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Home and the extended-self: Exploring associations between clutter and wellbeing

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Abstract and Figures

Research on clutter in non-clinical populations is scarce. Existing research typically examines clutter’s negative effect on quality of life. Assertions from self-help books and lifestyle media that living with less clutter has beneficial health and psychological outcomes have received limited scientific attention. This study aimed to address a significant gap in the literature by exploring the associations between home self-extension variables (subjective clutter, objective clutter, home self-expression and declutter habit) and wellbeing (measured through the PERMA model). A general population sample of 1,111 adults (mostly women) participated in this cross-sectional correlational study. Correlation and regression results revealed that home self-extension variables, particularly subjective clutter and psychological home, account for substantial variance of wellbeing. The subjective-objective nature of clutter is discussed and a refined definition of clutter embracing its subjective nature is proposed. We conclude that home self-extension, and clutter in particular, are significant predictors of wellbeing.
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:Previously at UEL School of Psychology University of East London Water Lane, London, E15 4LZ, UKEmail Tel: 44-7957-425-435
;Previously at UEL School of Psychology University of East London Water Lane, London, E15 4LZ, UKEmail: Tel: 44-7980-709-821 ORCID 0000-0001-8290-3120
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Keywords
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1. Home and the extended-self: Exploring associations between
clutter and wellbeing
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2. Literature review
2.1. Home's importance for wellbeing
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C.J. Rogers and D.R. Hart Journal of Environmental Psychology xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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1.2. Clutter and its impact
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LL>LLBG@ MA> MBIIBG@ IHBGM MA:M =B??>K>GMB:M>L GHKF:MBO> <ENMM>K ?KHF
AH:K=BG@ =BLHK=>K BL <HFIE>Q -HMML  ,G> BG=B<:MHK BL MA> ENMM>K
&F:@> /:MBG@ 0<:E> #KHLM 0M>D>M>> 1HEBG  />G:N=  1ABL
IB<MHKB:E MHHE LAHPBG@ L>KB>L H? MA> L:F> KHHFL PBMA BG<K>:LBG@ E>O>EL H?
<ENMM>K :EEH<:M>L L<HK>L H?  NG<ENMM>K>= MH  ?NEE ?HK >:<A KHHF 
F>:G L<HK> H?  HK AB@A>K BL : K><HFF>G=>= <NMH\ BG=B<:MBG@ <ENMM>K
K>JNBKBG@ <EBGB<:E :MM>GMBHG#KHLM >M :E  I 
4BMABG MA> AH:K=BG@ EBM>K:MNK> MA> BFI:<M H? <ENMM>K HG F>GM:E A>:EMA
JN:EBMR H? EB?> :G= HMA>K =HF:BGL H? EB?> BL >OB=>GM HFHK;B=BMB>L H?
AH:K=BG@ BG<EN=> :GQB>MR :G= =>IK>LLBHG G >M :E  KBLD MH
I>KLHG:E :G= ILR<AHEH@B<:E L:?>MR L>E?G>@E><M BG<K>:L>= XG:G<B:E ;NK
=>G :G= GHM LNLM:BGBG@ >FIEHRF>GM %HEF>L 4AHFLE>R  (>EE>MM
1HEBG #KHLM 0M>D>M>> $K:R  #BM<A  4B=>K ;NK
=>G HK <HLM ?:EEL HG ?:FBEB>L G>B@A;HNKL EH<:E L>KOB<>L :G= <HFFNGB
MB>L /H:G> ):G=>KL 0A>KK:MM  4BELHG  &=>GMBX>= ?:<MHKL
PBMABG AH:K=BG@ =BLHK=>K :K> =>@K>>L H? =BLBGAB;BMBHG PA>G :<JNBKBG@
IHLL>LLBHGL BG<K>:L>= :MM:<AF>GM MH :G= :GMAKHIHFHKIABLBG@ H? IHLL>L
LBHGL IKH<K:LMBG:MBHG I>K?><MBHGBLF :G= BG=><BLBHG !HSB>K  R>KL
(BG@L *HNE=BG@  (GB@AM 
ENMM>K K>L>:K<A BG GHG<EBGB<:E IHINE:MBHGL BL EBFBM>= @>G>K:EER ?H
<NLLBG@ HG BML =>MKBF>GM MH JN:EBMR H? EB?> :G= P>EE;>BG@ 1ABL ;H=R H?
K>L>:K<A LN@@>LML MA:M MA> BFI:<M H? <ENMM>K HG GHG<EBGB<:E IHINE:MBHGL
A:L I:K:EE>E NILAHML MH MAHL> PBMA AH:K=BG@ =BLHK=>K MAHN@A BML E>LL L>
O>K> "OB=>G<> H? MA> IK>O:E>G<> H? <ENMM>K BG GHG<EBGB<:E IHINE:MBHGL BG
<EN=>L 0<AHKL  LMN=R LAHPBG@ MA:M F>KB<:GL HPG MPB<> :L F:GR
IHLL>LLBHGL <HFI:K>= MH  R>:KL IK>OBHNL :G= KGHE= :G= ):G@L
 LMN=R XG=BG@ )HL G@>E>L K>LB=>GML MH ;> <HFFHGER LMHKBG@ L>E
=HFNL>= IHLL>LLBHGL BG @:K:@>L E>:OBG@ GH KHHF ?HK <:KL :EHG@LB=> >Q
:<>K;:M>= LMK>LL :G= =>;M
&G L:FIE>L F:BGER <HGLBLMBG@ H? LMN=>GML <HF;BG>= PBMA LF:EE <HF
FNGBMR L:FIE>L IKH<K:LMBG:MBHG BL IKHIHL>= :L : <:NL:E IK>=B<MBO> ?:<
MHK H? <ENMM>K :<<NFNE:MBHG :G= OB<> O>KL: #>KK:KB  /HLM>K 
#>KK:KB /HLM>K KNF  -:K=H  &G=><BLBHG BGAB;BML IHLL>L
LBHG =BLIHL:E :G= BL <HGG><M>= PBMA EHP>K ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> :G=
P>EE;>BG@ #>KK:KB KNF  -:K=H  &G :GHMA>K LMN=R MA> K>
L>:K<A>KL ?HNG= MA:M NG=>K@K:=N:M>L F:D> E>LL A>:EMAR >:MBG@ <AHB<>L
BG <A:HMB<DBM<A>GL <HFI:K>= MH LM:G=:K=DBM<A>GL 3:KM:GB:G (>K
G:G  4:GLBGD  !B:KB>L AHF>MHNK K><HK=BG@L :G= <HKMBLHE
F>:LNK>L K>O>:E FHK> =>IK>LL>= E:G@N:@> :G= FHH= PA>G AHF>L :K>
>QI>KB>G<>= :L <ENMM>K>= 0:Q;>  />I>MMB 
ABE=K>G ?KHF <HFI:K:MBO>ER >GOBKHGF>GM:EER <A:HMB< AHF>L I>K
?HKF <H@GBMBO> M:LDL E>LL P>EE :G= =>FHGLMK:M> ;>A:OBHNK:E <A:EE>G@>L
!NF:L >M :E $HNQ  *:NKBG  )HP>K K>:=BG@ :<
<HFIEBLAF>GM P:L :ELH ?HNG= BG :=HE>L<>GML ?KHF AHF>L @:N@>= :L
IARLB<:EER IKH;E>F:MB< PAB<A BG<EN=>L ;NM BL GHM EBFBM>= MH <ENMM>K
:G= MABL P:L LNIIHKM>= ;R >OB=>G<> H? MABGG>K IK>?KHGM:E
UNCORRECTED PROOF
C.J. Rogers and D.R. Hart Journal of Environmental Psychology xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
<HKMB<>L BG ;K:BG L<:GL 2R $HE=>G;>K@ 1:LACB:G !H  $:EOTG

