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Effects of Technical Textiles and Synthetic Nanofibers on Environmental Pollution

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Effects of Technical Textiles and Synthetic Nanofibers on Environmental Pollution

Abstract and Figures

Textile manufacturing has been one of the highest polluting industrial sectors. It represents about one-fifth of worldwide industrial water pollution. It uses a huge number of chemicals, numerous of which are carcinogenic. The textile industry releases many harmful chemicals, such as heavy metals and formaldehyde, into water streams and soil, as well as toxic gases such as suspended particulate matter and sulphur dioxide to air. These hazardous wastes, may cause diseases and severe problems to human health such as respiratory and heart diseases. Pollution caused by the worldwide textile manufacturing units results in unimaginable harm, such as textile polymers, auxiliaries and dyes, to the environment. This review presents a systematic and comprehensive survey of all recently produced high-performance textiles; and will therefore assist a deeper understanding of technical textiles providing a bridge between manufacturer and end-user. Moreover, the achievements in advanced applications of textile material will be extensively studied. Many classes of technical textiles were proved in a variety of applications of different fields. The introductory material- and process-correlated identifications regarding raw materials and their transformation into yarns, fibers and fabrics followed by dyeing, printing, finishing of technical textiles and their further processing will be explored. Thus, the environmental impacts of technical textiles on soil, air and water are discussed.
polymers
Review
Effects of Technical Textiles and Synthetic Nanofibers on
Environmental Pollution
Ali Aldalbahi 1, * , Mehrez E. El-Naggar 2, Mohamed H. El-Newehy 1, Mostafizur Rahaman 1,
Mohammad Rafe Hatshan 1and Tawfik A. Khattab 2


Citation: Aldalbahi, A.; El-Naggar,
M.E.; El-Newehy, M.H.; Rahaman, M.;
Hatshan, M.R.; Khattab, T.A. Effects of
Technical Textiles and Synthetic
Nanofibers on Environmental
Pollution. Polymers 2021,13, 155.
https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13
010155
Received: 21 December 2020
Accepted: 30 December 2020
Published: 3 January 2021
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neu-
tral with regard to jurisdictional clai-
ms in published maps and institutio-
nal affiliations.
Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Li-
censee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
This article is an open access article
distributed under the terms and con-
ditions of the Creative Commons At-
tribution (CC BY) license (https://
creativecommons.org/licenses/by/
4.0/).
1Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia;
melnewehy@ksu.edu.sa (M.H.E.-N.); mrahaman@ksu.edu.sa (M.R.); mhatshan@ksu.edu.sa (M.R.H.)
2Textile Industries Research Division, National Research Centre, Giza 12622, Egypt;
mehrez_chem@yahoo.com (M.E.E.-N.); tkhattab@kent.edu (T.A.K.)
*Correspondence: aaldalbahi@ksu.edu.sa
Abstract:
Textile manufacturing has been one of the highest polluting industrial sectors. It represents
about one-fifth of worldwide industrial water pollution. It uses a huge number of chemicals,
numerous of which are carcinogenic. The textile industry releases many harmful chemicals, such as
heavy metals and formaldehyde, into water streams and soil, as well as toxic gases such as suspended
particulate matter and sulphur dioxide to air. These hazardous wastes, may cause diseases and severe
problems to human health such as respiratory and heart diseases. Pollution caused by the worldwide
textile manufacturing units results in unimaginable harm, such as textile polymers, auxiliaries and
dyes, to the environment. This review presents a systematic and comprehensive survey of all recently
produced high-performance textiles; and will therefore assist a deeper understanding of technical
textiles providing a bridge between manufacturer and end-user. Moreover, the achievements in
advanced applications of textile material will be extensively studied. Many classes of technical textiles
were proved in a variety of applications of different fields. The introductory material- and process-
correlated identifications regarding raw materials and their transformation into yarns, fibers and
fabrics followed by dyeing, printing, finishing of technical textiles and their further processing will be
explored. Thus, the environmental impacts of technical textiles on soil, air and water are discussed.
Keywords:
technical textiles; synthetic fibers; nanofibers; natural fibers; finishing; environmental protection
1. Introduction
A technical textile can be defined as a textile material and product manufactured
mainly for its technical and performance characteristics rather than their artistic or orna-
mental features [
1
4
]. Such a short definition obviously affords a significant scope for
an explanation, particularly when an increasing amount of textile-based merchandise is
merging both technical performance and aesthetic characteristics and acts in an equivalent
measure. Technical textiles have been utilized for a variety of applications, including auto-
motive purposes such as safety belts, medical field such as surgical sutures, geotextiles such
as separation fabrics for soil layers, agriculture such as horticulture fabrics for protection
from solar radiation, and protective textiles such as superhydrophobic fibers. It is a huge
and increasing segment that supports a huge group of other industries [
5
10
]. Currently,
technical textile materials are mainly used in filter garments, furnishings, medical hygiene
and construction materials. The global market for high-performance textiles is rising as
never before. The market size of high-performance textiles has been projected to surpass
about US$251.82 billion by 2027. It was estimated at US$175.73 billion in 2019 [
11
]. High-
performance textiles will have a similar story all over the world, being very strong, durable
and versatile. With increasing demand and consumption, the difficulty of dumping will
also increase. Among the most demanding users of high-performance textiles are armed
forces, while army workers are among those with the serious requirements. Technical
Polymers 2021,13, 155. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13010155 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/polymers
Polymers 2021,13, 155 2 of 26
textiles have demonstrated to be the main supplier to all these defense purposes replacing
the traditional heavier merchandise [
12
18
]. There are major differences between technical
textiles and conventional textiles industries [1219]:
(a)
Technical textiles are favored for their extremely precise performance quality, and
consequently they are more expensive than conventional merchandise.
(b)
Technical textile producers must use accepted testing techniques in order to gain
customers’ trust concerning standard specifications.
(c)
Technical textiles are for a certain sector of a market that requires more flexible
production schedules and smaller manufacture spells.
(d)
Technical textiles producers usually have to be prepared to spend on research and
development [19].
The geometric facial appearance of the fibers facilitates the design, preparation of
planar fabrics via weaving and knitting processes. These textiles are extremely porous, thus
controlling thermal isolation, wind resistance, and vapor permeability such as sweat. In ad-
dition, textiles fibers have to be able to afford specific mechanical properties defined by par-
ticular values of fiber stiffness and elasticity which allows for fabric structure deformation,
and incorporation of colorants. Transport technical textiles are involved in airplanes, trains,
automobiles. and boats, which depend strongly on high-scale technical parts possessing a
very low weight while demonstrating concurrently a high stiffness and strength [
20
22
].
The exploration for an all-embracing term describing such non-conventional clothing is not
limited to ‘Technical’ and ‘Industrial’. Terms, such as “High-Performance Textiles, Func-
tional or Smart Textiles, Engineered Textiles and High-Tech Textiles” have been employed
in different perspectives. However, the term “High-Performance Textiles” is often used
to describe the activity of textiles [
23
,
24
]. This critical review article presents a systematic
survey on the development of technical textiles providing a bridge between manufacturer
and end-user. The accomplishments in advanced applications of technical textile material
have been proved in different fields. Raw materials and their transformations into yarns,
fibers and fabrics; followed by dyeing, printing, finishing and their further processing
are explored. The environmental impacts of technical textiles on soil, air and water are
discussed. The techniques and solutions allied to reduce those ecological impacts from tech-
nical textile industry were also explored. The future of high-performance textiles promises
even more stronger worldwide competition seeking more applications, high-quality, lower
cost and environmentally-friendly products. As shown in Figure 1, we discussed the
advanced applications of high-performance textiles as a bridge between manufacturer and
end-user, the sustainability and environmental impacts from those textile products, and
methods applied to reduce the ecological harmful effects generated.
Polymers 2021, 13, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 26
durable and versatile. With increasing demand and consumption, the difficulty of dump-
ing will also increase. Among the most demanding users of high-performance textiles are
armed forces, while army workers are among those with the serious requirements. Tech-
nical textiles have demonstrated to be the main supplier to all these defense purposes
replacing the traditional heavier merchandise [12–18]. There are major differences be-
tween technical textiles and conventional textiles industries [12–19]:
(a) Technical textiles are favored for their extremely precise performance quality, and
consequently they are more expensive than conventional merchandise.
(b) Technical textile producers must use accepted testing techniques in order to gain cus-
tomers’ trust concerning standard specifications.
(c) Technical textiles are for a certain sector of a market that requires more flexible pro-
duction schedules and smaller manufacture spells.
(d) Technical textiles producers usually have to be prepared to spend on research and
development [19].
The geometric facial appearance of the fibers facilitates the design, preparation of
planar fabrics via weaving and knitting processes. These textiles are extremely porous,
thus controlling thermal isolation, wind resistance, and vapor permeability such as sweat.
In addition, textiles fibers have to be able to afford specific mechanical properties defined
by particular values of fiber stiffness and elasticity which allows for fabric structure de-
formation, and incorporation of colorants. Transport technical textiles are involved in air-
planes, trains, automobiles. and boats, which depend strongly on high-scale technical
parts possessing a very low weight while demonstrating concurrently a high stiffness and
strength [20–22]. The exploration for an all-embracing term describing such non-conven-
tional clothing is not limited to ‘Technical’ and ‘Industrial’. Terms, such as “High-Perfor-
mance Textiles, Functional or Smart Textiles, Engineered Textiles and High-Tech Textiles”
have been employed in different perspectives. However, the term “High-Performance
Textiles” is often used to describe the activity of textiles [23,24]. This critical review article
presents a systematic survey on the development of technical textiles providing a bridge
between manufacturer and end-user. The accomplishments in advanced applications of
technical textile material have been proved in different fields. Raw materials and their
transformations into yarns, fibers and fabrics; followed by dyeing, printing, finishing and
their further processing are explored. The environmental impacts of technical textiles on
soil, air and water are discussed. The techniques and solutions allied to reduce those eco-
logical impacts from technical textile industry were also explored. The future of high-per-
formance textiles promises even more stronger worldwide competition seeking more ap-
plications, high-quality, lower cost and environmentally-friendly products. As shown in
Figure 1, we discussed the advanced applications of high-performance textiles as a bridge
between manufacturer and end-user, the sustainability and environmental impacts from
those textile products, and methods applied to reduce the ecological harmful effects gen-
erated.
Figure 1. Schematic diagram representing various applications of technical textiles, including protective, medical, pack-
aging, agricultural and geological textiles, and their environmental impacts on air, water and soil.
Figure 1.
Schematic diagram representing various applications of technical textiles, including protective, medical, packaging,
agricultural and geological textiles, and their environmental impacts on air, water and soil.
Polymers 2021,13, 155 3 of 26
2. Types of Fibres for Technical Textiles
There are a variety of yarns have been applied for high-performance textiles, including
natural as well as man-made yarns depending on the end product. There are different
structures of yarns, such as staple, monofilament, multifilament, texture and twist, which
are produced by different spinning manufacturing techniques, such as friction, ring, air-
jet and rotor [
19
]. Special characteristics can be obtained by different yarns to afford
particular functional requirements of technical textiles according to the end-use application,
such as packaging, medical agriculture, protective, filtration and geotextiles. Natural
fibers are characterized by high modulus/strength and moisture intake as well as low
elasticity and elongation. Regenerated cellulosic fibers possess low modulus/strength
and elasticity as well as high elongation and moisture intake. Synthetic fibers, such as
nylon, polypropylene and polyester, possess high modulus/strength and elongation with
an acceptable elasticity and comparatively low moisture intake. Natural fibers can be
divided into plant, animal and geological origin. Plant fibers possess excellent engineering
characteristics, while animal fibers possess a lower modulus/strength as well as higher
elongation than plant fibers. Geological fibers are costly, brittle, and lacking strength
and flexibility.
Figure 2
displays a tracking chart demonstrating a general classification of
natural synthetic fibers [25].
Polymers 2021, 13, x FOR PEER REVIEW 3 of 26
2. Types of Fibres for Technical Textiles
There are a variety of yarns have been applied for high-performance textiles, includ-
ing natural as well as man-made yarns depending on the end product. There are different
structures of yarns, such as staple, monofilament, multifilament, texture and twist, which
are produced by different spinning manufacturing techniques, such as friction, ring, air-
jet and rotor [19]. Special characteristics can be obtained by different yarns to afford par-
ticular functional requirements of technical textiles according to the end-use application,
such as packaging, medical agriculture, protective, filtration and geotextiles. Natural fi-
bers are characterized by high modulus/strength and moisture intake as well as low elas-
ticity and elongation. Regenerated cellulosic fibers possess low modulus/strength and
elasticity as well as high elongation and moisture intake. Synthetic fibers, such as nylon,
polypropylene and polyester, possess high modulus/strength and elongation with an ac-
ceptable elasticity and comparatively low moisture intake. Natural fibers can be divided
into plant, animal and geological origin. Plant fibers possess excellent engineering char-
acteristics, while animal fibers possess a lower modulus/strength as well as higher elon-
gation than plant fibers. Geological fibers are costly, brittle, and lacking strength and flex-
ibility. Figure 2 displays a tracking chart demonstrating a general classification of natural
synthetic fibers [25].
