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Toxic Hot Spots in Java and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Eggs
Abstract and Figures
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) contamination in developing countries can include both domestic and foreign sources of pollution. This study focused on sites potentially polluted by such sources on the island of Java, Indonesia, in particular sites affected by plastic and paper waste imports, secondary aluminum production, and waste incineration. Globally regulated toxic substances contaminating the eggs and analyzed in our study include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, called “dioxins” in brief), PCBs, HCB, PeCB, SCCPs, PBDEs, HBCD, and PFAS substances such as PFOS. We also included analyses of novel Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) which replaced already regulated PBDEs and HBCD, and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs, called “brominated dioxins” in brief), which are not regulated yet but exhibit the same toxicity as PCDD/Fs. The results of the chemical analyses revealed levels of POPs among the highest ever measured in several pooled free-range chicken egg samples. Plastic waste dumpsites: Analyses performed in this study have shown that plastic landfills on the island of Java are not only a waste problem, but they are also a source of environmental contamination from a wide range of persistent organic pollutants. Many of them are already contained in the plastics themselves as additives, but others are created by burning waste to clear space for new waste brought in for sorting. The level of POPs contamination caused by dumping, incineration, and open burning of plastic waste ranks some sites on Java among the most contaminated in the world, alongside sites heavily affected by industrial production or sites contaminated due to military conflicts. E-waste: It was most likely plastics from e-waste that contributed significantly to the food chain contamination in Bangun, Tropodo, and Tangerang found during the November 2019 round of sampling. This was reflected in the high concentrations of brominated flame retardants found in free-range chicken eggs. In the case of Tangerang, we also found a significant contribution of brominated dioxins to the overall toxicity of the chicken eggs samples, due to plastic residues from refrigerator insulation. Waste incineration: In the vicinity of the hazardous waste incinerator facility in SidokampirSumberwuluh, Lakardowo, we found contamination of hens' eggs, mainly with dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. In Tropodo, where plastic wastes separated in Bangun village are burned, we also found high concentrations of PBDEs in eggs. The level of dioxin contamination of the food chain in Tropodo has reached the level of sites such as the Bien Hoa former U.S. Army base in Vietnam, a loading site for Agent Orange during the Vietnam war. Secondary aluminum smelters: Secondary aluminum smelters in the Jombang Regency are significant sources of releases of dioxins, dl-PCBs, and possibly PBDEs into the environment. This was demonstrated by analyses of hens' eggs, rice crop, soil, ash, and dust from the villages of Kendalsari and Sidokampir. Ash residues: The situation in the Jombang Regency around villages where secondary aluminum smelters are located, and in Tropodo documents that dioxin-containing ash as a result of combustion processes causes or significantly contributes to the contamination of food chains with POPs. Our study also gives suggestions how to reduce POPs contamination at researched sites in Java. More Toxic Hot Spots: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334600149_Toxic_Hot_Spots_in_Thailand https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314389513_Toxic_Hot_Spots_in_Kazakhstan_Monitoring_Reports https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326369754_Toxic_Hot_Spots_in_Armenia
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