/HLM>K >M :E  <A:EE>G@> MA> AHF> BL PA>K> MA> A>:KM BLEBM
>K:MNK> :G= K>IHKM>= MA:M <ENMM>K G>@:MBO>ER BFI:<ML ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF>
:G= P>EE;>BG@ 1A> K>L>:K<A>KL AHP>O>K K><H@GBL>= MA:M MA>BK  K>
LIHG=>GML P>K> LN;L<KB;>KL MH MA> &GLMBMNM> ?HK A:EE>G@BG@ !BLHK@:GBL:
MBHG :G= MA>K>?HK> B=>GMBX>= :L BG=BOB=N:EL PBMA <ENMM>K BLLN>L/HL
M>K >M :E  I  E>:OBG@ K>:=>KL JN>LMBHGBG@ PA:M :LLH<B:MBHGL
FB@AM >QBLM BG : @>G>K:E IHINE:MBHG #NKMA>K K>L>:K<A <HFI:KBG@ /HL
M>K >M :EL  =:M: PBMA RHNG@>K L:FIE>L GHM LN;L<KB;>KL H? <ENMM>K
A>EI P>;LBM>L ?HNG= MA:M <ENMM>K :??><ML MA> P>EE;>BG@ H? HE=>K IHINE:
MBHGL FHK> MA:G RHNG@>K I:KMB<BI:GML #>KK:KB  /HLM>K  &M BL
NG<E>:K PA>MA>K MABL K>E:MBHGLABI BL =N> MH :@> HK L:FIEBG@ ;B:L #NKMA>K
:G:ERLBL H? MA> L:F> =:M:L>M K>O>:E>= <NEMNK:E =B??>K>G<>L BG <ENMM>K :L
L>LLF>GML :G= BFI:<M  KNF #>KK:KB  LN@@>LMBG@ MA:M ?NKMA>K
L<KNMBGR BGMH MA> LN;C><MBO>H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K >QI>KB>G<> BL P:KK:GM>=
/HLM>K >M :E  K><HFF>G= MA> NL> H? H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K F>:LNK>L
MH :=O:G<> L<AHE:KL NG=>KLM:G=BG@ H? MA> <HFIE>Q K>E:MBHGLABIL ;>MP>>G
<ENMM>K :G= P>EE;>BG@ PAB<A <:G BG?HKF LMK:M>@B>L ?HK <ENMM>K K>=N<MBHG
&G GHG<EBGB<:E IHINE:MBHGL >O>KR :LI><M H? 0>:FHGL 
:MAHF>G>LLI  ;><HF>L <HFIKHFBL>= PA>G MA> A:;BM H? :<<N
FNE:MBG@ IHLL>LLBHGL >QIK>LLBG@ L>E?B=>GMBMR K>LNEML BG MA> HO>KPA>EF
=>L<KB;>= :;HO> !H MAHL> PAH <AHHL> :G= F:D> >??HKM MH EBO> PBMA :
LN;C><MBO>ER :G=HK H;C><MBO>ER F:G:@>:;E> <ENMM>K >QI>KB>G<> >GA:G<>=
P>EE;>BG@ &? LH PA:M :LI><ML H? P>EE;>BG@ :K> :??><M>= ,G> P:R MH BG
?HKF <ENMM>K K>=N<MBHG LMK:M>@B>L BL MH >Q:FBG> BML :LLH<B:MBHG PBMA P>EE
;>BG@ BG : FHK> GN:G<>= P:R
1.3. Decluttering
A>KKB>K :G= >ED  =>L<KB;> =><ENMM>KBG@ :L MA> IKH<>LL H?
<K>:MBG@ HK=>KER >GOBKHGF>GML ;R <HGLB=>KBG@ HK@:GBLBG@ :G= =BL<:K=
BG@ IHLL>LLBHGL &G AH:K=BG@ =><ENMM>KBG@ BL :G BGM>KO>GMBHG =>EBO>K>=
:EHG@LB=> <EBGB<:E A>EI %HEF>L >M :E  &G GHG<EBGB<:E IHINE:
MBHGL =><ENMM>KBG@ <:G ;> =HG> LBG@E>A:G=>=ER HK PBMA :LLBLM:G<> H? :
IKH?>LLBHG:E HK@:GBL>K >ED >M :E /HLM>K  !><ENMM>KBG@
BL : LDBEE :G= <:G ;> E>:KG>= &G HG> LMN=R I:KMB<BI:GML :M KBLD H? AH:K=
BG@ P>K> MK:BG>= MH K>=N<> HK@:GBL> K>OB>P :G= F:BGM:BGLH 5:
F:HD: +>FHMH +:@:GNF:  0:BMH  I  1A> ?HEEHP NI
F>:LNK>F>GM L>O>G FHGMAL :?M>K MA> MK:BGBG@ K>O>:E>= MA:M I:KMB<BI:GML
<HGMBGN>= MH =><ENMM>K :G= F:GB?>LM>= AB@A>K L>E?>LM>>F MA:G ;>?HK> MA>
MKB:E LH LH >M :E  -LR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> :G= P>EE;>BG@
P>K> GHM F>:LNK>= ;NM LH  <HG<EN=>L MA:M =><ENMM>KBG@ MK:BGBG@
<:G BFIKHO> JN:EBMR H? EB?>I 
0HF> >OB=>G<> H? =><ENMM>KBG@L IHLBMBO> >??><M >F>K@>= ?KHF
1A:<A>K ,GRI>K :G= 1NMABEEL  I:I>K BG PAB<A MA> K>LNEM H?
AB>K:K<AB<:E K>@K>LLBHG K>O>:E>= MA:M =><ENMM>KBG@ IK>=B<M>= BFIKHO>=
LE>>I BG LN;L<KB;>KL MH : AHNL>D>>IBG@ P>;LBM> ==BMBHG:E >OB=>G<>
>F>K@>= ?KHF : IA>GHF>GHEH@B<:E LMN=R )>>  PA>K> I:KMB<B
I:GML =>L<KB;>= MA>BK =><ENMM>KBG@ IKH<>LL :L NIEB?MBG@ :G= K>?K>LABG@
K>IHKMBG@ : A:IIB>K E>LL LMK>LL?NE EB?>I  #NKMA>K JN:EBM:MBO>
K>L>:K<A PBMABG GHG<EBGB<:E IHINE:MBHGL IKHOB=>= BGLB@AM MA:M BG=BOB=N:E
K>E:MBHGLABIL PBMA <ENMM>K O:KR <HGLB=>K:;ER :L =H <HG<>IMBHGL H? PA:M BL
:<<>IM:;E> NG:<<>IM:;E> HK HK@:GBL>= !BHG >M :E 0P:G 1:R
EHK  %:KI>K  1A>L> O:KB:MBHGL :K> BG?HKF>= ;R AHP MA> <HG
LMKN<M H? IHLL>LLBHG :MM:<AF>GM :G= IHLL>LLBHG F>:GBG@ :K> <HG<>IMN
:EBL>= >ED (E>BG> (E>BG>  EE>G 
1.4. Wellbeing
0BG<> MA> >QBLMBG@ K>L>:K<A A:L <HF> ?KHF MA> IHLBMBHG H? JN>LMBHGBG@
<ENMM>KL G>@:MBO> >??><M F>:LNK>L H? P>EE;>BG@ BG LMN=B>L MH =:M> A:O>
MRIB<:EER F>:LNK>= P>EE;>BG@ :L MA> E:<D H? HK EHP LRFIMHFL H? =>IK>L
LBHG HK :GQB>MR B> G >M :E  HK F:=> NL> H? !B>G>K "F
FHGL ):KL>G :G= $KBZGL  0:MBL?:<MBHG 4BMA )B?> 0<:E> :L :
F>:GL H? :IIKHQBF:MBG@ P>EE;>BG@ B> KNF #>KK:KB #>KK:KB
 /HLM>K /HLM>K >M :E 
-HLBMBO> -LR<AHEH@R :L MA> L<B>G<> H? P>EE;>BG@ H??>KL : @KHPBG@ ;H=R
H? K>L>:K<A PAB<A <E:BFL MA:M P>EE;>BG@ BL MH LHF> =>@K>> BG I>HIE>L
<HGMKHE :G= MA:M M:DBG@ LI><BX< :<MBHGL :G= =>O>EHIBG@ <HGLMKN<MBO>
A:;BML <:G IKHFHM> P>EE;>BG@ 0BG  )RN;HFBKLDR  4ABE> =BL
<NLLBHGL <HGMBGN> :KHNG= PA>MA>K P>EE;>BG@ BL : LM:M> HK : L>M H? LMK:M>
@B>L :G= PA:M :K> BML D>R <HFIHG>GML IHLBMBO> ILR<AHEH@R H??>KL : O:
KB>MR H? P>EE;>BG@ MA>HK>MB<:E FH=>EL :G= F>:LNK>L PAB<A BG<HKIHK:M>
A>=HGB< ?>>EBG@ @HH= :G= >N=>FHGB< ?NG<MBHGBG@ P>EE >E>F>GML &F
IHKM:GMER MA>L> F>:LNK>L BG=B<:M> MA:M P>EE;>BG@ BL FHK> MA:G MA> :;
L>G<> H? =BLHK=>K :G= MA>K>?HK> :BF MH =BK><MER F>:LNK> MA> <HFIHG>GML
H? P>EE;>BG@ 0>EB@F:GL  -"/* FH=>E ?HK >Q:FIE> <:M>@HKBL>L