Figure 2. General classification of fiber-based technical textiles into synthetic and natural fibers.
2.1. Synthetic Fibers
Synthetic fibers are man-made fibers developed to improve the properties of natural
fibers. Nonetheless, not all man-made fibers are synthetic fibers. For instance, acrylic, ar-
amids, dyneema, rayon artificial silk, vinyon, vinalon, acrylonitrile rubber, polybenzim-
idazole, nylon, polyesterzylon, glass, polylactic acid, metallic and derclon are synthetic
fibers. On the one hand, cellulose acetate and rayon are known as regenerated or man-
made fibers but cannot be considered as synthetic fibers. Synthetic fibers are obtained via
an extrusion process of polymers prepared by reacting certain monomers through a pro-
cess called polymerization. On the other hand, regenerated/man-made fibers are repro-
duced synthetic fibers from a dissolved natural material to result in fibers with different
Figure 2. General classification of fiber-based technical textiles into synthetic and natural fibers.
2.1. Synthetic Fibers
Synthetic fibers are man-made fibers developed to improve the properties of natural
fibers. Nonetheless, not all man-made fibers are synthetic fibers. For instance, acrylic,
aramids, dyneema, rayon artificial silk, vinyon, vinalon, acrylonitrile rubber, polybenzim-
idazole, nylon, polyesterzylon, glass, polylactic acid, metallic and derclon are synthetic
fibers. On the one hand, cellulose acetate and rayon are known as regenerated or man-made
fibers but cannot be considered as synthetic fibers. Synthetic fibers are obtained via an
extrusion process of polymers prepared by reacting certain monomers through a process
called polymerization. On the other hand, regenerated/man-made fibers are reproduced
synthetic fibers from a dissolved natural material to result in fibers with different properties,
Polymers 2021,13, 155 4 of 26
such as regeneration of viscose from cellulose. Figure 3displays the chemical structure of
cellulose acetate [26].
Polymers 2021, 13, x FOR PEER REVIEW 4 of 26
properties, such as regeneration of viscose from cellulose. Figure 3 displays the chemical
structure of cellulose acetate [26].
OO
HO
O
O
O
HO O
n
O
O
O
O
O
O
Figure 3. Chemical structure of cellulose acetate.
Synthetic fibers can be customized for certain end-use applications by tuning their
properties, such as length, decitex, tenacity, softness, stain resistant, fire/water repellent
effects, surface profile, wrinkle free, finish and even by blending into hybrid product sys-
tems [26].
2.1.1. Aramid Fibers
There are two types of amid fiber including the heat-resistant meta-aramids that are
broadly used in heat protecting garments; and the other type is the high-strength and
modulus para-aramids (Figure 4) employed in bullet resistant, tire reinforcement, hoses,
friction materials, and ropes. The early victory of aramids was recognized in the develop-
ment of carbon fibers, which have been accessible in the market since 1960s but mainly
restrained by their high processing and material expenses to chosen highly valuable mar-
ket, wind generator turbine blades, especially for aerospace purposes, sporting goods, and
fuel tanks. In late 1980s, the introduction of other technical textile fibers was greatly in-
creased for heat-resistant and flame-retardant uses from polybenzimidazole, ballistic pro-
tection and rope production, and ultra-strong high modulus from polyethylene, chemical
stability from polytetrafluoroethylene, and filters from polyphenylene sulphide [27,28].
Figure 4. Structure of Kevlar, a para-aramid.
N
O
N
H
H
O N
O
H
N
H
O
N
O
N
H
H
O N
O
H
N
H
O
Figure 3. Chemical structure of cellulose acetate.
Synthetic fibers can be customized for certain end-use applications by tuning their
properties, such as length, decitex, tenacity, softness, stain resistant, fire/water repellent
effects, surface profile, wrinkle free, finish and even by blending into hybrid product
systems [26].
2.1.1. Aramid Fibers
There are two types of amid fiber including the heat-resistant meta-aramids that are
broadly used in heat protecting garments; and the other type is the high-strength and mod-
ulus para-aramids (Figure 4) employed in bullet resistant, tire reinforcement, hoses, friction
materials, and ropes. The early victory of aramids was recognized in the development of
carbon fibers, which have been accessible in the market since 1960s but mainly restrained
by their high processing and material expenses to chosen highly valuable market, wind
generator turbine blades, especially for aerospace purposes, sporting goods, and fuel tanks.
In late 1980s, the introduction of other technical textile fibers was greatly increased for
heat-resistant and flame-retardant uses from polybenzimidazole, ballistic protection and
rope production, and ultra-strong high modulus from polyethylene, chemical stability from
polytetrafluoroethylene, and filters from polyphenylene sulphide [27,28].
Polymers 2021, 13, x FOR PEER REVIEW 4 of 26
properties, such as regeneration of viscose from cellulose. Figure 3 displays the chemical
structure of cellulose acetate [26].
OO
HO
O
O
O
HO O
n
O
O
O
O
O
O
Figure 3. Chemical structure of cellulose acetate.
Synthetic fibers can be customized for certain end-use applications by tuning their
properties, such as length, decitex, tenacity, softness, stain resistant, fire/water repellent
effects, surface profile, wrinkle free, finish and even by blending into hybrid product sys-
tems [26].
2.1.1. Aramid Fibers
There are two types of amid fiber including the heat-resistant meta-aramids that are
broadly used in heat protecting garments; and the other type is the high-strength and
modulus para-aramids (Figure 4) employed in bullet resistant, tire reinforcement, hoses,
friction materials, and ropes. The early victory of aramids was recognized in the develop-
ment of carbon fibers, which have been accessible in the market since 1960s but mainly
restrained by their high processing and material expenses to chosen highly valuable mar-
ket, wind generator turbine blades, especially for aerospace purposes, sporting goods, and
fuel tanks. In late 1980s, the introduction of other technical textile fibers was greatly in-
creased for heat-resistant and flame-retardant uses from polybenzimidazole, ballistic pro-
tection and rope production, and ultra-strong high modulus from polyethylene, chemical
stability from polytetrafluoroethylene, and filters from polyphenylene sulphide [27,28].
Figure 4. Structure of Kevlar, a para-aramid.
N
O
N
H
H
O N
O
H
N
H
O
N
O
N
H
H
O N
O
H
N
H
O
Figure 4. Structure of Kevlar, a para-aramid.
Polymers 2021,13, 155 5 of 26
2.1.2. Glass and Ceramic Fibers
Glass has been used as an inexpensive insulator as well as reinforcement of compar-
atively low performance plastics. It is now broadly used for various high-performance
glass-reinforced composite purposes such as sealing, rubber reinforcement, filters, Pro-Tech
clothing, packaging, and automotive industry to replace metal body parts and components.
A variety of technical ceramic fibers have been developed; however, they are limited to
comparatively specific applications owing to their high cost and poor mechanical proper-
ties [29,30].
2.1.3. Carbon Fibers
Carbon fibers are generally manufactured from precursor fibers, such as acrylic which
can be converted into carbon via a three stages heating procedure, including initial oxidative
stabilization at 200–300
C, followed by the carbonization stage by heating at 1000
C in
an inert atmosphere. As a result, both hydrogen and nitrogen atoms are expelled from
the oxidized fibers, producing hexagonal rings of carbon atoms organized in oriented
fibrils. The last step of the procedure is graphitization, occurring by heating the carbonized
filaments at 3000
C in an inert environment to raise the orderly arrangements of carbon
atoms, which are arranged into a crystalline construction of layers oriented in the direction
of the fiber axis, which is a significant feature in affording high-modulus fibers. Carbon
fibers have been used in protective operations against skin irritation, and protection of
processing equipment, auxiliary electric and electronic devices [3133].
2.1.4. Viscose Rayon Fibers
Viscose rayon synthetic fibers were first developed around 1910 and by the 1920s had
significance in tires and other mechanical rubber products, such as conveyors, safety belts
and hoses. Additional characteristics of viscose, such as heat resistance, high absorbance
and appropriateness for processing by paper industry of wet laying methods added to its
function as one of the original fibers employed for non-woven processing, particularly in
disposable clean and hygienic applications [34].
2.1.5. Nylon Fibers
Polyamides (Figure 5) first launched in 1939, affording high-quality elasticity and
uniformity, abrasion and moisture resistance, and high strength. Its outstanding energy
absorption is highly valuable in a variety of applications such as parachute garments,
spinnaker sails and climbing ropes. Nylon-reinforced tires are still widely employed in
developed countries, where the infrastructure quality of road surfaces is poor. In contrast to
advanced countries, where regular road speed is higher and the heat resistance of viscose
fibers are highly appreciated [35].
Polymers 2021, 13, x FOR PEER REVIEW 5 of 26
2.1.2. Glass and Ceramic Fibers
Glass has been used as an inexpensive insulator as well as reinforcement of compar-
atively low performance plastics. It is now broadly used for various high-performance
glass-reinforced composite purposes such as sealing, rubber reinforcement, filters, Pro-
Tech clothing, packaging, and automotive industry to replace metal body parts and com-
ponents. A variety of technical ceramic fibers have been developed; however, they are
limited to comparatively specific applications owing to their high cost and poor mechan-
ical properties [29,30].
2.1.3. Carbon Fibers
Carbon fibers are generally manufactured from precursor fibers, such as acrylic
which can be converted into carbon via a three stages heating procedure, including initial
oxidative stabilization at 200–300 °C, followed by the carbonization stage by heating at
1000 °C in an inert atmosphere. As a result, both hydrogen and nitrogen atoms are ex-
pelled from the oxidized fibers, producing hexagonal rings of carbon atoms organized in
oriented fibrils. The last step of the procedure is graphitization, occurring by heating the
carbonized filaments at 3000 °C in an inert environment to raise the orderly arrangements
of carbon atoms, which are arranged into a crystalline construction of layers oriented in
the direction of the fiber axis, which is a significant feature in affording high-modulus
fibers. Carbon fibers have been used in protective operations against skin irritation, and
protection of processing equipment, auxiliary electric and electronic devices [31–33].
2.1.4. Viscose Rayon Fibers
Viscose rayon synthetic fibers were first developed around 1910 and by the 1920s had
significance in tires and other mechanical rubber products, such as conveyors, safety belts
and hoses. Additional characteristics of viscose, such as heat resistance, high absorbance
and appropriateness for processing by paper industry of wet laying methods added to its
function as one of the original fibers employed for non-woven processing, particularly in
disposable clean and hygienic applications [34].
2.1.5. Nylon Fibers
Polyamides (Figure 5) first launched in 1939, affording high-quality elasticity and
uniformity, abrasion and moisture resistance, and high strength. Its outstanding energy
absorption is highly valuable in a variety of applications such as parachute garments,
spinnaker sails and climbing ropes. Nylon-reinforced tires are still widely employed in
developed countries, where the infrastructure quality of road surfaces is poor. In contrast
to advanced countries, where regular road speed is higher and the heat resistance of vis-
cose fibers are highly appreciated [35].
Figure 5. Structure of Nylon 6,6; a polyamide polymer derived from the condensation reaction of
monomers-containing terminal amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) groups.
2.1.6. Polyolefin Fibers
In the 1960s, the development of polyolefinic fibers such as polypropylenes and pol-
yethylenes afforded cheap and simple processable fibers characterized by low density,
high-quality abrasion, and moisture resistance properties, for a variety of applications
H
N
N
H
O
On
Figure 5.
Structure of Nylon 6,6; a polyamide polymer derived from the condensation reaction of monomers-containing
terminal amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) groups.
2.1.6. Polyolefin Fibers
In the 1960s, the development of polyolefinic fibers such as polypropylenes and
polyethylenes afforded cheap and simple processable fibers characterized by low density,
high-quality abrasion, and moisture resistance properties, for a variety of applications such
Polymers 2021,13, 155 6 of 26
as packaging, carpet backing, and furniture linings. On the other hand, polyolefins are
characterized by poor heat resistance and full water-repellency that have been turned into
a benefit in nonwoven. Firstly, polypropylene employed in combination with viscose to
allow thermal bonding for hygienic covers for diapers. Finally, the comparatively low
extrusion temperature of polyolefins has been verified typically appropriate for the rapidly
rising technology of spin laying [36].
2.2. Natural Fibers
Natural fibers are divided into plant, animal, and geological origin. Plant fibers
(Figure 6), such as cotton, are the cell wall in both stem and leaf elements and consist
mainly of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin [37].
Polymers 2021, 13, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 26
such as packaging, carpet backing, and furniture linings. On the other hand, polyolefins
are characterized by poor heat resistance and full water-repellency that have been turned
into a benefit in nonwoven. Firstly, polypropylene employed in combination with viscose
to allow thermal bonding for hygienic covers for diapers. Finally, the comparatively low
extrusion temperature of polyolefins has been verified typically appropriate for the rap-
idly rising technology of spin laying [36].
