Distributed Denial of Service
DHHS Department of Health and Human Services
DiD Digital Identity
DoS Department of State, also Denial of Service
EFCC Economic and Financial Crimes Commission
EHR Electronic Health Record
eID Electronic Identity
EoI Events of Interest
FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation
GCA Global Cybersecurity Agenda
GPS Global Positioning Satellite
HIE Health Information Exchange
HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
ICCAIA International Coordinating Council of Aerospace Industries
Associations
xxiv List of Acronyms
ICT Information and Communications Technology
IDS Intrusion Detection System
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
IoC Indicators of Compromise
IoT Internet of Things
IPS Intrusion Prevention System
ITU International Telecommunication Union
MERS Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
NBT Next Big Thing
NCC Nigerian Communications Commission
NHC (Chinese) National Health Commission
NHIS National Health Insurance Scheme
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
NITDA National Information Technology Development Agency
NNID Nintendo Network ID
NSA National Security Agency
NSW New South Wales
OS Operating System
PHEIC Public Health Emergency of International Concern
PHI Protected Health Information
PHR Personal Health Record
PII Personally Identiable Information
PKI Public Key Infrastructure
PPE Personal Protective Equipment
SANS System Administration, Networking and Security
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SEC Securities and Exchange Commission
SFO San Francisco International Airport
SMB Server Message Block
SMS Short Message Service
SQL Structured Query Language
SSL Secure Sockets Layer
SSO Single Sign-on
TLS Transport Layer Security
UK United Kingdom
URL Uniform Resource Locator
US United States
VOIP Voice over Internet Protocol
WFH Work from Home
WHO World Health Organization
1
1
Introduction:
COVID-19
Pandemic,
the Game
Changer
1.1 COVID-19 PANDEMIC, THE GAME
CHANGER
It is unbelievable how global events turned out so dramatically in 2020, par-
ticularly how the cyberspace became disrupted, not by a devastating atomic
bomb or a trans-ocean teletsunami but by a mere biological virus whose
innitesimal diameter is estimated to be only approximately 125 nanometers,
or equivalent to 600 times smaller than the diameter of the human hair; that is
the novel coronavirus, pathogen that ignited the pandemic, the game changer.
2020 plans and budgets were disrupted [1], everyday life was impacted
[2], and the world came to a standstill as authorities compelled people to stay
at and work from home (WFH), even using coercion [3] to enforce the lock-
down. There were no year 2020 predictions that came close to the magnitude
of devastation caused by the outbreak of the coronavirus disease that was
There were no year 2020 predictions that came close to the magnitude
of devastation caused by the outbreak of the coronavirus disease.
2 Cybersecurity in the COVID-19 Pandemic
later renamed COVID-19 and classied as a pandemic by the World Health
Organization.
Cybersecurity was one of the most affected elds with lots of panic-
induced loopholes, conspiracies [4], cyber errors, and negligence, resulting in
escalated spates of cybercrime and the consequential compromise of corpo-
rate information, loss of data, and privacy breaches across several industries.
As the COVID-19 devastation on the world economy was monumental, so
also were the nancial and qualitative costs on the cyberspace unprecedented.
In particular, concerns over the impacts of the pandemic on data privacy
[5] cut across multiple domains as depicted in Figure 1.1.
1.2 OVERVIEW OF CYBERSECURITY
As a specialized eld of Information and Communications Technology (ICT),
Cybersecurity focuses on protecting digital assets from various sources of
threat, while preventing unauthorized modication and illegal access of data
at rest, in transit or undergoing processing.
Originally, Cybersecurity deals with all the technical, administrative,
and physical measures that are applied to preserve the condentiality of
information, the integrity of data and the availability of information systems
used to process data. Interruptions in these areas were a key consequence of
FIGURE 1.1 Impacts of COVID-19 on data privacy.
1 • Introduction:COVID-19 Pandemic, the Game Changer 3
COVID-19, accounting for over 70% of the pandemic’s impact on civilization
via coordinated attacks on digital operations across industries.