P>EE;>BG@ :L : <HGLMKN<M MA:M A:L  KHNM>L MH P>EE;>BG@ Positive emo-
tions CHR A:IIBG>LL Engagement BGM>K>LM BGOHEO>F>GM :G= YHP Rela-
tionships IHLBMBO> <HGG><MBHGL PBMA HMA>KL <HFFNGBMB>L :G= LH<B>MB>L
Meaning BG EB?> :G= Accomplishment A:OBG@ F>:GBG@?NE @H:EL :G= PHKD
BG@ MH :<AB>O> MA>F
1A> IK>L>GM LMN=R :BF>= MH NL> : <KHLLL><MBHG:E <HKK>E:MBHG:E =>LB@G
MH >QIEHK> MA> :LLH<B:MBHGL ;>MP>>G AHF> L>E?>QM>GLBHG ?:<MHKL LN;
C><MBO> <ENMM>K H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> :G= =><ENMM>KBG@
A:;BML :G= P>EE;>BG@ BG : @>G>K:E IHINE:MBHG L:FIE> 1A> ARIHMA>LBL
P:L MA:M AHF> <ENMM>K =><ENMM>KBG@ A:;BML :G= ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> PBEE
;> LMKHG@ IK>=B<MHKL H? I:KMB<BI:GMLP>EE;>BG@
3. Method
3.1. Participants
HGO>GB>G<> :G= LGHP;:EE L:FIEBG@ P>K> NL>= MH BGOBM> I:KMB<BI:GML
 LAHKM 5HN1N;> XEF IE:<>= HG LH<B:E F>=B: IE:M?HKFL )BGD>=&G 1PBM
M>K :G= #:<>;HHD P>E<HF>= I:KMB<BI:MBHG 1A> HGER I:KMB<BI:GM BG<EN
LBHG <KBM>KBHG P:L : K>JNBK>F>GM MH ;>  HK HO>K 1A> XKLM :NMAHK LA:K>=
MA> 5HN1N;> XEF PBMA :EE A>K G>MPHKDL B> G>B@A;HNKAHH= <HFFN
GBMR @KHNIL :G= <EN;L NGBO>KLBMR :G= :<:=>FB< <BK<E>L *>F;>KL H? MA>
2( LLH<B:MBHG H? -KH?>LLBHG:E !><ENMM>KL :G= ,K@:GBL>KL H? PAB<A MA>
XKLM :NMAHK BL : F>F;>K P>K> :ELH BGOBM>= MH I:KMB<BI:M> :G= LA:K> MA>
5HN1N;> XEF PBMA MA>BK I>KLHG:E G>MPHKDL 1A> HGER K>P:K= H??>K>= P:L
MA> HIIHKMNGBMR MH <HGMKB;NM> MH DGHPE>=@>
,?  K>LIHGL>L  =B= GHM IKHOB=> <HGL>GM HK FBLL>= >Q<>LLBO>
=:M: :G= P>K> >EBFBG:M>= "B@AM>>G <:L>L P>K> :LL>LL>= :L >QMK>F> HNM
EB>KL L>> ;>EHP :G= K>FHO>= 1H K>IHKM <HGX=>G<> BGM>KO:EL :G= I>K
?HKF K>@K>LLBHGL  <:L>L PAH =B= GHM K>LIHG= MH :EE ?HNK BG=>I>G=>GM
O:KB:;E>L P>K> :ELH K>FHO>= ,? MA> XG:E  K>LIHG=>GML FHLM P>K>
?>F:E>  G   :G= >=N<:M>= ;>RHG= AB@A L<AHHE 
G   1A> F:CHKBMR P>K> 2( ;:L>=  G   1A> K>LM P>K>
;:L>= BG MA> 20 G   HMA>K I:KML H? "NKHI> G   NLMK:E:LB:
G   ?KB<: G   :G= LB: G   @> K:G@>= ?KHF  MH 
:O>K:@BG@ :M 
3.2. Materials
 <KHLLL><MBHG:E <HKK>E:MBHG:E =>LB@G LNKO>R P:L NL>= :G= F:=>
:O:BE:;E> HGEBG> MAKHN@A MA> .N:EMKB<L IE:M?HKF BG LNFF>K  "MA
B<:E :IIKHO:E P:L @K:GM>= ;R MA> :NMAHKLNGBO>KLBMR >MAB<L ;H:K=
UNCORRECTED PROOF
C.J. Rogers and D.R. Hart Journal of Environmental Psychology xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
-BEHM M>LMBG@ @>G>K:M>= ?>>=;:<D K>LNEMBG@ BG >=BML :N@F>GMBG@ <E:KBMR
:G= >:L> H? <HFIE>MBHG :G= BG=B<:M>=  FBG <HFIE>MBHG MBF> 1A>
@>G>K:E MHG> H? MA> LNKO>R P:L ;HMA ?KB>G=ER :G= MA:GD?NE 1A> HGER
?HK<>= :GLP>KL P>K> <HGL>GM ?HKF :G= :@> >EB@B;BEBMR
3.3Four survey instruments were used
The PERMA-pro?ler NME>K  (>KG  BL : BM>F L<:E> K:G@
BG@ HG :  )BD>KM L<:E> PA>K>  BL not at all :G=  BL completely 1A>
L<:E> A:L  LN;L<:E>L MA>  -"/* <HFIHG>GML IHLBMBO> >FHMBHG >G
@:@>F>GM K>E:MBHGLABIL F>:GBG@ :G= :<<HFIEBLAF>GM :G= BG :==BMBHG
: A>:EMA LN;L<:E> G>@:MBO> >FHMBHGL :G= EHG>EBG>LL 1A> -"/*IKH
XE>K IKHOB=>L : FNEMB=BF>GLBHG:E F>:LNK> H? P>EE;>BG@ :G= MA> =>O>E
HI>KL NME>K :G= (>KG  PAH M>LM>= BM PBMA HO>K  BG=BOB=
N:EL PHKE=PB=> K>IHKM : LMKHG@ <HGO>K@>GM :G= =BO>K@>GM O:EB=BMR :G=
@HH= K>EB:;BEBMR &G MA> <NKK>GM LMN=R -"/* HO>K:EE P>EE;>BG@ A:= :
KHG;:<AL :EIA: H?  0:FIE> BM>FL BG<EN=> &G @>G>K:E AHP H?M>G =H
RHN ?>>E CHR?NE -HLBMBO> "FHMBHG %HP H?M>G =H RHN ;><HF> :;LHK;>=
BG PA:M RHN :K> =HBG@ "G@:@>F>GM 1H PA:M >QM>GM =H RHN ?>>E EHO>=
/>E:MBHGLABIL &G @>G>K:E MH PA:M >QM>GM =H RHN E>:= : INKIHL>?NE :G=
F>:GBG@?NE EB?> *>:GBG@ %HP FN<A H? MA> MBF> =H RHN ?>>E RHN :K>
F:DBG@ IKH@K>LL MHP:K=L :<<HFIEBLABG@ RHNK @H:EL <<HFIEBLAF>GM
&G @>G>K:E AHP H?M>G =H RHN ?>>E :GQBHNL +>@:MBO> "FHMBHG 1H OB>P
MA> >GMBK> L<:E> L>> NME>K :G= (>KG 
The Clutter Image Rating Scale (CIRS) #KHLM >M :E  F>:LNK>L
objective clutter E>O>EL 1AK>> L>ML H?  BF:@>L LAHP B=>GMB<:E KHHFL :
DBM<A>G ;>=KHHF :G= ;:MAKHHF ;><HFBG@ IKH@K>LLBO>ER ?NEE>K 0<HK>L
<:E<NE:M>= :L : F>:G K:G@> ?KHF  ?HK MA> XKLM BF:@>L LAHPBG@ EBMME> HK
GH <ENMM>K MH  ?HK <HFIE>M>ER ?NEE KHHFL 1A> L<:E>L IB<MHKB:E IKHI>KMR
>EBFBG:M>L LN;C><MBO> >QI>KB>G<>L H? <ENMM>K I:KMB<BI:GML <AHHL> PAB<A
IB<MNK>L FHLM K>IK>L>GM MA>BK AHF> )HP L<HK>L BG=B<:M>= E>LL H;C><MBO>
<ENMM>K  <NM H\ IHBGM H?  :G= :;HO> BG=B<:M>L LB@GB?B<:GM <ENMM>K M>G
=>G<B>L MA:M K>JNBK> clinical attention &G MA> L><MBHGL MA:M ?HEEHP P>
=K>P HG MABL <NMH\ IHBGM MH =B??>K>GMB:M> ;>MP>>G <EBGB<:E IHINE:MBHG
I>HIE> PBMA clutter E>O>EL MA:M K>JNBK> clinical LNIIHKM):G= GHG<EBG
B<:E IHINE:MBHG &/0 A:L =>FHGLMK:M>= <HGLBLM>G<R :G= K>EB:;BEBMR PBMA
KHG;:<A :EIA:L :;HO>  :<KHLL :@> @KHNIL !HSB>K  R>KL 
1ABL LMN=R K>MNKG>= : KHG;:<AL :EIA: H?  1H OB>P MA> BF:@>L HG
1A> ENMM>K &F:@> /:MBG@ 0<:E> L>> MA> &/0 :II HLMHG 2GBO>KLBMR