2.2. Natural Fibers
Natural fibers are divided into plant, animal, and geological origin. Plant fibers (Fig-
ure 6), such as cotton, are the cell wall in both stem and leaf elements and consist mainly
of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin [37].
Figure 6. Chemical structure of cellulose demonstrating a linear polymer structure of D-glucose
units.
Animal fibers (Figure 7), such as silk, wool, mohair and alpaca. They are generally
comprised of proteins, such as collagen, keratin and fibroin [25].
Figure 7. Silk chemical structure.
Geological or mineral fibers (Figure 8) are obtained from mineral sources. They can
be employed in their original natural form or after a small amendment. Mineral fibers can
be metallic such as aluminum; asbestos such as serpentine and amphiboles; or ceramic
such as glass wool and quartz, silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and boron carbide [38].
Figure 8. Glass fibers.
OO
HO
OO
OH
HO OH
n
OH
OH
N
C
C
N
C
C
N
C
C
N
C
C
H
H
CH3
O
H
H
H
O
H
CH3
O
H
H
O
H
H
OSi
O
O
Si
O
O
Si
O
O
Si OSi
O
Si
OSi
OOSi
OO
Si
OO
Si
O
SiO
O
O
Figure 6.
Chemical structure of cellulose demonstrating a linear polymer structure of D-glucose units.
Animal fibers (Figure 7), such as silk, wool, mohair and alpaca. They are generally
comprised of proteins, such as collagen, keratin and fibroin [25].
Figure 7. Silk chemical structure.
Geological or mineral fibers (Figure 8) are obtained from mineral sources. They can be
employed in their original natural form or after a small amendment. Mineral fibers can be
metallic such as aluminum; asbestos such as serpentine and amphiboles; or ceramic such
as glass wool and quartz, silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and boron carbide [38].
Polymers 2021, 13, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 26
such as packaging, carpet backing, and furniture linings. On the other hand, polyolefins
are characterized by poor heat resistance and full water-repellency that have been turned
into a benefit in nonwoven. Firstly, polypropylene employed in combination with viscose
to allow thermal bonding for hygienic covers for diapers. Finally, the comparatively low
extrusion temperature of polyolefins has been verified typically appropriate for the rap-
idly rising technology of spin laying [36].
2.2. Natural Fibers
Natural fibers are divided into plant, animal, and geological origin. Plant fibers (Fig-
ure 6), such as cotton, are the cell wall in both stem and leaf elements and consist mainly
of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin [37].
Figure 6. Chemical structure of cellulose demonstrating a linear polymer structure of D-glucose
units.
Animal fibers (Figure 7), such as silk, wool, mohair and alpaca. They are generally
comprised of proteins, such as collagen, keratin and fibroin [25].
Figure 7. Silk chemical structure.
Geological or mineral fibers (Figure 8) are obtained from mineral sources. They can
be employed in their original natural form or after a small amendment. Mineral fibers can
be metallic such as aluminum; asbestos such as serpentine and amphiboles; or ceramic
such as glass wool and quartz, silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and boron carbide [38].
Figure 8. Glass fibers.
OO
HO
OO
OH
HO OH
n
OH
OH
N
C
C
N
C
C
N
C
C
N
C
C
H
H
CH3
O
H
H
H
O
H
CH3
O
H
H
O
H
H
OSi
O
O
Si
O
O
Si
O
O
Si OSi
O
Si
OSi
OOSi
OO
Si
OO
Si
O
SiO
O
O
Figure 8. Glass fibers.
Polymers 2021,13, 155 7 of 26
The most widespread textile fibers existing in the market of technical textiles are
cotton and a number of coarser plant fibers, such as jute, flax and sisal. Due to their good
tensile strength and stiffness, some natural fibers have been employed in technical textiles
for different purposes, such as packaging, automotive, aerospace and fiber-reinforced
composites [33].
2.2.1. Jute Yarns
Jute is classified as natural multifilament fibers, which are characterized by durable,
strong and easy to manufacture/dispose. Jute yarns are biodegradable and appropriate
for a variety of weave densities. Woven jute textiles were originally used as geotextiles
to prevent land sliding (deforestation), control of soil erosion by revegetation, and in jute-
sand-mat constructions. Jute yarns have been employed for producing sacks of flexible
packaging. Its characteristic physical properties have opened up novel opportunities
for a variety of applications promoted mainly as a result of worldwide environmental
concerns [39].
2.2.2. Flax Yarns
Flax fibers are originally derived from the bast or skin of the stem of the flax plant.
Flax fibers are characterized by softness, lustrous, anti-static, dries quickly and flexibility;
bundles of fibers possess the look of blonde hair. Flax fiber is hollow and capable to
absorb water up to 12% of its weight. Flax fibers are two-fold stronger than those of
cotton and five-fold stronger than those of wool. Its strength raises extra 20% upon
wetting. The longer flax fibers have been used in geotextiles. New applications for shorter
fibers exist, such as packaging, automotive industry, asbestos replacement, panel boards,
insulation and reinforcements for plastics and concrete. Flax yarns have been considered
as environmentally friendly yarns with the ability to replace glass fibers in engineering
composites [40].
2.2.3. Coir Yarns or Rope
Coir yarns have been used as natural insulation materials obtained from flax fibers.
Coir geotextiles cab be employed in soil conservation, erosion control and other civil and
bioengineering purposes. It has the proper strength and toughness to guard land slopes
against erosion whilst allowing plants to prosper. They can absorb extra solar energy and
dissipate the energy of flowing water. The combination of both coir and flax yarns in
woven form can be used for a variety of applications, such as binding purposes and to
create matting. Coir yarns afford a reasonable solution to the problem of soil erosion and
land sliding on the artificial slopes, such as motorways.
2.3. High-Performance Nanofibers
Electrospinning allows manufacturing of nanofibers (Figure 9) mainly from polymer
materials of both synthetic and natural origins [
41
]. The prosperity of different electrospun
nanofibrous and non-woven architectures is exceedingly wide and it has been clear that
highly fine fibers with diameters as low as few nanometers can be produced via electrospin-
ning. Thus, such electrospun nanofibers and non-woven structures have been considered
as major elements and systems, respectively, of nanomaterials. The electrons of inorganic
molecules are usually delocalized and extended all over the bulk material, which can be
considered as an advantage of the ability to control chemical and/or physical adjustments
of size and geometry. On the other hand, organic-based materials show mainly localized
electronic states of a molecular group, such as a chromophore. This results in that the
electronic status is not influenced as the dimensions of the element, such as a fiber element
is decreased to the nanoscale structure [
42
44
]. Electrospinning has been a facile and
inexpensive method for the production of continuous nanofibers with large surface area
and high porosity from a variety of materials, such as polymers, inorganic materials as
well as inorganic/organic hybrids. However, the restricted control of pore size has been
Polymers 2021,13, 155 8 of 26
a major disadvantage of the electrospinning technology because the pore size affects the
fiber diameter. Electrospun fibers have been applied in a diversity of applications, such as
environmental remediation [
45
], filtration systems [
46
], protective clothing [
47
], sensors
and biosensors [48], tissue-engineering scaffolds [49] and solar cells [50].
Polymers 2021, 13, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 26
materials as well as inorganic/organic hybrids. However, the restricted control of pore size
has been a major disadvantage of the electrospinning technology because the pore size
affects the fiber diameter. Electrospun fibers have been applied in a diversity of applica-
tions, such as environmental remediation [45], filtration systems [46], protective clothing
[47], sensors and biosensors [48], tissue-engineering scaffolds [49] and solar cells [50].
Figure 9. Diagram representing electrospinning apparatus.
Nonwovens nanofibrous materials (Figure 10) can be employed to adjust the proper-
ties of traditional textiles of very thick fibers intended for clothing, furniture, hospital, and
technical applications such as protective clothing from wind, self-cleaning, low tempera-
ture, and microbes [51]. This can be accomplished very efficiently, amongst other meth-
ods, by the deposition of nanofibrous thin layers of such non-woven nanofibers on the
garments. Wind-resistant technical textiles depend on the average diameter of the pores
within the nanofibrous thin layers on the surface of the fabric. The discovery is that the
wind resistance of a fabric increases by five-fold of value as the average diameter of the
pores decreased from 100 to 1 µm. This can be accomplished by replacing traditional fibers
with pore diameter of around 10 µm by electrospun nanofibers with pores diameters of
100 nm. To accomplish such a high-quality wind resistance only a little coating degree
around 1 g/m
2
is required [52,53].
Figure 9. Diagram representing electrospinning apparatus.
Nonwovens nanofibrous materials (Figure 10) can be employed to adjust the properties
of traditional textiles of very thick fibers intended for clothing, furniture, hospital, and
technical applications such as protective clothing from wind, self-cleaning, low temperature,
and microbes [
51
]. This can be accomplished very efficiently, amongst other methods, by
the deposition of nanofibrous thin layers of such non-woven nanofibers on the garments.
Wind-resistant technical textiles depend on the average diameter of the pores within the
nanofibrous thin layers on the surface of the fabric. The discovery is that the wind resistance
of a fabric increases by five-fold of value as the average diameter of the pores decreased
from 100 to 1
µ
m. This can be accomplished by replacing traditional fibers with pore
diameter of around 10
µ
m by electrospun nanofibers with pores diameters of 100 nm. To
accomplish such a high-quality wind resistance only a little coating degree around 1 g/m
2
is required [52,53].
Polymers 2021, 13, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 26
materials as well as inorganic/organic hybrids. However, the restricted control of pore size
has been a major disadvantage of the electrospinning technology because the pore size
affects the fiber diameter. Electrospun fibers have been applied in a diversity of applica-
tions, such as environmental remediation [45], filtration systems [46], protective clothing
[47], sensors and biosensors [48], tissue-engineering scaffolds [49] and solar cells [50].
Figure 9. Diagram representing electrospinning apparatus.
Nonwovens nanofibrous materials (Figure 10) can be employed to adjust the proper-
ties of traditional textiles of very thick fibers intended for clothing, furniture, hospital, and
technical applications such as protective clothing from wind, self-cleaning, low tempera-
ture, and microbes [51]. This can be accomplished very efficiently, amongst other meth-
ods, by the deposition of nanofibrous thin layers of such non-woven nanofibers on the
garments. Wind-resistant technical textiles depend on the average diameter of the pores
within the nanofibrous thin layers on the surface of the fabric. The discovery is that the
wind resistance of a fabric increases by five-fold of value as the average diameter of the
pores decreased from 100 to 1 µm. This can be accomplished by replacing traditional fibers
with pore diameter of around 10 µm by electrospun nanofibers with pores diameters of
100 nm. To accomplish such a high-quality wind resistance only a little coating degree
around 1 g/m
2
is required [52,53].
Figure 10.
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of electrospun nanofibers from the polyacrylic
acid in combination with a hydrazone chromophore [
51
]. “Reprinted with permission from John
Wiley and Sons [51]”.
Polymers 2021,13, 155 9 of 26
Positive features of such thin-layer deposited nonwoven nanofibers are that both
resistance of humidity and vapor permeability are not affected. On the other hand, the
thermal insulation of textiles increases by applying thin layers’ deposition of the nonwoven
nanofibrous. The gas diffusion becomes limited as the pores’ average diameter is lower
than the length of the mean free pathway of the gas molecules as a result of the domination
of particle–pore-wall collisions, where the particle nanofibrous collisions and thermal
conductivity is greatly decreased for nonwoven electrospun nanofibrous. It is clear that the
thermal conductivity is decreased by numerous folds of magnitude as the diameter of the
pores gets lower from 100 to 1 nm [
54
,
55
]. Coating fabrics by antimicrobial nanofibers is
of considerable importance as a result of the high surface area of nonwoven electrospun
nanofibrous that in turn leads to higher antimicrobial effectiveness. Antimicrobial active
materials, such as traditional low molecular weight antimicrobial agents, metal oxides
nanoparticles or oligomer/polymer ammonium materials can be integrated into the elec-
trospinning composite to afford antimicrobial nonwoven nanofibers to be coated onto
the fabric surface. However, such antimicrobial nonwoven electrospun nanofibers reflect
some disadvantages, such as durability, adhesion on surface and releasing of the antimicro-
bial active agents that are hard to control. Self-cleanable textiles by superhydrophobic or
photocatalytic nonwoven electrospun nanofibers can be produced via coaxial electrospun
cellulose acetate with dispersed nanocrystalline titanium dioxide [56,57].
3. Functional Finishing of Technical Textiles
The term textile finishing includes a very wide range of activities performed on fabrics
before commercialization. For instance, bed sheets are temporary hard-pressed before
packing, and tints are treated by Pyrovatex to produce durable flame-retardant tenting
garments, which have been significant to improving safety. Nonetheless, all finishing
processes are considered to raise both attractiveness and function of the textile merchandise,
such as water-repellency, which enhances the in-service performance of tenting garments.