The fallout of the pandemic resulted in many interventions that triggered
compulsory adoption of technology to ll the gaps, thereby posing a chal-
lenge to the Cybersecurity issues that arose. Notable among them was the
WFH concept that became a veritable target of cyberattacks as most organi-
zations had weak security controls that made their workforce ill-prepared to
cope with the scope and pattern of the cyberattacks. Three key focus areas
that dominated Cybersecurity attention were:
Prevention of cyberattacks against vulnerable digital assets and
information systems.
Detection of planned or active cyberattacks against potential
targets.
Response actions to successful cyberattacks.
As the global impact of the pandemic left memories of panic, uncertainty,
and anguish, the cyberspace continued to receive a major upsurge in online
activities related to COVID-19 response, coming at a time when data network
operators and cloud service providers were racing to match the rise in the
patronage of online technologies in response to the social distancing protocols.
The lockdown across various territories put more pressure on ICT
resources as organizations (and individuals) shifted online for almost every-
thing ranging from academic activities, religious worship and corporate
information dissemination to contract signing, product launch, sporting
activities, etc.
Within the global healthcare sector, health data is generally classied as
sensitive because of its relationship with life, well-being, and healthy living.
It comprises of medical records and patient-related information for the man-
agement of allergies, conditions, and diseases. Poor management of heath
data can potentially result in stigmatization and privacy breaches. Its valuable
nature makes it highly attractive to cyber criminals who, during the COVID-
19 pandemic, employed ransomware, email scams, and social engineering to
target vulnerable computing infrastructure in hospitals, pharmacies, medical
laboratories, health insurance organizations, and other institutions that were
involved in generating, managing, or using sensitive health-related data.
COVID-19 related cybercrimes signicantly challenged Cybersecurity
interventions in both sophistication and frequency.
4 Cybersecurity in the COVID-19 Pandemic
COVID-19-related cybercrimes signicantly challenged Cybersecurity
interventions in both sophistication and frequency, resulting in various
degrees of impacts upon the cyberspace.
This book reveals how COVID-19 has opened a new perspective in the
worldview of Cybersecurity and reviews the major challenges usually faced
by organizations in performing effective Cybersecurity interventions. There
are pertinent questions the book attempts to answer:
To what extent has Cybersecurity protected critical business data
from illegal access?
Has the ignorance or negligence of data owners aided internet
fraudster to succeed with cyberattacks?
What are the lessons to be learnt from cases of cyber breaches in
the pandemic?
Given the sophistication of these cyberattacks, which aspects of
Cybersecurity need to be optimized to match the trend?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE BOOK
Cybersecurity in the COVID-19 Pandemic, a book for everyone, is writ-
ten in a style that teaches contemporary Cybersecurity using a reection of
specic cyberattacks that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic and their
associated impacts on the cyberspace.
The book uses real incidents to illustrate the necessity for global
Cybersecurity consciousness in all spheres of human endeavour. It covers the
basic concepts of Cybersecurity and leaves the reader with a lasting impres-
sion of why and how COVID-19-related cyberattacks targeted vulnerable
digital assets including mobile phones, computers, websites, software, serv-
ers, networks, web application portals, databases, virtual systems, etc.
Cybersecurity in the COVID-19 Pandemic is written for all persons
desirous of optimizing their Cybersecurity knowledge for detecting,
preventing and recovering from computer crimes; and is useful to indi-
vidual and corporate readers who wish to update their Cybersecurity
awareness, drawing lessons from socio-technical security breaches
that occurred during the COVID-19 crisis to protect their digital assets
from email fraud, social engineering scams, and malware attacks.
1 • Introduction:COVID-19 Pandemic, the Game Changer 5
The book, which is perfectly suitable for everyone that uses the cyber-
space in any form, draws lessons for individuals, professionals, research-
ers, scholars, corporate organizations, and the global audience who desire
to embrace and sustain the Cybersecurity culture in all spheres of human
endeavour including, but not limited to, healthcare, pharmaceutical, aviation,
business, e-commerce, academia, transportation and logistics, real estate,
construction, manufacturing, online retail, religious affairs, diplomatic rela-
tions, government, industry, research, nancial institutions, insurance, t-
ness, sports and recreation, hospitality, etc.
1.4 STRUCTURE OF THE BOOK
Cybersecurity in the COVID-19 Pandemic consists of eight chapters.