The Clutter Quality of Life Scale CQLS & ! G= :G BM>F L<HK>=
HG :  )BD>KM L<:E> PA>K>  BL strongly disagree :G=  BL strongly
agree &M F>:LNK>L MA> Lubjective experience of clutter at home K>@:K=
E>LL H? MA> H;C><MBO> E>O>E 0<HK>L :K> <:E<NE:M>= :L : MHM:E H? MA> )BD
>KM O:EN>L EHP>K L<HK>L  BG=B<:M>= : IHLBMBO> LN;C><MBO> >QI>KB
>G<> H? <ENMM>K F>=BNF L<HK>L  BG=B<:M> LHF> BFI:<M H? <ENM
M>K HG JN:EBMR H? EB?> :G= AB@A>K L<HK>L  :G= :;HO> BG=B<:M>= G>@:
MBO> LN;C><MBO> >QI>KB>G<> 1A> L<:E> BL NG=>K@HBG@ O:EB=:MBHG ;R MA> :N
MAHKL 1ABL LMN=R K>MNKG>= : KHG;:<AL :EIA: H?  0:FIE> BM>FL BG
<EN=> &F <HG<>KG>= :;HNM PA:M HMA>KL FB@AM MABGD H? F> B? MA>R DG>P
:;HNM MA> <ENMM>K BG FR AHF> & A:O> MH FHO> MABG@L BG HK=>K MH :<
<HFIEBLA M:LDL BG FR AHF> & H?M>G ;NR MABG@L & :EK>:=R A:O> ;><:NL> &
=HGM DGHP PA>K> MABG@L :K> BG FR AHF> 1A> <ENMM>K BG FR AHF> NIL>ML
F> :G= & :OHB= A:OBG@ I>HIE> <HF> MH FR AHF> ;><:NL> H? MA> <ENMM>K
L>> AMMILPPP<A:EE>G@BG@=BLHK@:GBS:MBHGHK@<ENMM>KJN:EBMRH?EB?>
L<:E><JEL?HKIHL ?HK =>M:BEL H? :EE L<:E> BM>FL
The Psychological Home Scale PH 0B@FHG >M :E  :G BM>F
L<HK>= HG : )BD>KM L<:E> ;>MP>>G  :G=  PA>K>  BL strongly dis-
agree :G=  BL strongly agree &M F>:LNK>L ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> 0<HK>L
P>K> <:E<NE:M>= :L : MHM:E H? MA> )BD>KM O:EN>L PBMA AB@A L<HK>L BG
=B<:MBG@ AB@A ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> 1ABL LMN=R K>MNKG>= : KHG;:<AL
:EIA: H?  0:FIE> BM>FL BG<EN=> & A:O> @KHPG :MM:<A>= MH
F:GR H? MA> IE:<>L & A:O> EBO>= & INM : EHM H? MBF> :G= >??HKM BGMH F:DBG@
: IE:<> FR HPG & ?>>E FHK> K>E:Q>= PA>G &F :M AHF> & LNKKHNG= FRL>E?
PBMA MABG@L MA:M AB@AEB@AM FR I>KLHG:EBMR :G= & @>M : L>GL> H? L><NKBMR
?KHF A:OBG@ : IE:<> H? FR HPG L>> 0B@FHG >M :E  ?HK =>M:BEL H?
:EE L<:E> BM>FL
!>FH@K:IAB< JN>LMBHGL BG<EN=BG@ : JN>LMBHG HG =><ENMM>KBG@ A:;BM
P>K> IK>L>GM>= :M MA> >G= H? MA> JN>LMBHGG:BK> 1ABL BM>F P:L <H=>= :<
<HK=BG@ MH ?K>JN>G<R H? =><ENMM>KBG@  never  daily %B@A L<HK>L BG
=B<:M>= FHK> ?K>JN>GM =><ENMM>KBG@
1A> LBFBE:KBMR H? MA> )BD>KM K:MBG@L PBMABG BG=BOB=N:E JN>LMBHGG:BK>L
>:L>= <H@GBMBO> EH:= <K>:MBG@ <HGLBLM>G<R ,K=>K >??><ML P>K> :OHB=>=
;R L>MMBG@ MA> L<:E>L MH :II>:K BG K:G=HF HK=>K 1H IK>O>GM IHM>GMB:E K>
LIHGL> M>G=>G<R ;B:L :KG>MM> 0<AKB>LA>BF  %BEE  MA>
L<:E>L =B??>K>= BG :II>:K:G<> PBMA LHF> K>JNBKBG@ I:KMB<BI:GML MH MB<D
: ;HQ :G= HMA>KL K>JNBKBG@ L>E><MBG@ :G BF:@> ==BMBHG:EER K>O>KL>=
BM>FL :K> BG<EN=>= BG -"/* :G= MA> AHF> L>E?>QM>GLBHG O:KB:;E>L O:K
B>= BG MA> F>:GBG@ H? MA> AB@A )BD>KM O:EN>L BG MA> ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF>
L<:E> :L<KB;BG@ AB@A )BD>KM O:EN>L K>Y><ML : IHLBMBO> LM:M> PABE> BG MA>
LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K L<:E> AB@A )BD>KM O:EN>L K>Y><M : G>@:MBO> LM:@>
&G AHF:@> MH >EDL  L>FBG:E I:I>K HG IHLL>LLBHGL ;>BG@ >Q
M>GLBHGL H? MA> L>E? P> NL>= MA> M>KF home self-extension MH >G<:ILNE:M>
The Clutter Image Rating Scale  &/0 A>K>:?M>K K>?>KK>= MH :L H;C><MBO>
<ENMM>K The Clutter Quality of Life Scale  .)0 A>K>:?M>K K>?>KK>= MH :L
LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K The Psychological Home Scale -% A>K>:?M>K K>?>KK>=
MH :L ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> :G= Decluttering Habit !% K>IK>L>GMBG@ MA>
?K>JN>G<R H? =><ENMM>KBG@
3.4. Procedure
1H >G<HNK:@> : @>G>K:E IHINE:MBHG HO>K MAHL> PBMA <ENMM>K IKH;E>FL
MA> LMN=R P:L IN;EB<BL>= ;R P>E<HFBG@ I:KMB<BI:GML PBMA GH <ENMM>K
EH:=L H? <NMM>K HK :GRPA>K> BG ;>MP>>G  ;KB>?BG@ I:@> =>L<KB;>= MA>
LMN=R :G= IHM>GMB:E BGOHEO>F>GM HGX=>GMB:EBMR :G= :GHGRFBMR P>K>
:LLNK>= -KH<>=NK> ?HK =:M: PBMA=K:P:E P:L >QIE:BG>= :L P>EE :L MK>:M
F>GM H? =:M: :M <EHLNK>
1AHL> HIMBG@ MH I:KMB<BI:M> <HGXKF>= :@> >EB@B;BEBMR :G= LB@G>=
: <HGL>GM ?HKF %:OBG@ LN;FBMM>= LNKO>R K>LIHGL>L I:KMB<BI:GML P>K>
MA:GD>= IKHOB=>= : =>;KB>? LB@GIHLMBG@ MH ?NKMA>K BG?HKF:MBHG HG <ENM
M>K AH:K=BG@ :G= A>EI 1A> K>L>:K<A>KL K><>BO>= GH PBMA=K:P:E K>
JN>LML
3.5. Data analysis
1A> =:M: P:L :G:ERL>= NLBG@ &* 0-00 0M:MBLMB<L  :L>L FBLL
BG@ >Q<>LLBO> =:M: P>K> =>E>M>= G   +H F>:G LN;LMBMNMBHGL P>K>
F:=> ?HK FBLLBG@ =:M: :L MABL A:L ;>>G ?HNG= MH >E>O:M> <HKK>E:MBHG:E K>
LNEML -:K>GM 
0BG<> MA> BGM>GMBHG H? MA> LMN=R P:L MH >Q:FBG> : GHG<EBGB<:E L:F
IE> :EE >QMK>F> HNMEB>KL P>K> K>FHO>= #HK MABL INKIHL> ;HQIEHML P>K>
IKH=N<>= PAB<A BG=B<:M>=  >QMK>F> HNMEB>KL  ,;C><MBO> <ENM
M>K  ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF>   -"/* 1A>L> <:L>L P>K>
=>E>M>= 1A> =>E>MBHGL :ELH E>?M NL FHK> <HGX=>GM H? K>F:BGBG@ I:KMB<
BI:GML K>IK>L>GMBG@ : @>G>K:E IHINE:MBHG ,L;HKG>  />EB:;BEBMR
E>O>EL P>K> K><:E<NE:M>= BG=B<:MBG@ MA:M :EE KHG;:<A :EIA: E>O>EL K>
F:BG :;HO>  BG=B<:MBG@ @HH= K>EB:;BEBMR ?HK ?NKMA>K :G:ERLBL #B>E=