Further targets of textiles finishing may be described as an enhancement for purchaser
satisfaction. This enhancement in the apparent value of a merchandise affords the base of
up-to-date thoughts on the marketing of manufactured goods. High-performance textiles
can be defined as textile products manufactured for non-aesthetic purposes, where their
targeted function is the major criterion [58].
Finishing Processes
The finishing processes can be divided into three major classes described as follows:
-
Mechanical processing: This includes the passing of the material throughout machin-
ery systems whose mechanical function usually accompanied by heating process,
accomplishes the desired effects [58].
-
Calendaring: Calendaring is accomplished by squeezing the fabric among two heavy
heated rotating rolls to provide a modified fabric with a flattened smooth surface.
The surface of the rolls is either smooth or engraved to afford the suitable required
finishing to the textile material, whilst the manufacture of the rolls could be diversified
from hardened steel to thermoplastic elastic rolls [59].
-
Raising: Raising is a finishing method in which the surface effects can be produced
to provide a brushed or napped fabric. It can be accomplished by teasing out the
single fiber from the yarn using a teasel which was nailed to a wooden panel and the
fabric was drawn over them to create a cloth with a hairy surface, which exhibited
enhanced insulation characteristics. This technique has mostly been replaced by
applying rotating wire brushes. However, teasels are still employed, where a mild
raising achievement is required [60].
-
Cropping: Cropping finishing is used to cut protrude surface hair from a fabric to
provide a smooth look which is usually employed on woolen merchandise where
the elimination of surface hair by a singeing method is not achievable. The cropping
process is performed by a spiral cutter rotating against a stationary blade cutting off
Polymers 2021,13, 155 10 of 26
any matter jutting from the fabric surface. By increasing and reducing the height of
the cutting bed, the cutting depth could be changed, while the accumulated cut pile is
removed by a strong suction process [61].
-
Compressive shrinkage: It is defined as the mechanical shrinking of warp fibers
leading to shrinkage of textiles on washing is decreased to the desired levels by the
creation and processing stresses on the clothing [62].
-
Heat setting: The major target of heat setting finishing is to guarantee that fabric does
not shrink upon usage. This is mainly significant for applications, such as drive and
time belts, where stretches can result in severe troubles. It is significant to test the
reasons behind this failure in stability so that a complete recognition can be achieved
on the effects that both heat and mechanical forces have on the stabilization of textile
material [63].
-
Chemical processes: These involve the application of chemicals to the cloth to intro-
duce a variety of functions, such as water-repellent or flame-retardant properties, or to
change the handle of a fabric. Chemical finishing is usually used in either an aqueous
solution or emulsion type. It can be employed via various methods, the main method
is the padding mangle which is usually followed by drying to eliminate the water
from the fabric and make it ready for fixation of the finishing processes. This normally
occurs by the baking process, where the textile is exposed to heating for a short time,
to enable the applied finishing chemicals to afford a more durable finish [64].
- Durable flame-retardant processing
Flame-retardant fabrics have been produced from various textile fibers. The major fibers
used in this area is cotton. There are two key flame-retardant treatments are well-liked. These
are the Proban and Pyrovatex treatment finishing processes (Figure 11). The Proban method
uses phosphorus-containing materials based on tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chlo-
ride. This can be interacted with urea followed by padding into cotton fabric and partially
dried to a residual moisture of 12%. The partially wet fabric is then subjected to ammonia
gas and oxidized by hydrogen peroxide [
65
]. The fabric is then rinsed under tap water to
remove the excess amounts of the phosphorus-containing material and hydrogen peroxide,
dried in an oven at 45
C, and finally washed with a fabric softener to reduce the harshness
imparted to the fabric during the flame-retardant treatment process. The Proban method
is fairly simple as it generates an insoluble polymer within the fiber gaps and voids of a
cotton yarn. There is no actual chemical bonding to the cellulose polymer strains but the
insoluble Proban is immobilized mechanically within the fibers and yarns. Thus, textile
materials treated with Proban method have, to some level, harsh handle and accordingly,
softeners are applied during the production process. The Pyrovatex technique is strongly
correlated to cross-linked resins employed in textile finishing processes and is in fact always
used with a cross-linked resin to create a chemical bonding with the hydroxyl functional
group of the cellulose fibers. Pyrovatex is applied by padding, drying at 120
C, curing at
160
C for 3 min, washing in a dilute aqueous solution of sodium carbonate, washing in water,
and finally drying with stentering to width. Compared to the Proban technique, Pyrovatex
affords more durable fabrics due to bond formation between the flame retardant material
and the fabric cellulose. Furthermore, due to the use of crosslinked resin, the finished fabric
has high-quality dimensional stability and crease-recovery which is preferred for curtains.
However, the application of Pyrovatex leads to the loss of tear strength, which usually takes
place with all crosslinking agents [66].
Polymers 2021,13, 155 11 of 26
Polymers 2021, 13, x FOR PEER REVIEW 11 of 26
Pyrovatex leads to the loss of tear strength, which usually takes place with all crosslinking
agents [66].
Figure 11. Chemical structures of Pyrovatex (top) and Proban (bottom).
- Water-repellent finishing
The early superhydrophobic finishing processes were dependent on applying a mix-
ture of waxes. These were suitable to sail and protective clothing, but troubles were en-
countered upon cleaning. It was observed that the heavy metallic soaps possess superhy-
drophobic characteristics, and consequently the primary effort at the manufacture of a
durable water-repellent finishing was to employ the chromium salt of a fatty acid to be
applied on cotton followed by baking. The most recent water-repellent finishing processes
include the application of fluorocarbons which are essentially an ester of perfluorinated
hexanol with polyacrylic acid [67,68].
- Antistatic finishing
When dissimilar materials are rubbed together, a static charge is produced followed
by separation of these charges leading to the formation of one positively charged material
and the other one is negatively charged depending on the nature of the two materials.
Under ambient conditions, cotton fibers possess very good antistatic properties due to the
high moisture of 8% in cotton because it introduces the fiber with adequate conductivity
to dissipate any charges that might be accumulated. One of the most remarkable develop-
ments of antistatic treatments has been the production of the durable antistatic finishing
processes, such as the commercial Permalose antistatic agent, which is a series of treat-
ments using block copolymer consisting of ethylene oxide and a polyester [69].
- Antimicrobial and antifungal finishing
Antimicrobial and antifungal finishing (Figure 12) processes are very important in
certain textiles for a variety of medical hygienic applications to avoid infections [70]. An-
timicrobial finishing is largely used in garments such as mattress ticking, blankets and
pillows that are being handled continuously by people as in hotels, hospitals, asylums and
student hostels. For example, both zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate and copper 8-hy-
droxyquinolate have been used as microbicidal chemicals [71–73].
HO N
H
O
P
O
O
O
CH
3
CH
3
OHP
OH
HO
N
H
N
H
O
P
OH
HO
HO
Figure 11. Chemical structures of Pyrovatex (top) and Proban (bottom).
- Water-repellent finishing
The early superhydrophobic finishing processes were dependent on applying a mix-
ture of waxes. These were suitable to sail and protective clothing, but troubles were
encountered upon cleaning. It was observed that the heavy metallic soaps possess super-
hydrophobic characteristics, and consequently the primary effort at the manufacture of
a durable water-repellent finishing was to employ the chromium salt of a fatty acid to be
applied on cotton followed by baking. The most recent water-repellent finishing processes
include the application of fluorocarbons which are essentially an ester of perfluorinated
hexanol with polyacrylic acid [67,68].
- Antistatic finishing
When dissimilar materials are rubbed together, a static charge is produced followed by
separation of these charges leading to the formation of one positively charged material and
the other one is negatively charged depending on the nature of the two materials. Under
ambient conditions, cotton fibers possess very good antistatic properties due to the high
moisture of 8% in cotton because it introduces the fiber with adequate conductivity to dissi-
pate any charges that might be accumulated. One of the most remarkable developments of
antistatic treatments has been the production of the durable antistatic finishing processes,
such as the commercial Permalose antistatic agent, which is a series of treatments using
block copolymer consisting of ethylene oxide and a polyester [69].
- Antimicrobial and antifungal finishing
Antimicrobial and antifungal finishing (Figure 12) processes are very important in
certain textiles for a variety of medical hygienic applications to avoid infections [
70
].
Antimicrobial finishing is largely used in garments such as mattress ticking, blankets and
pillows that are being handled continuously by people as in hotels, hospitals, asylums
and student hostels. For example, both zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate and copper 8-
hydroxyquinolate have been used as microbicidal chemicals [7173].
Polymers 2021,13, 155 12 of 26
Polymers 2021, 13, x FOR PEER REVIEW 12 of 26
Figure 12. SEM images of antimicrobial plasma-pretreated cotton fibers coated with polyaniline
(a,b), and polyaniline/silver nanoparticles composite (c,d) [70]. “Reprinted with permission from
Springer Nature [70]”.
- Coloration of technical textiles
The dyes used for high-performance textiles can be chosen from an extremely broad
range of synthetic or natural organic dyestuffs derived from aromatic materials of conju-
gated molecular structures. These conjugated systems have the capability to absorb par-
ticular wavelengths of the visible light, so that the completing light is scattered by the
dyed high-performance fabric is perceived as colored. The dyestuff chemical structure has
to enclose a chromophore and a functional group responsible for the color, such as nitro,
hydrazon, and azo groups. To become a practical colorant, however, the dye molecular
structure should enclose other functional groups such as amino, hydroxyl, sulphonic or
carboxylic groups known as auxochromes. These auxochromes are responsible for modi-
fication or strengthening color, increase the dye solubility in water, and mainly assist at-
taching the dye to the fiber via either chemical or physical bonding. Elevated substantivity
supports the degree of dye exhaustion onto the fibers from the dye-bath to provide col-
ored technical textiles, and consequently, affords high color fastness properties such as
rubbing, washing, sublimation, perspiration, and light [74,75].
Identification of dyes according to their application or their chemical structure are
major approaches for classifying dyestuffs. Color is the most visible instant feature and
the major aesthetic concern in textiles. Conventional dyestuff offers textile merchandise
with expected, stable and permanent color. On the other hand, chromic dyestuff displays
distinctive color transformations upon exposure to external stimuli (Figures 13 and 14).
Such color changes are usually controllable and reversible. For instance, photochromic
dyes (Figure 15) change their color when subjected to ultraviolet radiation and return to
their original color state when the light source is removed [76,77]. Thermochromic dyes
can also change color in upon exposure to different temperature values [78]. Chromic tex-
tiles have the capability to change color presenting an opportunity to function as a form
of flexible communication display. A chromic material is explored for specific functional-
ity in technical smart clothing, also called chameleon textiles, to sense and respond to par-
ticular environmental stimulus. The most applied chromic materials in technical textiles
are photochromic and thermochromic. Technical textiles are usually prepared by incor-
porating such smart materials by different including dyeing, printing, finishing, or direct
Figure 12.
SEM images of antimicrobial plasma-pretreated cotton fibers coated with polyaniline (
a
,
b
),
and polyaniline/silver nanoparticles composite (
c
,
d
) [
70
]. “Reprinted with permission from Springer
Nature [70]”.
- Coloration of technical textiles
The dyes used for high-performance textiles can be chosen from an extremely broad
range of synthetic or natural organic dyestuffs derived from aromatic materials of con-
jugated molecular structures. These conjugated systems have the capability to absorb
particular wavelengths of the visible light, so that the completing light is scattered by the
dyed high-performance fabric is perceived as colored. The dyestuff chemical structure has
to enclose a chromophore and a functional group responsible for the color, such as nitro,
hydrazon, and azo groups. To become a practical colorant, however, the dye molecular
structure should enclose other functional groups such as amino, hydroxyl, sulphonic or
carboxylic groups known as auxochromes. These auxochromes are responsible for mod-
ification or strengthening color, increase the dye solubility in water, and mainly assist
attaching the dye to the fiber via either chemical or physical bonding. Elevated substan-
tivity supports the degree of dye exhaustion onto the fibers from the dye-bath to provide
colored technical textiles, and consequently, affords high color fastness properties such as
rubbing, washing, sublimation, perspiration, and light [74,75].
Identification of dyes according to their application or their chemical structure are
major approaches for classifying dyestuffs. Color is the most visible instant feature and
the major aesthetic concern in textiles. Conventional dyestuff offers textile merchandise
with expected, stable and permanent color. On the other hand, chromic dyestuff displays
distinctive color transformations upon exposure to external stimuli (Figures 13 and 14).
Such color changes are usually controllable and reversible. For instance, photochromic
dyes (Figure 15) change their color when subjected to ultraviolet radiation and return to
their original color state when the light source is removed [
76
,
77
]. Thermochromic dyes
can also change color in upon exposure to different temperature values [
78
]. Chromic
textiles have the capability to change color presenting an opportunity to function as
a form of flexible communication display. A chromic material is explored for specific
functionality in technical smart clothing, also called chameleon textiles, to sense and
respond to particular environmental stimulus. The most applied chromic materials in
technical textiles are photochromic and thermochromic. Technical textiles are usually
prepared by incorporating such smart materials by different including dyeing, printing,
Polymers 2021,13, 155 13 of 26
finishing, or direct incorporation during fibers production [
79
85
]. There is a variety of
chromic behavior that depends on the type of chromic material (Table 1).