Except Chapter One (Introduction), Chapter Two (COVID-19 Background),
and Chapter Eight (Conclusion and Recommendations), each of the remain-
ing chapters addresses a specic Cybersecurity concept drawing relevance
from the pandemic. To optimize the reader’s understanding, each chapter
approaches a topic in the following order:
A Cybersecurity concept or term is introduced, dened, and thor-
oughly explained in an understandable manner. Origin is estab-
lished in some cases.
Illustrations are made alongside real examples that are drawn from
a COVID-19 scenario in which the Cybersecurity concept either
occurred, was applied, or was referred to.
Illustrat ions are fortied with lessons dr awn from the Cybersecu rity
concept, presented in clear terms to aid understanding by readers
at various levels, and devoid of ambiguities.
In such cases where the Cybersecurity concept being discussed is
a cybercrime or a security breach that occurred during the pan-
demic, the causes and the impacts are also identied and analyzed,
respectively, alongside lessons learnt.
The sequence of the chapter topics is deliberately arranged in a progressive
order, such that each chapter builds upon the lessons of the preceding chapter
for coherence.
There is an expansive glossary and list of acronyms that provide detailed
description of specic terms used within the book.
6 Cybersecurity in the COVID-19 Pandemic
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2020.
4. S. Lewandowsky and J. Cook, “The conspiracy theor y handbook,” George
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Conference, Online, 2020.
Introduction: COVID-19 Pandemic, the Game Changer
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on privacy trade-off during pandemic emergency, International Journal on
Cryptography and Information Security (IJCIS), vol. 10, no. 3, 2020.
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economy, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), Barcelona, Spain, 2020.
S. Lewandowsky and J. Cook , The conspiracy theory handbook, George Mason
University, Fairfax, Virginia, 2020.
S. Talukder , Towards Understanding Privacy Trade-off In An Epidemic, in 36th
Annual Consortium for Computing Sciences in Colleges (CCSC) Eastern
Conference, Online, 2020.
COVID-19 Background
Coronavirus, World Health Organization (WHO) . [Online]. Available:
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Conclusion and Recommen-dations
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Journal of Recent Engineering Research and Development (IJRERD), vol. 05, no.
07, pp. 6172, 2020.160
... Given the valuable lessons listed above, there is a major concern on how best to defend healthcare data and related information against the sophistication and complexity of cyberattacks such as those experienced at COVID, for which the period 2021 to 2025 is predicted to witness an exponential growth in global Cybersecurity research [16] and development by both cyberspace defenders and malicious hackers. The following high-level remedies are proffered to keep the healthcare cyberspace safe and reasonably monitored for malicious events. ...
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COVID has become a universal game changer, given its permanent and monumental impacts across industries and geographies. In the healthcare industry, there have been widespread computer security disruptions due to cyber-attacks on the data generated by, or processed within hospitals, medical supply companies, and pharmaceutical organizations. These disruptions have affected health insurance data, patient information, and clinical records, with significant impacts on pharmaceutical data, diagnostic results, and medical research data. This review paper attempts a high-level review of the impacts of, and lessons from Cybersecurity in the healthcare industry during the COVID-19 pandemic, and makes recommendations for protecting sensitive healthcare data from unauthorized disclosure, unlawful alterations, and malicious modifications.
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Background: Many e-health services were launched after countries relaxed their telehealth regulations to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. e-Health technologies that support person-centered health care are crucial for the patient's needs. In this systematic review, we examined how e-health applications are used to support person-centered health care at the time of COVID-19. Methodology: Literature was systematically searched without language restriction and publication status between January 1 and May 25, 2020, to describe e-health's support on the person-centered health care to control the COVID-19 pandemic. PubMed, ScienceDirect, and CINAHL, MedRxiv, and Web of Science were used. Two researchers independently assessed the eligibility of each retrieved record. All included studies were subsequently rescreened by the researchers. The systematic review was conducted in accordance with preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Results: We identified 60 articles and selected 8 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies used e-health technologies to facilitate clinical decision support and team care. Patient's engagement and access to health care from their homes were enhanced using telehealth and mobile health. Electronic health records were used to avail reliable data to health care providers and health authorities to make evidence-based decisions. Conclusion: Although there are limited studies to evaluate the effectiveness of e-health technologies for person-centered health care, the reviewed studies indicated e-health's potentials to improve the quality of health care and personalized health systems during COVID-19 pandemic. Further research should be done to better understand applications of e-health to improve the quality of health care and patients' outcomes and evaluate its cost-effectiveness.