+HKF:EBMR M>LML ?HEEHPBG@ MA> =>E>MBHGL H? HNMEB>KL BG=B<:M>= MA:M :EE
O:KB:;E>L P>K> GHKF:EER =BLMKB;NM>= PAB<A CNLMBX>= I:K:F>MKB< M>LMBG@
#B>E= 
#BKLM LM:@> H? :G:ERLBL P:L ->:KLHGL <HKK>E:MBHGL M>LMBG@ E>O>EL H?
LA:K>= O:KB:G<> ;>MP>>G AHF> L>E?>QM>GLBHG O:KB:;E>L +>QM GBG> FNE
MBIE> EBG>:K K>@K>LLBHGL P>K> <HG=N<M>= MH :L<>KM:BG MA> =>@K>> MH PAB<A
MA> BG=>I>G=>GM AHF> L>E?>QM>GLBHG O:KB:;E>L :<<HNGM>= ?HK
UNCORRECTED PROOF
C.J. Rogers and D.R. Hart Journal of Environmental Psychology xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
O:KB:;BEBMR BG MA> -"/* P>EE;>BG@ F>:LNK> :G= BML LN;L<:E>L G:ERL>L
P>K> <HG=N<M>= MH >GLNK> L:MBL?:<MBHG H? MA> :LLNFIMBHGL H? GHKF:EBMR
EBG>:KBMR :G= AHFHL<>=:LMB<BMR 1A> IHLLB;BEBMR H? FNEMB<HEEBG>:KBMR P:L
:ELH :LL>LL>= :G= LBG<> :EE MHE>K:G<> O:EN>L P>K> @K>:M>K MA:G  :EE
O:EN>L ?HK 3&# P>K> EHP>K MA:G  BM P:L <HGLB=>K>= MA:M FNEMB<HEEBG>:K
BMR P:L GHM EBD>ER MH ;> : IKH;E>F
4. Results
1:;E>  LAHPL MA> =>L<KBIMBO> LM:MBLMB<L ?HK :EE L<:E>L
&GM>K>LMBG@ER MA> =BLMKB;NMBHG H? I:KMB<BI:GML :EHG@ MA> objective clut-
ter L<:E> K>O>:E>= MA:M  H? MA> I:KMB<BI:GML G   L<HK>= ;>
EHP MA> <NM H\ IHBGM ?HK <ENMM>K K>JNBKBG@ <EBGB<:E :MM>GMBHG  PBMA
G>:KER A:E? L<HKBG@ MA> EHP>LM IHLLB;E> L<HK>  ,GER  H? I:KMB<
BI:GML G  L<HK>= BG MA> <EBGB<:E K:G@>  PBMA  ;>BG@
MA> AB@A>LM L<HK> BG MABL LMN=R MA> L<:E> :EEHPL ?HK AB@A>LM L<HK> H? 
1ABL <HGXKFL HNK :LL>KMBHG MA:M MA> F:CHKBMR H? MA> I:KMB<BI:GML :K> BG
MA> A>:EMAR <ENMM>K E>O>E K:G@>
0BFBE:KER HG MA> subjective clutter L<:E>  H? I:KMB<BI:GML BG=B
<:M>= MA:M <ENMM>K A:= GH BFI:<M HG MA>BK JN:EBMR H? EB?> L<HK>L ;>EHP
  L<HK>= BG MA> F>=BNF K:G@> BG=B<:MBG@ LHF> BFI:<M L<HK>L
;>MP>>G  :G=  :G=  BG=B<:M>= : AB@A BFI:<M H? <ENMM>K HG
MA>BK JN:EBMR H? EB?> L<HK>L ;>MP>>G  :G= 
1:;E>  IK>L>GML ->:KLHGL <HKK>E:MBHGL ?HK MA> AHF> L>E?>QM>GLBHG
O:KB:;E>L :G= -"/* LN;L<:E>L B:L <HKK><M>= :G= :<<>E>K:M>= ;HHM
LMK:I  &L :K> K>IHKM>= BG ;K:<D>ML
EE pO:EN>L P>K>  PBMA MA> >Q<>IMBHG H? MA> =><ENMM>KBG@ A:;BM
O:KB:;E> PAB<A LAHP>= P>:D <HKK>E:MBHGL    PBMA :EE HMA>K
O:KB:;E>L :G= pO:EN>L O:KRBG@ ?KHF  MH  
,;C><MBO> <ENMM>K LAHP>= : LMKHG@ IHLBMBO> <HKK>E:MBHG PBMA LN;C><MBO>
<ENMM>K :G= FH=>K:M> G>@:MBO> <HKK>E:MBHGL PBMA ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF>
:G= =><ENMM>KBG@ A:;BM
#NKMA>K >QIEHK:MBHG H? MA> :LLH<B:MBHG ;>MP>>G MA> H;C><MBO> :G= LN;
C><MBO> F>:LNK>L H? <ENMM>K LAHP>= BGMKB@NBG@ XG=BG@L FHG@ MAHL>
PAH P>K> BG MA> <EBGB<:E K:G@> :<<HK=BG@ MH MA> H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K L<:E>
 :ELH A:= : AB@A LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K L<HK> :G=  P>K> BG MA>
FB==E> K:G@> BG=B<:M>= MA:M <ENMM>K A:L BG=>>= BFI:<M>= MA>BK JN:EBMR H?
EB?> ,GER  H? MABL @KHNI K>IHKM>= GH BFI:<M H? <ENMM>K HG MA>BK JN:E
BMR H? EB?>
%HP>O>K ?HK MAHL> BG MA> A>:EMAR K:G@> H? <ENMM>K :<<HK=BG@ MH MA>
H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K L<:E> MA> =BLMKB;NMBHG HG MA>BK LN;C><MBO> L<:E> P:L
FHK> O:KB>=  ?>EM MA:M <ENMM>K =B= GHM BFI:<M MA>BK JN:EBMR H?
Table 1
!>L<KBIMBO> LM:MBLMB<L
* 0! *BGL<HK> *:QL<HK>
 &/0,;C><MBO><ENMM>K    
 .)00N;C><MBO><ENMM>K    
-%-LR<AHEH@B<:EAHF>    
!%!><ENMM>KBG@A:;BM    
-"/*-HLBMBO>>FHMBHG    
-"/*"G@:@>F>GM    
-"/*/>E:MBHGLABIL    
-"/**>:GBG@    
-"/*<<HFIEBLAF>GM    
-"/*+>@:MBO>>FHMBHG    
-"/*%>:EMA    
-"/*)HG>EBG>LL    
-"/*,O>K:EEP>EE;>BG@    
+HM> +   !%  !><ENMM>KBG@ %:;BM K>Y><ML MA> ?K>JN>G<R H? =><ENMM>KBG@
  never MH   daily
Table 2
BO:KB:M> ->:KLHG <HKK>E:MBHGL ;>MP>>G AHF> L>E?>QM>GLBHG O:KB:;E>L :G= -"/* P>EE;>
BG@ <HFIHG>GML
   