Polymers 2021, 13, x FOR PEER REVIEW 13 of 26
incorporation during fibers production [79–85]. There is a variety of chromic behavior that
depends on the type of chromic material (Table 1).
Figure 13. Behaviour of chromic materials or dyes.
Figure 14. Photochromic effect of screen-printed cotton before and after irradiation with ultravio-
let [77]. “Reprinted with permission from Elsevier [77]”.
Figure 15. Photochromism of spiropyrans; X, Y = H, nitro, halogen, … etc.; R = alkyl; R, R = alkyl.
Table 1. Different chromic behaviors.
Chromic Phenomena External Stimulus
Photochromism Light
Thermochromism Heat
Electrochromism Electrical current
Halochromism pH
Solavtochromism Solvent polarity
Hygrochromism Moisture
Mechanochromism Mechanical deformation
Tribochromism Mechanical friction
Piezochromism Mechanical pressure
Chemochromism Chemical agents such as explosives
Gasochromism Gases
Carsolchromic Electron beam
Vapochromism Vapors of organic materials due to their polarity, pH, …
etc.
Cathodochromism Electron beam irradiation
Radiochromism Ionizing radiation
O
N
R' R''
R
YXY
X
N
R' R''
R
O
colourless spiropyran coloured photomerocyanine dye
heat and/or
light
UV
Figure 13. Behaviour of chromic materials or dyes.
Polymers 2021, 13, x FOR PEER REVIEW 13 of 26
incorporation during fibers production [79–85]. There is a variety of chromic behavior that
depends on the type of chromic material (Table 1).
Figure 13. Behaviour of chromic materials or dyes.
Figure 14. Photochromic effect of screen-printed cotton before and after irradiation with ultravio-
let [77]. “Reprinted with permission from Elsevier [77]”.
Figure 15. Photochromism of spiropyrans; X, Y = H, nitro, halogen, … etc.; R = alkyl; R, R = alkyl.
Table 1. Different chromic behaviors.
Chromic Phenomena External Stimulus
Photochromism Light
Thermochromism Heat
Electrochromism Electrical current
Halochromism pH
Solavtochromism Solvent polarity
Hygrochromism Moisture
Mechanochromism Mechanical deformation
Tribochromism Mechanical friction
Piezochromism Mechanical pressure
Chemochromism Chemical agents such as explosives
Gasochromism Gases
Carsolchromic Electron beam
Vapochromism Vapors of organic materials due to their polarity, pH, …
etc.
Cathodochromism Electron beam irradiation
Radiochromism Ionizing radiation
O
N
R' R''
R
YXY
X
N
R' R''
R
O
colourless spiropyran coloured photomerocyanine dye
heat and/or
light
UV
Figure 14.
Photochromic effect of screen-printed cotton before and after irradiation with ultraviolet [
77
]. “Reprinted with
permission from Elsevier [77]”.
Polymers 2021, 13, x FOR PEER REVIEW 13 of 26
incorporation during fibers production [79–85]. There is a variety of chromic behavior that
depends on the type of chromic material (Table 1).
Figure 13. Behaviour of chromic materials or dyes.
Figure 14. Photochromic effect of screen-printed cotton before and after irradiation with ultravio-
let [77]. “Reprinted with permission from Elsevier [77]”.
Figure 15. Photochromism of spiropyrans; X, Y = H, nitro, halogen, … etc.; R = alkyl; R, R = alkyl.
Table 1. Different chromic behaviors.
Chromic Phenomena External Stimulus
Photochromism Light
Thermochromism Heat
Electrochromism Electrical current
Halochromism pH
Solavtochromism Solvent polarity
Hygrochromism Moisture
Mechanochromism Mechanical deformation
Tribochromism Mechanical friction
Piezochromism Mechanical pressure
Chemochromism Chemical agents such as explosives
Gasochromism Gases
Carsolchromic Electron beam
Vapochromism Vapors of organic materials due to their polarity, pH, …
etc.
Cathodochromism Electron beam irradiation
Radiochromism Ionizing radiation
O
N
R' R''
R
YXY
X
N
R' R''
R
O
colourless spiropyran coloured photomerocyanine dye
heat and/or
light
UV
Figure 15. Photochromism of spiropyrans; X, Y = H, nitro, halogen, . . . etc.; R = alkyl; R0, R” = alkyl.
Table 1. Different chromic behaviors.
Chromic Phenomena External Stimulus
Photochromism Light
Thermochromism Heat
Electrochromism Electrical current
Halochromism pH
Solavtochromism Solvent polarity
Hygrochromism Moisture
Mechanochromism Mechanical deformation
Tribochromism Mechanical friction
Piezochromism Mechanical pressure
Chemochromism Chemical agents such as explosives
Gasochromism Gases
Carsolchromic Electron beam
Vapochromism
Vapors of organic materials due to their polarity, pH,
. . .
etc.
Cathodochromism Electron beam irradiation
Radiochromism Ionizing radiation
Biochromism Biological entity
Aggregachromism Dimerisation/aggregation of chromophores
Crystallochromism Variation in crystal structure of a chromophore
Magnetochromism Magnetic field
Ionochromism Ions
Chronochromism Time
Polymers 2021,13, 155 14 of 26
Coloration of technical textiles is performed either by dyeing to form uniform color or
by printing to introduce a design or a pattern to a fabric. It is mainly anticipated for aesthetic
motives, but also affords ready methods for recognizing the quality or fineness of materi-
als [
70
,
86
]. For instance, the visibility of a fineness surgical suture at the implant position
can be easily recognized by color. The high visibility of garments and camouflage coatings
obviously afford the extreme ends of the coloration spectra for high-performance fabrics.
Colorants can cover fiber yellowing and assist fiber protection against weathering, both
aspects are of significance where the physical characteristics of the high-performance fab-
rics have to be maintained. High heat absorption is also raised whereas black garments are
subjected to sunlight, a significant aspect for the packaging of agriculture products
[8789]
.
Coloration of technical textiles is sophisticated because of the huge variety of natural
and synthetic fibers, yarns, and fabrics and the diverse nature of the end-use application.
The ability to dye fibers, yarns and fabrics introduce a simple offer toward multicolored
garments by weave or knit different colored yarns. In addition, the dyestuffs employed
could be either water-soluble (or sparingly water-soluble) dyestuffs or water-insoluble
pigments. The majority of dyestuffs are applied to dye textiles in an aqueous environment,
although disperse-type dyes can also be applied via supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. On
the other hand, pigments are either physically trapped inside the filaments during extrusion
of polymers, or adhered to technical textiles by coating using an adhesive binder [90,91].
Dyeing is usually performed on textiles from which surface contaminants such as fiber
lubricants, particulate dirt or natural coloring materials etc., are removed by the proper
pre-treatments such as desizing, scouring, and bleaching. Various synthetic fibers do not
usually necessitate chemical bleaching preceding to coloration since such fibers may be
already whitened using a fluorescent brightener during the manufacturing process. The
printing process can be performed mainly on high-performance textiles that may be in
their natural state, bleached, whitened, or after dyeing [51,9297].
- Conductive textiles
High-performance textiles can be considered as a growing research field especially
for electroactive textiles (fabric, thread or yarn). The physicomechanical properties of
textiles make them preferred solid state matrices for immobilizing a variety of substances.
The advantages of electroactive textiles derived from their large surface area and high-
quality mechanical and exploitation characteristics such as flexibility, conductivity, softness,
strength, lightness, and capability to permeate gases. The large contact surface of textile
fabrics usually allows efficient fit and flexibility. Research on sewing electroactive polymers
into technical textiles is limited. Wearable conductive clothing opens new opportunities
for developments in biomonitoring, rehabilitation, telemedicine, high-frequency shield-
ing public telecontrol and teleassistance systems, static dissipation, wearable wireless
communications, ergonomics and virtual-augmented reality. The electrically conductive
technical textiles present a significant component in the recognition of electronic textiles.
Furthermore, such electrical responsive properties can also be employed to incorporate
chemical sensing capabilities for military purposes as protective clothes against hazardous
biological and/or chemical environments [98,99].
A conductive polymer can be defined as a material able to respond to an applied
electrical field by changing shape and/or dimensions. The applications of electroactive
polymers have been mainly involved in medical, military and industry. Very promis-
ing progress in conductive materials science and technology, supports the recognition of
conductive devices for electronic wearable textiles. In fact, there are different functions
necessary for such interactive designs, including sensors, actuators, computation systems,
and power generation/storage, which can currently be exerted by devices based on con-
ductive fibers. Conductive fibers offer several advantages, such as light weight, significant
elasticity, flexibility, low-cost and easy to process. They can be produced under different
forms, printed, sewn, or knitted fabrics, or even woven in fibrous shapes directly into
textile architectures. In addition to electroactive polymers, metal traces, such as gold,
copper, silver, titanium and nickel, can be printed or deposited directly onto the fabric
Polymers 2021,13, 155 15 of 26
surface employing certain approaches, such as screen printing and vacuum deposition and
sputtering [100,101].
4. Textile-Reinforced Composites
Textile-reinforced composites are a division of the broad category of engineering
materials which is generally divided into four categories, including ceramics, polymers,
metals and composites. An accurate meaning of composites is not easy to accomplish since
the other three categories of homogeneous materials are sometimes heterogeneous at the
submicron size. Composites are distinguished by being multiphase substrates inside which
the phase distribution and geometry was intentionally modified to optimize one or more
property. This is obviously a suitable description for textile-reinforced composites which
is characterized by one phase, known as a matrix, reinforced by a fibrous strengthening
in the form of a fabric. There are a variety of well-known fibrous blends available for
textile-reinforced composites with a broad range of materials [102,103].
The total variety of potential composites is huge. In the case of reinforcements, we
have to incorporate S-glass, R-glass, boron, carbon, ceramic and aramid fibers, and iden-
tified that the reinforcements can occur in the shape of short, long, plate, disk, sphere
or ellipsoid fibers. Different reinforced materials have comprised a broad range of poly-
mers, metals, and ceramics. Processing techniques are such as hand lay-up, autoclave,
resin-transfer molding, powder-metallurgy methods for metals, injection molding for
polymers, squeeze casting and chemical vapor permeation. The market for composites
can be classified into two classes, including reinforced plastics derived from short fiber
E-glass-reinforced unsaturated polyester resins (reported for more than 95% of market
capacity); and advanced composites derived from advanced fibers, such as carbon, boron,
aramid, or silicon carbide, or other advanced matrices, such as a high-temperature polymer
matrix, and a metallic or a ceramic matrix, or advanced processing methods [104,105].
Textile-reinforced composite materials have been in use for engineering purposes for
several years for comparatively cheap applications, such as woven glass-reinforced polymer
hulls for mine sweepers. Textile reinforcement can replace different metal technologies.
Textile-reinforced composite materials show potential for decreased production costs
and improved processing, or in some cases, enhanced mechanical properties. Therefore,
it is also competitive with comparatively mature composite technology that employs
further conventional techniques of autoclave and prepregging production. There are
different types of textile reinforcements, including weave, braid, knit and stitch. Woven
textile reinforcement for polymer matrices is currently considered to be mature end-use
purposes. The knitted glass textile materials drawn above the mold and injected by a resin
employing the resin transfer molding processing method, has been employed to produce
door constituents for a helicopter with the anticipation to replace the existing production
method with the epoxy resin prepreg material and the autoclave processing of carbon fiber.
Numerous textile processing methods are liable to be merged for some end-use purposes,
such as the combination of braid and knit that can be applied to manufacture an I-shaped
architecture. For structural end-use purpose, the characteristics which are resistant to
damaging and/or cracks growth, strength and stiffness [106,107].
5. High-Performance Applications
The market size and growth of every key application area for high-performance
textiles has been identified by Techtextil. Ecological technical textiles were recognized
as a potentially significant growth division of technical textiles but are not calculated
in the entire consumption since they have been identified under other divisions such
as industrial textiles for production of filters and oil spill treatments; and Geo-Tech for
geomembranes for toxic wastes and erosion protective clothing, etc. High-performance
fabrics can be divided into many groups, depending on their functional characteristics.
Such a categorization scheme was introduced by Techtextil, Messe Frankfurt Exhibition
GmbH [4,9,23,108].