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The social distancing practices triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic have caused a huge growth in the use of online technologies to support remote work, resulting in a sharp rise in computer crimes, privacy breaches and service disruptions across the globe. Cyber attackers are taking advantage of COVID-19 anxiety to launch email scams, misinform and mislead unsuspecting targets, and propagate harmful software using various threats. The trend beckons for a more proactive cybersecurity approach to detect, prevent, and mitigate potential computer crimes. This paper proposes a Randomized Cyberattack Simulation Model (RCSM), an enhanced cyber attack readiness checklist for tackling computer crimes in advance. The RCSM extends traditional incident response and offers a pre-forensic guide as a precursor to the redefinition of cybersecurity in the post COVID-19 digital era.
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Biometric systems use scanners to verify the identity of human beings by measuring the patterns of their behavioral or physiological characteristics. Some biometric systems are contactless and do not require direct touch to perform these measurements; others, such as fingerprint verification systems, require the user to make direct physical contact with the scanner for a specified duration for the biometric pattern of the user to be properly read and measured. This may increase the possibility of contamination with harmful microbial pathogens or of cross-contamination of food and water by subsequent users. Physical contact also increases the likelihood of inoculation of harmful microbial pathogens into the respiratory tract, thereby triggering infectious diseases. In this viewpoint, we establish the likelihood of infectious disease transmission through touch-based fingerprint biometric devices and discuss control measures to curb the spread of infectious diseases, including COVID-19.
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Although the COVID-19 is still as complicated as ever, it is an significant job for private networks across the globe to gather and share data in the light of the battle against coronavirus. The scale and severity of the disease are not rare, but they seem to be near it. Consequently, drastic steps to remedy the situation seem to be the rule in a very short period of time. These acts in particular impact the privacy of individuals. In certain cases, the whole population has been intensively monitored and diagnostic records from those who are infected with the virus are usually distributed around organizations and nations. While in many countries innovative approaches have been introduced to counter this, privacy advocates are concerned that technology would eventually erode privacy, while regulators and supporters are concerned about the type of effect that this may have. The content of this problem shows that the best way is to strike the right balance. The cases related to the ability of public authorities to intervene with the fundamental right to privacy in the interests of national security or public safety have consistently shown the prospect of achieving a fair balance. *
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While the COVID-19 pandemic continues to be as complex as ever, the collection and exchange of data in the light of fighting coronavirus poses a major challenge for privacy systems around the globe. The disease's size and magnitude is not uncommon but it appears to be at the point of hysteria surrounding it. Consequently, in a very short time, extreme measures for dealing with the situation appear to have become the norm. Any such actions affect the privacy of individuals in particular. For some cases, there is intensive monitoring of the whole population while the medical data of those diagnosed with the virus is commonly circulated through institutions and nations. This may well be in the interest of saving the world from a deadly disease, but is it really appropriate and right? Although creative solutions have been implemented in many countries to address the issue, proponents of privacy are concerned that technologies will eventually erode privacy, while regulators and privacy supporters are worried about what kind of impact this could bring. While that tension has always been present, privacy has been thrown into sharp relief by the sheer urgency of containing an exponentially spreading virus. The essence of this dilemma indicates that establishing the right equilibrium will be the best solution. The jurisprudence concerning cases regarding the willingness of public officials to interfere with the constitutional right to privacy in the interests of national security or public health has repeatedly proven that a reasonable balance can be reached.
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As the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to spread to more countries and territories with rising fatalities and global panic, the need for innovative measures to control its spread becomes more imperative. Telemedicine and Telehealth, the use of highspeed telecommunications systems and non-contact technologies for the delivery, management and monitoring of healthcare services have become timely with great potentials to shield health workers from direct contact with COVID-19 patients, as well as limit social mobility of the infected, both of which contribute to curtailing the spread of the virus. This paper analyses the application of telemedicine and related technologies as suitable strategies for controlling the spread of COVID-19 global health pandemic.
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