 &/0,;C><MBO>
<ENMM>K
 .)00N;C><MBO>
<ENMM>K


-%-LR<AHEH@B<:E
AHF>




!%!><ENMM>KBG@
A:;BM






-"/*-HLBMBO>
>FHMBHG








-"/*
"G@:@>F>GM








-"/*
/>E:MBHGLABIL








-"/**>:GBG@ 







-"/*
<<HFIEBLAF>GM








-"/*
+>@:MBO>>FHMBHG








-"/*%>:EMA 







-"/*
)HG>EBG>LL








-"/*,O>K:EE
P>EE;>BG@








+HM> +   I I   I   <HGX=>G<> BGM>KO:EL BG ;K:<D>ML
) 2
EB?> ;NM  K>IHKM>= : F>=BNF E>O>E H? BFI:<M :G=  K>IHKM>=
MA:M <ENMM>K A:= : LMKHG@ BFI:<M HG MA>BK JN:EBMR H? EB?>
4>:D MH FH=>K:M> G>@:MBO> <HKK>E:MBHGL P>K> ?HNG= ;>MP>>G H;
C><MBO> <ENMM>K :G= HO>K:EE P>EE;>BG@ :G= MA> XO> -"/*>E>F>GM :G=
A>:EMA LN;L<:E>L 4>:D MH FH=>K:M> IHLBMBO> <HKK>E:MBHGL P>K> ?HNG= ;>
MP>>G H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K :G= EHG>EBG>LL :G= G>@:MBO> >FHMBHG LN;L<:E>L
0N;C><MBO> <ENMM>K LAHP>= MA> L:F> I:MM>KG H? <HKK>E:MBHGL :L H;C><
MBO> <ENMM>K ;NM PBMA LMKHG@>K <H>?X<B>GML K   ?HK HO>K:EE P>EE;>
BG@ :G= LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K <HFI:K>= MH K   ?HK HO>K:EE P>EE;>BG@
:G= H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K
*H=>K:M> G>@:MBO> <HKK>E:MBHGL P>K> ?HNG= ?HK ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF>
PBMA ;HMA H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K :G= LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K 1A> <HKK>E:MBHG ;>
MP>>G ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> :G= =><ENMM>KBG@ A:;BM P:L BG MA> >QI><M>=
IHLBMBO> =BK><MBHG R>M P>:D>K MA:G :GMB<BI:M>= -LR<AHEH@B<:E AHF>
LAHP>= FH=>K:M> IHLBMBO> <HKK>E:MBHGL PBMA HO>K:EE P>EE;>BG@ :G= MA>
XO> -"/*>E>F>GM LN;L<:E>L :G= : <HFI:K:MBO>ER P>:D>K G>@:MBO>
<HKK>E:MBHG PBMA MA> A>:EMA LN;L<:E> 1A> LMKHG@>LM K>E:MBHGLABIL :I
I>:K>= ?HK ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> PBMA MA> F>:GBG@ :G= :<<HFIEBLAF>GM
-"/* LN;L<:E>L HKK>E:MBHGL ?HK ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> PBMA G>@:MBO>
>FHMBHG :G= EHG>EBG>LL P>K> ;HMA G>@:MBO> :G= P>:D
+BG> >GM>K F>MAH= FNEMBIE> K>@K>LLBHGL P>K> >Q><NM>= MH BGO>LMB@:M>
MA> :;BEBMR H? AHF> L>E?>QM>GLBHG O:KB:;E>L H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K  &/0
LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K  .)0 ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> -% =><ENMM>KBG@ A:;BM
MH IK>=B<M MA> -"/* >E>F>GML BG<EN=BG@ G>@:MBO> >FHMBHG A>:EMA
EHG>EBG>LL :G= HO>K:EE P>EE;>BG@ 3BLN:E >Q:FBG:MBHG H? IKH;:;BEBMR
IEHML <HGXKF>= MA> EBG>:K K>E:MBHGLABIL ;>MP>>G IK>=B<MHKL :G= HNM<HF>
O:KB:;E>L EE !NK;BG4:MLHG LM:MBLMB<L ?HK >:<A FH=>E P>K> <EHL> MH 
BG=B<:MBG@ BG=>I>G=>G<> H? K>LB=N:EL HHDL !BLM:G<> O:EN>L P>K> E>LL
MA:G  BFIERBG@ AHFHL<>=:LMB<BMR #B>E= 
UNCORRECTED PROOF
C.J. Rogers and D.R. Hart Journal of Environmental Psychology xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
4.1. Positive emotion
1A> FH=>E PBMA MA> ?HNK AHF> L>E?>QM>GLBHG IK>=B<MHKL H;C><MBO>
<ENMM>K LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> =><ENMM>KBG@ A:;BM
K>:<A>= LB@GB?B<:G<> :<<HNGMBG@ ?HK  H? MA> O:KB:G<> BG
IHLBMBO> >FHMBHG /  #    I   1:;E>
LAHPL LB@GB?B<:GM <HGMKB;NMBHGL :M p  ?KHF LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K
β :G= ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> β  K>LI><MBO>ER BG=B<:M
BG@ MA:M IHLBMBO> >FHMBHG P:L IK>=B<M>= ;R LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K :G= ILR
<AHEH@B<:E AHF> +>BMA>K H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K β 
Table 3
0NFF:KR H? >GM>K F>MAH= FNEMBIE> K>@K>LLBHG :G:ERL>L ?HK AHF> L>E?>QM>GLBHG IK>=B<MHKL H? -"/* >E>F>GML :G= HO>K:EE P>EE;>BG@
*H=>E 0" β) 2
-"/*  HGLM:GM    
-HLBMBO> &/0 ,;C<ENMM>K     
"FHMBHGL .)0 0N;C<ENMM>K     
-% -LR<AAHF>     
!% !><ENMM>KA:;BM     
/
-"/*  HGLM:GM    
"G@:@>F>GM &/0 ,;C<ENMM>K     
.)0 0N;C<ENMM>K     
-% -LR<AAHF>     
!% !><ENMM>KA:;BM     
/
-"/*  HGLM:GM    
/>E:MBHGLABIL &/0 ,;C<ENMM>K     
.)0 0N;C<ENMM>K     
-% -LR<AAHF>     
!% !><ENMM>KA:;BM     
/
-"/*  HGLM:GM    
*>:GBG@ &/0 ,;C<ENMM>K     
.)0 0N;C<ENMM>K     
-% -LR<AAHF>     
!% !><ENMM>KA:;BM     
/
-"/*  HGLM:GM    
<<HFIEBLAF>GM &/0 ,;C<ENMM>K     
.)0 0N;C<ENMM>K     
-% -LR<AAHF>     
!% !><ENMM>KA:;BM     
/
-"/*  HGLM:GM    
+>@:MBO> &/0 ,;C<ENMM>K     
>FHMBHGL .)0 0N;C<ENMM>K     
-% -LR<AAHF>     
!% !><ENMM>KA:;BM     
/
-"/*  HGLM:GM    
%>:EMA &/0 ,;C<ENMM>K     
.)0 0N;C<ENMM>K     
-% -LR<AAHF>     
!% !><ENMM>KA:;BM     
/
-"/*  HGLM:GM    
)HG>EBG>LL &/0 ,;C<ENMM>K     
.)0 0N;C<ENMM>K     
-% -LR<AAHF>     
!% !><ENMM>KA:;BM     
/
-"/*  HGLM:GM    
,O>K:EE &/0 ,;C<ENMM>K     
P>EE;>BG@ .)0 0N;C<ENMM>K     
-% -LR<AAHF>     
!% !><ENMM>KA:;BM     
/
+HM> +   2GLM:G=:K=BS>= <H>?X<B>GML 0"0M:G=:K= >KKHK β 0M:G=:K=BS>= <H>?X<B>GML I I  I  &  HGX=>G<> BGM>KO:E ?HK 
)  )HP>K ;HNG= 22II>K ;HNG=
UNCORRECTED PROOF
C.J. Rogers and D.R. Hart Journal of Environmental Psychology xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
I   GHK =><ENMM>KBG@ A:;BM β  I   F:=> : LB@GB?B
<:GM <HGMKB;NMBHG
4.2. Engagement
1A> FH=>E K>:<A>= LB@GB?B<:G<> :<<HNGMBG@ ?HK  H? MA> O:KB
:G<> BG >G@:@>F>GM /  #    I   0B@
GB?B<:GM <HGMKB;NMBHGL :M p  ?KHF LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K β
ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> β  :G= H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K :M I  
β  LN@@>LM >G@:@>F>GM P:L IK>=B<M>= ;R LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K :G=
ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> PBMA H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K F:DBG@ : K>E:MBO>ER LF:EE>K
NG>QI><M>= <HGMKB;NMBHG !><ENMM>KBG@ A:;BM β I  
F:=> GH LB@GB?B<:GM <HGMKB;NMBHG
4.3. Relationships
1A> FH=>E K>:<A>= LB@GB?B<:G<> :<<HNGMBG@ ?HK  H? MA> O:KB
:G<> BG K>E:MBHGLABIL /  #    I   0B@
GB?B<:GM <HGMKB;NMBHGL :M p  ?KHF LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K β
:G= ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> β  BG=B<:M> K>E:MBHGLABIL P:L IK>=B<M>=
;R LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K :G= ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> K>LI><MBO>ER +>BMA>K H;
C><MBO> <ENMM>K β I   GHK =><ENMM>KBG@ A:;BM β 
I   F:=> : LB@GB?B<:GM <HGMKB;NMBHG
4.4. Meaning
1A> FH=>E K>:<A>= LB@GB?B<:G<> :<<HNGMBG@ ?HK  H? MA> O:KB
:G<> BG F>:GBG@ /  #    I   0B@GB?
B<:GM <HGMKB;NMBHGL :M p  ?KHF LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K β
:G= ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> β  LN@@>LM F>:GBG@ P:L IK>=B<M>= ;R
LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K :G= ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> K>LI><MBO>ER +>BMA>K H;C><
MBO> <ENMM>K β  I   GHK =><ENMM>KBG@ A:;BM β 
I   F:=> : LB@GB?B<:GM <HGMKB;NMBHG
4.5. Accomplishment
1A> FH=>E K>:<A>= LB@GB?B<:G<> :<<HNGMBG@ ?HK  H? MA> O:KB
:G<> BG :<<HFIEBLAF>GM /  #    I  
0B@GB?B<:GM <HGMKB;NMBHGL :M p  ?KHF LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K
β ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> β  :G= =><ENMM>KBG@ A:;BM :M
I   β  LN@@>LM :<<HFIEBLAF>GM P:L IK>=B<M>= ;R LN;C><MBO>
<ENMM>K :G= ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> K>LI><MBO>ER PBMA : LF:EE>K <HGMKB;NMBHG
?KHF =><ENMM>KBG@ A:;BM ,;C><MBO> <ENMM>K β I   F:=>
GH LB@GB?B<:GM <HGMKB;NMBHG
4.6. Negative emotion
1A> FH=>E K>:<A>= LB@GB?B<:G<> :<<HNGMBG@ ?HK  H? MA> O:KB
:G<> BG G>@:MBO> >FHMBHG /  #    I  
1A> HGER LB@GB?B<:GM <HGMKB;NMBHG P:L :M p  ?KHF LN;C><MBO> <ENM
M>K β  MA> IHLBMBO> βBG MABL BGLM:G<> BG=B<:MBG@ AB@A>K LN;
C><MBO> <ENMM>K L<HK>L IK>=B<M G>@:MBO> >FHMBHG -LR<AHEH@B<:E AHF>
β I   H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K β I   :G= =>
<ENMM>KBG@ A:;BM β I   F:=> GH LB@GB?B<:GM <HGMKB;N
MBHG
4.7. Health
1A> FH=>E K>:<A>= LB@GB?B<:G<> :<<HNGMBG@ ?HK  H? MA> O:KB
:G<> BG A>:EMA /  #    I   0B@GB?
B<:GM <HGMKB;NMBHGL :M p  ?KHF LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K β
:G= :M I   ?KHF ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> β  BG=B<:M> A>:EMA
P:L IK>=B<M>= ;R LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K :G= ILR<AHEH@B<:E
AHF> K>LI><MBO>ER +>BMA>K H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K β I   GHK
=><ENMM>KBG@ A:;BM β I   F:=> : LB@GB?B<:GM <HGMKB;N
MBHG
4.8. Loneliness
1A> FH=>E K>:<A>= LB@GB?B<:G<> :<<HNGMBG@ ?HK  H? MA> O:KB
:G<> BG EHG>EBG>LL /  #    I   0B@GB?
B<:GM <HGMKB;NMBHGL :M p  ?KHF LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K β  :G=
:M I   ?KHF ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> β LN@@>LM EHG>EBG>LL P:L
IK>=B<M>= ;R LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K :G= ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> K>LI><MBO>ER
+>BMA>K H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K β I   GHK =><ENMM>KBG@ A:;BM
β  I   F:=> : LB@GB?B<:GM <HGMKB;NMBHG
4.9. Overall wellbeing
1A> FH=>E K>:<A>= LB@GB?B<:G<> :<<HNGMBG@ ?HK  H? MA> O:KB
:G<> BG HO>K:EE P>EE;>BG@ /  #    I  
0B@GB?B<:GM <HGMKB;NMBHGL :M p  ?KHF LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K
β :G= ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> β  BG=B<:M> HO>K:EE P>EE
;>BG@ P:L IK>=B<M>= ;R LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K :G= ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> K>
LI><MBO>ER +>BMA>K H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K β  I   GHK =><ENMM>K
BG@ A:;BM β  I   F:=> : LB@GB?B<:GM <HGMKB;NMBHG
1H LNFF:KBL> MA> K>LNEML LAHP MA:M AHF> L>E?>QM>GLBHG O:KB:;E>L
>QIE:BG>= : LN;LM:GMB:E :FHNGM H? MA> O:KB:G<> BG :EE  >E>F>GML H? MA>
-"/* IKHXE>K :L P>EE :L HO>K:EE P>EE;>BG@ 0N;C><MBO> <ENMM>K BL MA>
LMKHG@>LM <HGM>G=>K EHP>K L<HK>L BG LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K IHLBMBO> LN;C><
MBO> >QI>KB>G<> H? <ENMM>K IK>=B<M>= AB@A>K L<HK>L BG IHLBMBO> >FHMBHG
>G@:@>F>GM K>E:MBHGLABIL F>:GBG@ :<<HFIEBLAF>GM HO>K:EE P>EE;>BG@
:G= A>:EMA 0N;C><MBO> <ENMM>K IHLBMBO>ER IK>=B<M>= G>@:MBO> >FHMBHG :G=
EHG>EBG>LL ;NM E>LL LMKHG@ER MA:G MA> HMA>K >E>F>GML &G <HGMK:LM H;C><
MBO> <ENMM>K HGER F:=> : LB@GB?B<:GM :G= NG>QI><M>=ER IHLBMBO> <HGMKB
;NMBHG MH MA> >G@:@>F>GM LN;L<:E> -LR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> LB@GB?B<:GMER :<
<HNGM>= ?HK O:KB:G<> MH :EE MA> >E>F>GML >Q<>IM G>@:MBO> >FHMBHGL !>
<ENMM>KBG@ A:;BM HGER LB@GB?B<:GMER :<<HNGM>= ?HK O:KB:G<> MH :<<HFIEBLA
F>GM
1A> ARIHMA>LBL MA:M <HF;BG>= AHF> L>E?>QM>GLBHG O:KB:;E>L IK>=B<M
P>EE;>BG@ P:L E:K@>ER LNIIHKM>= ;R MA> K>LNEML HF;BG>= O:KB:G<> :<
<HNGM>= ?HK ;R AHF> L>E?>QM>GLBHG IK>=B<MHKL BL LMKHG@>LM ?HK :<<HF
IEBLAF>GM ?HEEHP>= K>LI><MBO>ER ;R IHLBMBO> >FHMBHG F>:GBG@ K>E:MBHG
LABIL A>:EMA G>@:MBO> >FHMBHG >G@:@>F>GM :G= EHG>EBG>LL
5. Discussion
1ABL LMN=R :BF>= MH >QIEHK> MA> =>@K>> MH PAB<A AHF> L>E?>QM>GLBHG
?:<MHKL LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> :G=
=><ENMM>KBG@ A:;BM <:G IK>=B<M P>EE;>BG@ :G= BML <HFIHG>GML :L F>:
LNK>= MAKHN@A MA> -"/* IKHXE>K >GM:BEBG@ IHLBMBO> >FHMBHGL >G@:@>
F>GM K>E:MBHGLABIL F>:GBG@ BG EB?> :<<HFIEBLAF>GM G>@:MBO> >FH
MBHGL EHG>EBG>LL :G= A>:EMA 1A> D>R XG=BG@ H? MABL LMN=R P:L MA:M
AHF> L>E?>QM>GLBHG O:KB:;E>L I:KMB<NE:KER LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K :G= ILR
<AHEH@B<:E AHF> IK>=B<M>= :EE -"/* >E>F>GML :<<HNGMBG@ ?HK G>:KER :
JN:KM>K H? I:KMB<BI:GMLO:KB:G<> BG P>EE;>BG@
1A> I:I>K :==K>LL>L : LB@GB?B<:GM @:I BG MA> EBM>K:MNK> PAB<A MRI
B<:EER >QIEHK>L <ENMM>KL G>@:MBO> NILAHML BG IHINE:MBHGL IK>=HFBG:GMER
PBMA :LLNF>= <ENMM>K BLLN>L #>KK:KB  /HLM>K /HLM>K >M :E
 ;R >QIEHKBG@ GHG<EBGB<:E IHINE:MBHGL PAHL> AHF> <BK<NF
LM:G<>L :G= <:I:<BMR MH F:G:@> <ENMM>K :K> <HGLB=>K>= <HGO>GMBHG:E =
=BMBHG:EER MH HNK DGHPE>=@> MABL BL MA> XKLM LMN=R BG PAB<A F>:LNK>L H?
LN;C><MBO> :G= H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K A:O> ;>>G M:D>G LBFNEM:G>HNLER
UNCORRECTED PROOF
C.J. Rogers and D.R. Hart Journal of Environmental Psychology xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
G BFIHKM:GM XG=BG@ MA:M >F>K@>= ?KHF MA> :G:ERLBL P:L MA:M :E
MAHN@A MA> <HKK>E:MBHG ;>MP>>G H;C><MBO> :G= LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K P:L
LMKHG@  H? MAHL> PAH L<HK>= BG MA> healthy range H? <ENMM>K HG
MA> H;C><MBO> <NMM>K L<:E> K>IHKM>= MA:M <ENMM>K A:L G>@:MBO>ER BFI:<M>=
MA>BK JN:EBMR H? EB?> HGO>KL>ER :FHG@ MAHL> PAH P>K> BG MA> <EBGB<:E
K:G@>  BG=B<:M>= MA:M <ENMM>K A:L G>@:MBO>ER BFI:<M>= MA>BK JN:EBMR
H? EB?> 1ABL LN@@>LML MA:M >O>G PA>G I>HIE> F:G:@> <ENMM>K K>:LHG:;ER
P>EE BM <:G BFI:<M MA>BK JN:EBMR H? EB?>
*HK> BGMKB@NBG@ER K>@:K=E>LL H? I>HIE>L H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K E>O>EL MA>BK
LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K L<HK>L <HGLBLM>GMER IK>=B<M>= MA>BK P>EE;>BG@ PABE>
MA>BK H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K E>O>E A:= EBMME> IK>=B<MBO> IHP>K 1ABL BL =>LIBM>
LAHPBG@ FH=>K:M> :LLH<B:MBHGL PBMA :EE -"/* >E>F>GML 1ABL <HNE= ;>
BGM>KIK>M>= BG MPH P:RL