Polymers 2021,13, 155 16 of 26
5.1. Transportation Including Automobiles, Shipping, Railways and Aerospace (Mobil-Tech or
Mobil-Tex)
Mobil-Tech textiles are generally employed in the manufacturing of railways, automo-
biles, heavy trucks, ships, aircraft, and spacecraft. They are used as truck and car trunk
covers, airbags, parachutes, timing belts, boats, engine noise insulation, higher end tires,
seat covers, safety belts, air filters, and air balloons. Transport applications constitute
the biggest single end-user area of high-performance textiles. Technical transportation
textile goods range from rugs, seats, tires, seat and timing belts and safety air bags, to
reinforced composites for automotive and aircrafts, including wings and engine machinery
contents. The automotive industrial applications represent the highest commercialized
section of all transportation high-performance textiles. The growth rate of novel other
end-user applications such as air-bags and reinforced composite materials is expected to
continuously exceed above averages by a large margin in coming years. Increasing the
complexity of product qualifications and end-use of textile materials has resulted in the
adoption of lightweight, low-cost, stronger, more durable and more accurately engineered
yarns, woven and knitted garments and nonwoven. For example, the reduced weight per
tire of textile reinforced cords in modern radial manufacturing. Internal technical textiles
in automobiles also make use of lighter and inexpensive nonwoven. Reinforced hoses
and belts are now able to last for a longer vehicle lifetime, replacing much of the huge
and continuing textile goods from the market. The automotive industries have become
increasingly worldwide players in an extremely competitive market. The providers of
technical textiles to such a market are already predominated by a small number of large
companies in each product area [109].
5.2. Medical and Hygiene (Med-Tech or Med-Tex)
Textiles that find hygiene and medical applications are termed high-performance med-
ical textiles. The main applications include surgical gowns, drapes, wound care products,
diapers, sutures, sanitary napkins and sterile packaging. The most well-known applications
of high-performance textiles are for hygienic products, such as sanitary products, diapers
and wipes. Manufacturers currently seek to develop both medical and hygiene textiles
further by adding value toward more complicated products. Nonwoven predominate in
such applications which are reported for more than 23% of all non-woven end-uses, the
major sector of any of the 12 main high-performance textiles markets. Fears have been
addressed at the increasing of disposable goods and the load that they put upon landfill and
other waste disposal techniques. Attempts have been performed to establish biodegradable
products for such end-uses but expenses are still high. An additional area of medical and hy-
giene sophisticated textile market is medical and surgical merchandise, such as operational
gowns and drapes, arteries, sterilization packing, artificial ligaments, dressings, veins, skin
replacement, hollow fibers for dialysis equipment, sutures, orthopedic pads etc. [110112].
5.3. Household Textiles and Floor-Coverings (Home-Tech or Home-Tex)
High-performance home textiles (Home-Tech) are used for internal decoration, furni-
ture, carpeting, floor and wall cover, sun shielding, and fire retardant. These are employed
in the large market particularly as a fire retardant in buildings, ships, caravans, trans-
portation, etc. Fire retardant characteristics are usually gained either by using inbuilt
fire retardant such as modacryl fibers or by applying a coating containing fire retardant
components such as phosphorus-based Pyrovatex materials. Hom-Tech textiles are by far
the highest area of use compared to the other major 11 areas employing nonwoven and
composite reinforcement materials. More than 35% of the entire weight of fibers and textiles
in this class, are in the area of household furnishing and garments particularly in loose
fibers in wadding. Hollow fibers of high-quality insulation are largely used in bed and
sleep bags. Additional classes of fiber have been increasingly employed to replace foams in
furniture packaging due to fear over flames and health hazards formed by those materials.
Polymers 2021,13, 155 17 of 26
Woven fabrics are still employed to a considerable level as furniture and carpet-baking
products and curtain header tapes [113,114].
5.4. Agriculture, Aquaculture, Horticulture and Forestry (Agro-Tech or Agro-Tex)
Agro-Tech textiles are characterized by elongation, stiffness, biodegradation, and
strength as well as protection against toxic environment and sunlight. Textiles employed
in agriculture such as erosion and crop protection, layer separation in fields, sunlight
screening, wind shield packaging for storing grass, and anti-birds nets. Light-weight
spun-bonded fleeces are nowadays used for a variety of products, such as shading, weed
suppression and thermal insulator. Heavyweight non-woven, woven and knitted textiles
have been employed in hail and wind shelters. Capillary non-woven fibrous architectures
have been used in horticulture to distribute moisture on rising plant. The mass storing
and transportation of fertilizers and agriculture crop has been increasingly undertaken
employing woven polypropylene-based flexible vessels to replace jute, paper or plastic
packs. Agriculture is also an essential consumer of high-performance textile merchandise
from other end-user segments such as Geo-Tech textiles for land reclamation and drainage,
Pro-Tech garments for workers who must handle sprays and hazardous tools, and Mobil-
Tech textiles for tractors and lorries, conveyor belts, hoses, filtration systems and reinforced
composites for building silos, tanks and pipes. Fish farms have been a growing industry
employing specialized net systems and other technical textile products such as lightweight
strong lines and nets produced from dyneema and spectra fibers [115,116].
5.5. Filtration, Conveying, Cleaning and Other Industrial Uses (Indu-Tech or Indu-Tex)
In general, those are strongly woven textile materials characterized by high tenacity
polyester and/or nylon yarns. They have been employed for electrical, mechanical and
chemical engineering applications, such as plasma screens, transportations, lifting and
grinding machinery systems, filtration, insulators, sound proofing, roller covering, and
fuel cells. Separating solids from liquids or gases is a vital division of many industrial
processes. The field of filtration systems can be recognized as the capturing of particles
in the range of several millimeters down to the molecular level. There are requirements
and standards that must be accomplished to produce a certain filter. Technical textiles have
been typically used in filtration systems for the separation and cleaning of gases, fluids and
effluents. Thus, textile filters are highly rising up in the worldwide market upon increasing
manufacturing and environmental demands. There are five main categories of filtration
system that can be best divided into liquid-liquid, solid-solid, solid-liquid, gas-gas and
solid-gas filters. The textile permeability can be identified as the permission of such fabrics
to allow the flow of certain molecules through it which necessitates engineering precise
properties into a functional fabric depending on the desired product, and the features of
the solids being filtered. Selecting and fabricating textile materials of certain properties
is critical to the efficiency of a particular filter and its processing ability with a specified
slurry composition to prevent any probable problem, such as filter plugging which results
in low durability owing to the accumulation of the solid particles being separated [117].
5.6. Building and Constructions (Build-Tech or Build-Tex)
These are employed in construction including concrete reinforcement, frontispiece,
interior architectures, sewer and pipes, linings, noise and heat insulation, fire and water
proof, air conditioning, house-wrap, wall-reinforcement, aesthetic, and sun protective
products. Impressive examples of Build-Tech are found in stadia, theaters, airports and
hotels. Build-Tech textiles have been used in numerous ways in the assembly of buildings,
dams, bridges, tunnels and roads. Temporary constructions, such as awnings, marquees
and tents, have been used in a variety of applications due to their lightweight, strong,
fire-retardant, rot-resistant, sunlight protection, and weather-proof characteristics. Non-
woven glass and polyester garments are already broadly employed in roofing, permeable
membranes to stop moisture diffusion of walls, and insulation in building and machinery
Polymers 2021,13, 155 18 of 26
systems. Double walled spacer textiles can be filled with appropriate materials to afford
sound and/or thermal insulators. Glass-reinforced composites involve septic tanks, wall
panels and sanitary fittings. Polypropylene, glass and acrylic textiles have been employed
to stop cracking of concrete and other construction defects. Carbon fibers are attracting
attention as a potential reinforcement for earthquake-prone constructions although cost
remains a significant restraint upon its more extensive uses. Textiles are also broadly in use
in different construction processes, such as safety nets, lift and tension ropes, and flexible
shutters for curing concrete. The possible applications of high-performance textiles for
construction purposes are nearly unlimited [118].
5.7. Packaging (Pack-Tech or Pack-Tex)
Pack-Tech textiles are used for packaging, storing silos, containers, tents, and clothes covering.
Significant applications of textiles involve the development of sacks and bags, conven-
tionally from jute, flax and cotton but currently from poly(propylene). The strengthened
high-performance textiles emerged with modern substances handling techniques, have
allowed the innovation of the more efficient handling, storage and distribution of diverse
granular and powdered products varying from sand, cement, flour, sugar and fertilizer to
pigments and dyestuffs. A growing sector of the packaging market employs light-weight
knitted and non-woven materials for diverse wrapping and protective applications, par-
ticularly in foodstuff industry such as tea and coffee bags employing wet-laid nonwoven
fabrics. Meat, vegetable and fruits are commonly packed using nonwoven introduced to
absorb liquids. Other vegetable and fruits goods are provided in knitted net packing [
119
].
5.8. Sports and Leisure (Sport-Tech or Spor-Tex)
These were designed for shoes, cycling, summer and winter sports, angling, sail and
fly sports, climbing, and sport equipment. After exclusion of applications of textiles in high-
performance clothing and footwear, there are various applications of high-performance
textiles in leisure and sport. Such uses are diverse and vary from synthetic grass employed
in textile surface to carbon fiber reinforced composites for fishing rods, racquet and cycle
frame as well as golf club. Further applications include garments for balloons, parachutes,
paragliders and sailcloths [120].
5.9. Geotextiles and Civil Engineering (Geo-Tech or Geo-Tex)
Geotextiles are used in supporting of embankments, bridges, and drainage systems,
while permeable Geo-Tech has been employed for soil reinforcement, erosion control, and
filters. Revegetation of such textiles supported embankments or banks of water streams
can also be promoted by applying the proper materials. Geotextiles are characterized by
superior strength, durable, low moisture absorption and thickness. Geotextiles are typically
non-woven and woven garments. However, man-made fibers such as polypropylene, glass
and acrylic textiles are employed to avoid cracking of concrete and other building products.
An increasing number of applications in the area of civil engineering, such as stabilizers,
filters and other reinforcements are anticipated to increase demands for industrial textiles.
Nonwoven constitute up to 80% of geotextile products. Modern interest is in composite-
based textiles that merge the benefits of different textile structures, such as knitted, woven
and non-woven as well as membranes [121].
5.10. Personel Safety and Protection (Pro-Tech or Pro-Tex)
Technical protecting clothing is commonly designed to improve workers’ safety ac-
cording to requirements and regulations, to fulfill by technical textiles, described by orga-
nizations around the world such as American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
and International Organization for standardization (ISO). Technical protective clothing has
been used for additional protection values against hazards such as high-temperature insu-
lation particularly for fire-fighters, radiation in nuclear reactors, electric arc flash discharge,
molten metal impacts, metal sparks in welding, highly acid/alkaline environments, bullet
Polymers 2021,13, 155 19 of 26
impact, and astronaut’s kit. The protection functional textiles, involves safety against stabs,
explosives, fire, foul weathering, cuts, temperature (hot or cold), high voltage, abrasion,
and dangerous dust and tiny particles, as well as chemical, biological and nuclear hazards.
Similar to humans, sensitive equipment and processes also require protection. Therefore,
dirt free room clothing is a vital condition for various industries such as electronics and
pharmaceuticals [122,123].
5.11. Technical Components of Footwear and Clothing (Cloth-Tech or Cloth-Tex)
Cloth-Tech is high-performance textiles for clothing purposes particularly for smooth
finishing procedures where the cloth is treated under pressure and high temperature.
This class of technical textiles involves yarns, fibers and textiles employed as technical
elements in the production of clothes, such as waddings, interlinings, sewing threads
and insulators. Some of the most recent and highly complicated advances have seen the
inclusion of temperature phase changing materials into those insulating merchandise to
offer an extra level of control and resistant character to sudden extreme changes of hot or
cold temperature [124].
5.12. Environmental Protection (Oeko-Tech or Oeko-Tex (Eco-Tex))
Technical textiles have been used for safety purposes and environmental protection,
such as air and water filtration systems, erosion defenders, oil spill management, floor
sealing, and waste handling. Oeko-Tech textiles have been used for environmental pro-
tection. It is not a well-recognized class yet, though it has been overlapped with many
other sectors of high-performance textiles, such as Indu-Tech textiles in filters, Geo-Tech in
erosion protection and sealing of toxic wastes, and Agro-Tech in reducing water loss from
soil and decreasing the necessity of herbicides by affording mulch to plants. Enhanced re-
cyclability of technical textiles is becoming a significant concern not only for packaging but
also for products such as automobiles. The current use of non-biodegradable thermoplastic
composites has been the main reason for the reduced recyclability of the industrial techni-
cal textile products. Thus, there has been a substantial interest in developing recyclable
biodegradable thermoplastic composites [125].
6. Sustainability and Ecological Aspects
The textile industries can be considered as one of the major reasons for the general
decline in global environmental harm, pollution, and depletion of resources. Production,
coloration, finishing, and textiles circulation of fibers, yarns or fabrics are performed with
the support of massive, complex, costly machine systems and a variety of chemical ma-
terials. Hence, there are numerous possibilities for materials such as textile components
or reagents employed for processing, to escape these machine systems leading to envi-
ronmental pollution. Furthermore, efforts to manufacture all desirable merchandise lead
to spreading impurities into air, water and soil, in addition to the undesired noise and
ugliness of visible view [126].
6.1. Air Pollution
Air pollution from textile industries influences humans, machinery systems and final
goods. There are growing health harms due to the textile industries, such as tuberculosis,
byssinosis and asthma. Air pollution may also occur upon using textiles after production
and during the end-use by consumer. For home textile furnishings, various pollutants are
due to construction substances, but furniture, rugs, clothing, and wood or fabric furnishes
most likely give rise to further customer criticism. This can be attributed to the existence of
formaldehyde or other volatile organic materials. Secondary emissions from floor covers
include harmful materials such as formaldehyde released, for instance from back coatings.
However, technical textiles can play a vital task in reducing air pollution using filter fabrics
able to remove particles of different particle sizes. The tiny pores in a fabric are perfect
Polymers 2021,13, 155 20 of 26
to prevent the diffusion of contaminants while permit air-flow to occur. Filtration fabrics,
certainly, outline a main category of high-performance textiles [127].
6.2. Water Pollution
Water pollution is highly susceptible compared to other types of pollution systems to
be connected with textile industries by public, mostly for the reason that, when it takes
place, proof of its presence in the form of bio-accumulative organic materials, mutagenic
chemicals, coloring dyes or pigments from printing and/or dyeing or detergent from
washing and/or scouring is visually obvious [
55
,
128
,
129
]. Textile industry pollution can
lead to abnormal pH levels of water streams. Pollution from textiles wet processes has
reached shocking degrees, and several studies have been developed to decrease such water
consumption and contamination by modifying industrial processing techniques, reducing
the concentration of wastes, using optimal amounts of colorants or auxiliaries/chemicals of
an eco-friendly nature, and by performing an appropriate restorative treatment: applying
less water in industrial processes, decreasing the number of stages in bleaching, and
chemicals/auxiliaries recovery from water streams. Many finishing processes can create
pollutant byproducts; for example, sizing materials and starch are often considered to
be the highest reasons for pollution. Other finishing pollutant byproducts are such as
flame-retardant, softeners, antistatic, stain-resistant, water-proof, and oil-repellent. Loss of
lubricants or spinning oil from machines can lead to an unintended discharge of harmful
materials, and spillage of fuels from vehicles can also happen. Such pollutants have toxic
effects on aquatic organisms or the improvement of species, such as algae which eliminate
oxygen from water affecting aquatic organisms. Furthermore, aquatic organisms can
sometimes survive when ingest such hazardous pollutants to be transmitted up the food
chain to influence human beings. One of the most significant applications of Geo-Tech
textiles is to decrease pollution. Geo-Tech membrane fabrics have been used on the coasts
of water streams to prevent the widespread release of pollutants from different sources,
such as industrial wastes and oil spills. This can be accomplished by applying ditch lining,
landfill lining and stabilization membrane fabrics onto vegetation banks to prevent losing
precious topsoil and stop the motion of soil containing pesticides or other dangerous
substances into water resources [108,130,131].
6.3. Soil Pollution
Fibers or chemicals can be harmful if their degradation under the effect of air, water
or sunlight generates toxic agents. Examples demonstrating the problem involve a variety
of toxic degradation products from nylon, polyester or other polymeric materials which
have been discarded in water streams and find their way to landfill locations. Attempts
taken to make them biodegradable involve the application of starch as a resource of
microbial nutrition or the integration of a material can be decayed by ultraviolet (UV)
irradiation, both approaches simplify the disappearance of waste substances. Regrettably,
UV decomposition is only successful until the polymers are buried, from which, such
polymers can find their way to water supplies, acting as pollutants similarly as if they
had been thrown away directly into water supplies at first. Again, the important role of
high-performance textiles in the form of barriers to this contaminant transfer is vital [
127
].
6.4. Noise and Visual Pollution
Noise pollution arises in, for example, twist, spin and weave processes. Unpleasantly,
high noise may also occur from transportation systems or other equipment employed in
loading, shipping or handling in textile industries. There are several effects that may arise
from noise pollution, the most apparent effect being hearing loss and deafness. Other
effects from high noise levels are psychological problems such as frustration, carelessness,
withdrawal or sullenness. Nonetheless, technical textiles can serve in controlling the effects
of noise such as common use of acoustic absorbent materials to decrease the unpleasant
effect of high sound pollution. Paper documents and packaging, or plastic sheets employed
Polymers 2021,13, 155 21 of 26
to wrap textiles usually find their way into landfill locations or spread around to offend
the eyewitnesses. Technical textiles, again, are helpful in reducing the crisis by applying
their aesthetic character [132,133].
6.5. Reduction of Environmental Harm
Both renewable and non-renewable sources similarly are at threat from the desires
of the textile industry. There are a variety of well-known resources, such as oil and
petroleum products for the production of printing colorants, thickeners and binders, iron
and other metals for equipment or colorants, water for the industrialized processes, trees
for the manufacture of fibers. Eco-friendly textile green processing is introduced as a
worldwide challenge. The harm reduction for ecological protection can be divided mainly
into four categories including recycling toward resource depletion, using environmentally
friendly fibers or other supplies, and enhancement of techniques employed to eliminate
pollution after it has been generated. Technical textiles are often used in combination with
other substances, such as coating and hardening oil, or as elements of fiber-reinforced
composite. These products could be hard or not possible to degrade suitably into their
original ingredients, or such end-products may degrade successfully to their harmful
origin components. Recycling reduces wastes, water consumption, energy and chemical
costs. Realistic solutions proposed the development of novel dry processing techniques
instead of wet processing, dyeing using supercritical carbon dioxide, using plasma under
vacuum or inkjet printing. Biotechnology has been suggested to decrease pollution toward
a greener industry. An oxidation reactor with the ability to treat deeply contaminated water
streams and decrease the use of both water and chemicals in textile finishing processes has
been presented recently. Activated carbon is employed to decolorize polluted water from
reactive dyestuffs, although additional efforts demonstrate that adsorption of dyestuffs
onto peat has a comparable extracting aptitude, most probably due to surface changes and
solution pH [125,134137].
7. Future Trends
Technical textiles are one of the commercially growing industrial segments. The
fast expansion of high-performance textiles and their applications have created many
opportunities for different innovative applications. The market size of technical textiles is
expected to surpass US$251.82 billion by 2027. Technical textiles were only used normally
as wound-care goods, diapers, braces, prosthetics, wipes, breathing masks, bedclothes,
ropes, and belts etc., but the technology has been upgraded toward many and diverse end-
uses. The worldwide future of high-performance textiles can be considered as a broader
economic trend than just the production and processing of textiles. Reducing ecological
impacts from technical textiles on soil, air and water will be under more investigation.
The future of technical textiles promises even stronger global competition, which will see
producers seeking more applications, lower cost, and high-quality products.
Author Contributions:
A.A., M.E.E.-N., M.H.E.-N., M.R., M.R.H. and T.A.K. designed, discussed
and sharing in writing the Review article. All authors have read and agreed to the published version
of the manuscript.
Funding:
The authors extend their appreciation to the Deputyship for Research & Innovation,
“Ministry of Education” in Saudi Arabia for funding this research work through the project number
IFKSUPR-138.
Acknowledgments:
The authors extend their appreciation to the Deputyship for Research & Inno-
vation, “Ministry of Education” in Saudi Arabia for funding this research work through the project
number IFKSUPR-138.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest
Polymers 2021,13, 155 22 of 26
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... 172 Perhaps one of the most researched and explored applications for nanofibers in the field of environmental remediation is the cleaning of water and air that has been polluted by dyes, heavy metal ions, and hydrocarbons, among other contaminants due to their excellent adsorption ability and high surface area. 173,174 For example, fly ash (FA) is a contaminant generated by the combustion of coal, leading to water and air pollution. It is normally seen as a residue in thermal power plants. ...
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... Therefore, the nanobers introduced with pollutants repellants were widely used in textile industries to recover these heavy losses. 124 3.4.2 Filtrations. ...
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Electrospinning is a versatile and viable technique for generating ultrathin fibers. Remarkable progress has been made in techniques for creating electro-spun and non-electro-spun nanofibers. Nanofibers were the center of attention for industries and researchers due to their simplicity in manufacture and setup. The review discusses a thorough overview of both electrospinning and non-electrospinning processes, including their setup, fabrication process, components, and applications. The review starts with an overview of the field of nanotechnology, the background of electrospinning, the surge in demand for nanofiber production, the materials needed to make nanofibers, and the critical process variables that determine the characteristics of nanofibers. Additionally, the diverse applications of electrospun nanofibers, such as smart mats, catalytic supports, filtration membranes, energy storage/heritage components, electrical devices (batteries), and biomedical scaffolds, are then covered. Further, the review concentrates on the most recent and pertinent developments in nanofibers that are connected to the use of nanofibers, focusing on the most illustrative cases. Finally, challenges and their possible solutions, marketing, and the future prospects of nanofiber development are discussed.
... The inhalation of CV, CB, and CR causes irritation of the respiratory tracts, vomiting, diarrhoea, headaches, and dizziness. Long-term exposure might damage the mucous membrane (Aldalbahi et al., 2021;Padhi, 2012). ...
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... Similarly to climate changes and persistent organic pollutants, plastic residues are also perfect examples of the human capacity to significantly affect ecosystems and biodiversity on a global scale. MPs have been detected and identified in many different environments, such as aquatic media, ground waters, landfill leachate, wastewater, and sewage sludge [2][3][4]. MPs have also been detected in remote areas, including polar regions, such as Antarctica of the southern ocean and on the deepest parts of the ocean at the Mariana Trench, North Pacific gyre, and south pacific islands, with particularly high concentrations [5][6][7]. Even in the world's highest hills, the Tibetan plateau, MPs have been detected within its rivers and lakes [8]. ...
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Microplastics (MPs) are contaminants present in the environment. The current study evaluates the contribution of different well-established industrial sectors in Portugal regarding their release of MPs and potential contamination of the aquifers. For each type of industry, samples were collected from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), and different parameters were evaluated, such as the potential contamination sources, the concentration, and the composition of the MPs, in both the incoming and outcoming effluents. The procedures to extract and identify MPs in the streams entering or leaving the WWTPs were optimized. All industrial effluents analysed were found to contribute to the increase of MPs in the environment. However, the paint and pharmaceutical activities were the ones showing higher impact. Contrary to many reports, the textile industry contribution to aquifers contamination was not found to be particularly relevant. Its main impact is suggested to come from the numerous washing cycles that textiles suffer during their lifetime, which is expected to strongly contribute to a continuous release of MPs. The predominant chemical composition of the isolated MPs was found to be polyethylene terephthalate (PET). In 2020, the global need for PET was 27 million tons and by 2030, global PET demand is expected to be 42 million tons. Awareness campaigns are recommended to mitigate MPs release to the environment and its potential negative impact on ecosystems and biodiversity.
... Creating a single pair of jeans requires close to 7500 litres of water. The industry is also a huge polluter, with textiles treatments and dyeing responsible for one-fifth of worldwide industrial water pollution (Aldalbahi et al., 2021). ...
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... The modern textile industry still relies on many traditional chemical finishing processes, such as coating and padding, to impart specific final properties to fabrics such as softening, anti-static behavior, wettability/repellency, and dyeing. 1 These processes are characterized by extensive use of energy and water, production of solid waste and wastewater to be treated, as well as the employment of different types of synthetic chemicals which can have specific health and environmental impacts. 2,3 From this point of view, the high level of competition on the international markets and the growing concern of the public opinion toward sustainability are two driving forces that are influencing the development strategies of the textile industry. 4 Therefore, innovative production techniques are required to improve product performance and address the issues related to the detrimental impacts generated by textile production. ...
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Flame retardant (FR) textiles were obtained by surface treatments of polyamide 66 fabrics with microwave (MW) plasma technology in order to reduce the amount of FR involved in the fabric finishing process. More specifically, MW vacuum plasma was employed for polymer surface activation by using a helium/oxygen (He/O2) gas mixture, evaluating the effect of different treatment parameters on the affinity toward thiourea impregnation. Surface fabric modification was investigated both in terms of uniformity and increased thiourea absorption by infrared spectroscopy, wicking properties, and gravimetric characterization to define an operative window for plasma treatment conditions. According to the results obtained, the dry add-on content of thiourea improved up to 38%, thanks to the increase of the fabric surface activation. The effectiveness of plasma treatment resulted in an absolute increase up to 2% in limiting oxygen index (LOI) performance with respect to untreated fabric. As a consequence, a drastic reduction of 50% in thiourea concentration was required to achieve a similar fire retardant performance for plasma-treated fabric. On the basis of these preliminary results, a design of experiment (DoE) methodology was applied to the selected parameters to build a suitable response surface, experimentally validated, and to identify optimized treatment conditions. At the end, a final LOI index up to 43% has been reached.
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The removal of dyestuffs, which are an important pollutant group in textile wastewater, is an important environmental problem. Various chemical and physicochemical methods are used in the purification of these wastewaters. Recently, it is known that a wide variety of agricultural materials and their modified products have been investigated for dye removal using the adsorption process, which is a promising removal method. In this study, the removal of Basic Yellow 51 dyestuff from aqueous solutions of sugar beet pulp, first activated by saponification with NaOH solution and then modified by heating with citric acid, was investigated. For this purpose, the effects of parameters such as solution pH, sorbent dose, initial concentration, contact time and temperature on the sorption of Basic Yellow 51 dye to modified sugar beet pulp were investigated. As a result, it was found that the functional groups of pectin and cellulose substances in sugar beet pulp, which are effective in sorption, were activated and their number increased, thereby increasing the dye removal efficiency. It was found that sorption efficiency increased with increasing contact time and temperature and decreased with increasing initial concentration. It was determined that the sorption equilibrium data fit the Langmuir isotherm better and that the sorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. The qe value was obtained from the Langmuir isotherm as approximately 200 mg/g. As a final result, it has been demonstrated that the modified product of sugar beet pulp can be used effectively in removing basic dyes from the aquatic environment.
Chapter
Wool fiber has critical areas of applications pertaining to the medical textile sector due to its advantages such as excellent insulation, biocompatibility, non-allergic and non-toxic properties to the human body. Wool fiber blended with synthetic fibers in composite form can be used in medical textiles to protect the skin from the impacts of pressure, friction, moisture offering excellent protection. The wool/polymer composite can be used in various biomedical/hygienic applications like bedsore and pressure sore prevention, medical sheepskin footwear, foot care, wool pillows and as a substitute of non-glycolic suture. Wool keratin is rich as human hair keratin and they are able to produce film and scaffolds with higher mechanical strength with very less fibrillation and higher cell growth or seeding efficiency. Moreover, wool-based polymer biocomposites can afford an even higher transepithelial electrical resistance which can be frequently used in biomedical usages, in tissue engineering that is undoubtedly an integral part of technical textiles. In recent time, wool-based nanofiber coated with trichloroacetic acid precipitation is also increasingly popular in-vivo or in-vitro cell culture for application like standard organ and tissue replacement. The present chapter will discuss various biomedical and hygiene applications of wool fiber-based composites.
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Textile production forms one of the most polluting industries worldwide. However, other than damaging environmental effects, chemical waste products, such as formaldehyde or thiazolinone, are problematic for human health, as allergic potential is present in these compounds. Mostly, contact dermatitis occurs when human skin is exposed to textiles. Moreover, non-eczemous variants are mainly associated to textiles. In order to diagnose the possible allergy of the patient towards these compounds, in vivo and in vitro methods ca be performed, such as patch testing or cytokine detection assays, respectively. Newest research focuses on medical textiles such as garments or sutures to help in diagnosis, therapy and recovery of the patients. Sutures and dressings with antimicrobial properties, with the release of oxygen and growth factors offer greater properties. In this review, state of the art in the field as well as future perspectives will be discussed, which are based on the smart textiles that are going to become more important and probably widespread after the current limits exceeded.
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Background Textile industry has been widely implicated in environmental pollution. The health effects of residing near manufacturing industries are not well documented in India, especially in central India. Hence, a cross-sectional environmental monitoring and health assessment study was initiated as per directions of the local authorities. Methods Comprehensive exposure data about the concentrations of relevant pollutants in the ambient air and ground water samples in the study area will be collected over one year. Using stratified random sampling, 3003 apparently healthy adults will be selected from the study area. Sociodemographic and anthropometric information, relevant medical and family history, and investigations including spirometry, electrocardiogram, neurobehavioral tests, and laboratory investigations (complete blood count, lipid profile and random blood glucose) will be conducted. Finally Iodine azide test and heavy metal level detection in urine and blood samples respectively will be conducted in a subset of selected participants to assess individual pollution exposure. Ethics approval has been obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee of the National Institute for Research in Environmental Health (No: NIREH/IEC-7-II/1027, dated 07/01/2021). Discussion This manuscript describes the protocol for a multi-disciplinary study that aims to conduct environmental monitoring and health assessment in residential areas near viscose rayon and associated chemical manufacturing industries. Although India is the second largest manufacturer of rayon, next only to China, and viscose rayon manufacturing has been documented to be a source of multiple toxic pollutants, there is a lack of comprehensive information about the health effects of residing near such manufacturing units in India. Therefore implementing this study protocol will aid in filling in this knowledge gap.
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In-situ preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into plasma-pretreated cotton substrates adds novel functional properties and expands their potential applications. Herein, we report a new approach toward the assembly of multifunctional coated technical textiles. AgNPs was in-situ prepared onto plasma-pretreated cotton fibers using the simple pad-dry-cure method to impart ultraviolet protection, brilliant colors, antimicrobial and photocatalytic self-cleaning properties. AgNPs was produced by thermal reduction of excess Ag⁺ from an aqueous solution of silver N-(2-ethylhexyl)carbamate on the fibrous cotton surface at 130 °C. The immobilization of the generated AgNPs onto the fibers was improved by plasma activation. Both morphology and elemental content of the treated fabrics were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy (EDX-SEM). The morphology of the generated AgNPs was also investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The generated AgNPs exhibited a homogeneous distribution and high depositing density with a nanoparticle size between 35 and 80 nm. AgNPs incorporated onto cotton fibers endowed with brownish-yellow color for plasma-untreated fibers and brown for plasma-pretreated fibers. The colorfastness and color strength of the AgNPs-coated fabrics were explored. The colored cotton fibers demonstrated persistent antimicrobial performance to S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans pathogens. AgNPs/cotton displayed excellent photocatalysis and self-cleaning properties to the photochemical decomposition of methylene blue.
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Agro textile is a vital and developing area among all the areas of technical textiles. It covers products from fishing to horticulture and husbandry application. The significance of the agro textiles is considered as an important area all over the world. There are various applications of agro textile products that have shown great results and have a positive effect on production and growth of numerous vegetables and crops. The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview and significance of agro textile products that can be used in various applications to enhance the yield of crops. Agro textile products provide the adequate humidity to soil, maintain the temperature, and protect the products of crops from the hail. Agro textile products like bird net, harvesting net, sunscreen, windshield, hail protection net, mulch mat, etc. are getting much attention these days. Natural fiber based agro textiles can be used in those specific areas where wet strength, moisture retention, and biodegradability are required. Polyolefin fibers are preferred among all the man-made fibers for agro textile products due to high strength, light weight, and long service life. Another intention of this chapter is to make the readers comprehend about this area and to encourage them to use agricultural products for enhancement of yield
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This study examines the performance level of hybrid woven protective clothing (HWPC), manufactured from Kevlar® (K) and Ramie (R) yarns. The weave structures (plain, twill 1/3) and variables fiber ratios were used to produce HWPC. The performance level of HWPC was measured according to EN 388:2016. We came to the conclusion that blade cut resistance of plain and twill structure sustained protection level up to increase of KR 80:20 and KR 70:30, respectively; puncture resistance of K100% and HWPC remained in the same level of protection for plain and twill weaves; Abrasion resistance of K100% and HWPC of plain and twill weaves samples presented abrasive performance of same protection level, but the average number of cycles sustained for twill weave samples was slightly higher than plain weave. However, comparing the plain and twill weaves sample for tear resistance, twill weave samples have higher tear resistance than plain weave. A gray relational analysis and Taguchi method was performed to optimize the performance of two structures with variable fiber ratios. It was established that the article produced with K&R yarns with KR 80:20 ratio and twill weave presented the best performance against all test runs. The main objective of this study is to reduce plastic pollution by reducing the amount of synthetic fiber proportion in personal protective clothing and thereby reducing the dependence on nonrenewable sources for synthetic fiber. The 41 g/m 2 reduction of Kevlar® fiber has been made in a conventional PC with ramie fiber, without compromising the protection level. This will enhance the sustainability of HWPC.
Book
Fibres to Smart Textiles: Advances in Manufacturing, Technologies, and Applications offers comprehensive coverage of the fundamentals and advances in the textile and clothing manufacturing sectors. It describes the basics of fibres, yarns, and fabrics and their end use in the latest developments and applications in the field and addresses environmental impacts from textile processes and how to minimize them. This book serves as a single comprehensive source discussing textile fibres, yarn formation, filament formation techniques, woven fabric formation, knitting technologies, nonwoven manufacturing technologies, braiding technologies, and dyeing, printing, and finishing processes. Testing of textile materials, environmental impacts of textile processes and use of CAD and CAM in designing textile products are also included. The book also discusses applications including textile composites and biocomposites, technical textiles, smart textiles, and nanotextiles. With chapters authored by textile experts, this practical book offers guidance to professionals in textile and clothing manufacturing and shows how to avoid potential pitfalls in product development.
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The fundamentals of fabric filters, their uses, design, longevity, strength requirements, and testing are reviewed and discussed. For unidirectional laminar flow conditions, particle retention and permeability criteria for fabric filters are well established. All the approaches currently adopted tend to give similar answers and are dependent on the fabric being the ‘catalyst’ in the formation of a ‘self-induced’ filter within the retained soil. When problems occur in practice, it is normally due to clogging of the filter, i.e. the fabric is too fine. Thin fabrics appear most suited for this use. For severe hydrodonamic and reversing flow conditions, the self-induced’ filler will not form, and design criteria are not so well established or accepted. Thicker fabrics offer a more tortuous path to the migration of particles and are thus more suited than thin fabrics. However, thin fabrics have successfully been used in conjunction with (out of specification) granular filters.
Article
Electrospinning as a versatile technology has attracted a large amount of attention in the past few decades due to the facile way to produce micro- and nano-scale fibers featuring flexibility, large specific surface area and high porosity. Stimuli-responsive polymers are a class of smart materials that are capable of sensing surround environment and interacting with them. Therefore, the combination of electrospinning and smart materials could have a great deal of benefits over the development of smart fibers. In this review, it offers a comprehensive understanding of smart electrospun fibers toward textile applications. Firstly, the definition of smart fibers and the differences between interactive fibers and passive interactive fibers are briefly introduced. Then some interactive fibers made from temperature-, pH-, light-, electric field/electricity-, magnetic field-, multi-responsive polymers, as well as some polymers featuring piezoelectric and triboelectric effect which are suitable flexible electrics, are emphasized with their applications in the form of electrospun fibers. Afterwards, some passive and hybrid smart electrospun fibers are introduced. Finally, associated challenges and perspectives are summarized and discussed.
Book
This book discusses the properties of fibres used in manufacturing technical textiles, highlighting the importance of material selection in terms of cost, end-user requirements and properties. It also discusses the classification of technical textiles, and describes the details of each category, such as the properties, applications, advantages and drawbacks. As such, it is a valuable resource for all those interested in advanced textiles.
Chapter
The textile products are broadly divided into two groups, i.e., conventional textiles and technical textiles. Conventional textile products are designed, developed, or used for the common, decorative, or aesthetic applications, whereas technical textile products are those which are used in the functional applications. Technical textile products are usually classified into twelve groups, i.e., Mobiltech, Indutech, Medtech, Hometech, Clothtech, Agrotech, Buildtech, Sportech, Packtech, Geotech, Protech, and Oekotech. This classification of the technical textile products is based on the area of application. For example, products related to the medical and health care are a part of Medtech which stands for medical textiles. This classification has two drawbacks. First, several segments of the technical textile do not have clear boundaries and overlap with the other segments. For example, Oekotech overlaps with Indutech (filtration), Geotech (erosion protection), and Agrotech (water efficiency). Secondly, this classification does not help much to an entry level manufacturer of technical textiles. The reason is that each segment has a large variety of products made of diversified fibers/raw materials using divergent manufacturing techniques and equipment. In addition to that, the products have to fulfill varied testing requirements as well. Therefore, it is almost impossible to figure out a certain type of manufacturing facility to fulfill the needs of one segment. Keeping in view the very fact, technology-based classification of the technical textile products has also been proposed in this chapter.
Article
Molecular switching chromic compounds can be defined as molecular systems which can reversibly change their molecular structures in response to one or more external stimuli, such as irradiation, magnetic or electric field, chemicals or gases, light, heat, mechanical effects, or changes in pH. Hydrazones represent a versatile category of organic molecular systems. Getting switchable molecular hydrazones to construct macroscopic smart architectures is still an attractive challenge. Molecular switching hydrazone chemical sensors refer to diagnostic tools that can avoid a person (or a product) from a certain threat due to the exposure to hazardous elements or environment. Thus, hydrazone-based switchable molecular chemical sensors present a protection tool against the risk of possible illnesses, severe injuries or life threatening.
Chapter
This chapter presents a selective overview of chromic materials and their application on technical textiles. Most significant chromic materials could be photochromic, halochromic, thermochromic and electrochromic, with the ability to change color depending on the type of the external stimulus. An overview of the major chromic materials and related textile applications is discussed to reflect the progress and significance through ongoing research of high performance textiles. This chapter wraps up with future trends on the development of industrial merchandise from chromic technical clothing.