#BKLMER MA> ENMM>K &F:@> /:MBG@ 0<:E>  &/0 #KHLM >M :E 
MAKHN@A PAB<A H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K P:L F>:LNK>= P:L =>O>EHI>= MH @:N@>
AH:K=BG@ E>O>EL BG <EBGB<:E IHINE:MBHGL F:R GHM :=>JN:M>ER =>M>KFBG>
<ENMM>K OHENF> BG @>G>K:E IHINE:MBHGL 1A> L<:E> F>:LNK>L <ENMM>K BG
MAK>> KHHFL HGER LAHPBG@ BM>FL MA:M MRIB<:EER :F:LL BG AH:K=>= AHF>L
PAB<A F:R GHM ?>:MNK> BG GHGAH:K=>= AHF>L ==BMBHG:EER MA> L<:E>
MB>L MH@>MA>K L>O>K:E <A:K:<M>KBLMB<L H? : LI:<> BG<EN=BG@ <ENMM>K ?NEEG>LL
F>LLBG>LL :G= =BKMBG>LL &? : I>KLHG B=>GMBX>L PBMA : ?>P ;NM GHM :EE H?
MA>L> <KBM>KB: MA>R F:R GHM ;> :;E> MH L<HK> MA>FL>EO>L :<<NK:M>ER HG
MABL L<:E> 1A> L<:E> :ELH =H>L GHM <:IMNK> =B@BM:E <ENMM>K &G MA> <HG
M>QM H? AH:K=BG@ :LL>LLBG@ MA> <HGM>GM H? FHK> MA:G MAK>> KHHFL F:R
GHM :== FN<A F>:GBG@?NE BG?HKF:MBHG#KHLM >M :E  I 
AHP>O>K PBMABG : @>G>K:E IHINE:MBHG MA> EBM>K:MNK> K>IHKML HG @:K:@>L
LI:K> KHHFL LA>=L :G= K>GM>= LMHK:@> LI:<>L :L <HFFHG ;NK@>HGBG@
K>IHLBMHKB>L ?HK NGNL>= IHLL>LLBHGL KGHE=  ):G@ >ED >M :E
 P>KG>K *>M<:E?> )V?@K>G  1A>K>?HK> PABELM
LHF> AHF> :K>:L F:R A:O> :<<>IM:;E> <ENMM>K OHENF>L <ENMM>K F:R :<
<NFNE:M> BG :K>:L GHM <:IMNK>= ;R MA> L<:E> &M BL PHKMA F>GMBHGBG@ MA:M
MA> &/0 :II HLMHG 2GBO>KLBMR  H??>KL HIMBHGL MH K:M> HMA>K
:K>:L BG<EN=BG@ <:KL :MMB<L :G= A:EEP:RL
GHMA>K >QIE:G:MBHG BL MA:M P>EE;>BG@ BL IK>=B<M>= not by objective
clutter volume, but by people's subjective experience of it EMAHN@A <ENMM>K
EBM>K:MNK> :FHG@ @>G>K:E IHINE:MBHGL BL L<:K<> JN:EBM:MBO> LMN=B>L L>>F
MH LNIIHKM MABL I>KLI><MBO> &G=BOB=N:E =B??>K>G<>L :K> =>L<KB;>= PBMABG
:G= ;>MP>>G AHNL>AHE=L K>LNEMBG@ BG K><NKK>GM G>@HMB:MBHGL :G= LAB?MBG@
H? LHF>MBF>L NGPKBMM>G KNE>L :G= O:KB>= CN=@>F>GML K>@:K=BG@ :<<>IM
:;E>NG:<<>IM:;E> P:RL MH F:G:@> IHLL>LLBHGL L :G >Q:FIE> BG HG>
-:KBLB:G AHF> MHRLP:L : <:M>@HKR &G :GHMA>K MHR <:M>@HKBLBG@ P:L
FHK> IK><BL> =BGHL:NKL P>K> L>I:K:M>= ?KHF -E:RFH;BE !BHG >M :E
 &G :GHMA>K LMN=R 0P:G >M :E  =BLMBG<M <ENMM>K <HGM:BG
F>GM IK:<MB<>L P>K> H;L>KO>= BG )HG=HG ?:FBEB>L -:KMB<BI:GML BG ;HMA
LMN=B>L =>L<KB;>= :K>:L BG MA>BK AHF>L MA:M HMA>KL FB@AM <HGLB=>K <ENM
M>K>= R>M MA>R =>>F IE>:LBG@ 1B=BG>LL P:L =BLMBG<MBO>ER =>XG>= :G=
=>FHGLMK:M>= MAKHN@A :=A>K>G<> MH AHNL> KNE>L PABE> F>LLR:K>:L
K>IK>L>GM>= :G BG?KBG@>F>GM HK :;L>G<> H? AHNL> KNE>L !BHG >M :E
 #NKMA>K >OB=>G<> MA:M MA> L:F> AHF> <BK<NFLM:G<>L <:G ;> >Q
I>KB>G<>= =B??>K>GMER P>K> K>IHKM>= ;R 0:Q;> :G= />I>MMB  1A>
:NMAHKL ?HNG= MA:M PBO>L ?KHF AHF>L >QI>KB>G<>= :L <ENMM>K>= =>L<KB;>=
MA>BK AHF>L NLBG@ FHK> =>IK>LL>= E:G@N:@> :G= LAHP>= Y:MM>K =BNKG:E
<HKMBLHE LEHI>L 1A>BK ANL;:G=L EBOBG@ PBMA B=>GMB<:E <ENMM>K OHENF> =B=
GHM
GHMA>K D>R XG=BG@ BL MA:M PA>G AHF> <BK<NFLM:G<>L :K> :<<>IM:;E>
:G= I>HIE> ?>>E MA:M MA>R :K> F:G:@BG@ MA>BK <ENMM>K K>:LHG:;ER :<<HF
IEBLAF>GM :G= IHLBMBO> >FHMBHG :K> FHK> LMKHG@ER IK>=B<M>= MA:G HMA>K
P>EE;>BG@ >E>F>GML 1ABL LN@@>LML MA:M PA>G MA> AHF> BL >QI>KB>G<>= :L
MB=R :G= HK=>K>= MA> FBG= BL ?K>> MH ?H<NL HG FHK> BFIHKM:GM MABG@L
LN<A :L @H:E :<AB>O>F>GM L>E?K>@NE:MBHG :G= I>K?HKF:G<>
!><ENMM>KBG@ <:G >EB<BM A>=HGB< ?>>EBG@L H? CHR K>E>:L> :G= A:IIBG>LL
)>>  1ABG@L ;>BG@ BG IE:<> IHLBMBO>ER :??><ML FHH= :G= I>HIE>
K>IHKM ?>>EBG@ ;>MM>K :L : K>LNEM !BHG >M :E 
 LNKIKBLBG@ XG=BG@ H? MABL LMN=R P:L MA:M AB@A>K <ENMM>K OHENF> pos-
itively IK>=B<M>= >G@:@>F>GM ;>RHG= MA> LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K 1ABL P:L MA>
HGER MBF> MA> H;C><MBO> F>:LNK> H? <ENMM>K <HGMKB;NM>= MH MA> K>@K>L
LBHG FH=>E :E;>BM P>:DER 0>O>K:E K>L>:K<A>KL JN>LMBHG>= MA> -"/*
>G@:@>F>GM LN;L<:E>L KH;NLMG>LL BK<A /B;R  *<$:GG 
PAB<A FB@AM :<<HNGM ?HK MABL XG=BG@ EM>KG:MBO>ER MABL XG=BG@ F:R
;> EBGD>= MH MA> >G@:@>F>GM MA:M I>HIE> F:R >QI>KB>G<> PA>G F:G:@
BG@ MA>BK IHLL>LLBHGL <E>:GBG@ LHKMBG@ :KK:G@BG@ :G= MA> EBD> PAB<A
<HNE= IHM>GMB:EER BG=N<> YHP +HK=LE>MM>G >M :E 0MNFI? >M
:E  1ABL H??>KL :G BG=B<:MBHG MA:M GHM :EE <ENMM>K BL F:E:=:IMBO>
:G= MA:M IHLL>LLBHG F:G:@>F>GM <:G ;> >G@:@BG@ LI>:DBG@ MH <ENMM>KL
LN;C><MBO> G:MNK>
GHMA>K BGM>K>LMBG@ XG=BG@ BL MA:M =><ENMM>KBG@ ?K>JN>G<R A:L LAHPG
: G>@:MBO> FH=>K:M> <HKK>E:MBHG PBMA <ENMM>K ;HMA LN;C><MBO> :G= H;C><
MBO> : EHP IHLBMBO> <HKK>E:MBHG PBMA ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> :L P>EE :L EHP
IHLBMBO> <HKK>E:MBHGL PBMA P>EE;>BG@ %HP>O>K BM =B= GHM IK>=B<M :GR H?
MA> P>EE;>BG@ <HFIHG>GML 1ABL LN@@>LML MA:M I>HIE> PAH =><ENMM>K ?K>
JN>GMER L>> E>LL <ENMM>K BG MA>BK AHF>L :G= >QI>KB>G<> : LMKHG@>K L>GL>
H? AHF> :G= AB@A>K E>O>EL H? P>EE;>BG@ 1A> E:<D H? IK>=B<MBO> IHP>K
<:G :EEN=> MH MA> ?:<M MA:M MA> ?K>JN>G<R H? MA> =><ENMM>KBG@ =H>L GHM BF
IBG@> HG P>EE;>BG@ :L FN<A :L MA> HNM<HF> :<AB>O>= MA> L>GL> H? AHF>
:G= MA> LN;C><MBO> L>GL> H? <ENMM>K PAB<A LMKHG@ER IK>=B<M P>EE;>BG@
):LMER :G BGMKB@NBG@ JN>LMBHG BL PAR LH F:GR I>HIE> MHHD I:KM BG
MABL LMN=R 4> LI><NE:M> MA:M MA> ANG=K>=L H? I>HIE> PAH OHENGM>>K>=
 FBG MH <HFIE>M> HNK LNKO>R =B= LH ;><:NL> <ENMM>K BL : <>GMK:E K>E
>O:GM :G= BG=>>= BFIHKM:GM MHIB< MH F:GR
,NK LMN=R LN;LM:GMB:M>L /HLM>K >M :EL  XG=BG@L MA:M ILR
<AHEH@B<:E AHF> :G= LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K IK>=B<M P>EE;>BG@ &M :ELH <HG
XKFL 0B@FHG >M :EL  K>IHKM>= :LLH<B:MBHGL ;>MP>>G ILR<AHEH@B
<:E AHF> :G= P>EE;>BG@ <HG<EN=BG@ MA:M BGO>LMF>GM BG AHF> BL : =>LBK
:;E> F>:GBG@?NE :<MBOBMR MA:M <HGMKB;NM>L MH P>EE;>BG@
5.1Theoretical contribution
1A> LMN=R XG=BG@L <HGMKB;NM> MH MA>HKB>L H? AHF> :G= ILR<AHEH@B<:E
AHF> ;HELM>KBG@ >EDL  IHLL>LLBHG L>E?>QM>GLBHG MA>HKR 1A> D>R
INKIHL> H? ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> BL MH IKHFHM> : @K>:M>K L>GL> H? P>EE;>
BG@ 0B@FHG >M :E  :G= HNK XG=BG@L LAHP MA:M LN;C><MBO> <ENMM>K
:G= ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> F:D> : <HGLB=>K:;E> <HGMKB;NMBHG MH P>EE;>BG@
!K:PBG@ HG MA>L> XG=BG@L P> IKHIHL> MA:M MA> <HGG><MBHG ;>MP>>G ILR
<AHEH@B<:E AHF> :G= IHLL>LLBHG L>E?>QM>GLBHG F:R GHM ;> PAHEER =N>
MH MA> LBGBLM>K O:E>G<> MRIB<:EER :MMKB;NM>= MH <ENMM>K ;NM K:MA>K MH MA>
L>E?>QM>GLBHG H? IHLL>LLBHGL >QIE:BG>= ;R >ED 
-HLL>LLBHGL AHNL>= BG AHF>L A:O> F>:GBG@L :G= ;BH@K:IAB>L MA:M
=>GR :G= =><KR MA>BK F:M>KB:E G:MNK> :G= O:EN> %HP>O>K MA>R :ELH A:O>
: M>FIHK:E G:MNK> /HLM>K  PA>K>;R MA> LN;C><MBO> K>E:MBHGLABIL
PBMA IHLL>LLBHGL :EM>KL :G= MK:GL?HKFL HO>K MBF> 4> LN@@>LM MA:M MA>
F>:GBG@ :LLB@G>= MH IHLL>LLBHGL :G= <ENMM>K :G= I>HIE>L <:I:<BMR MH >Q
IK>LL MA>FL>EO>L MAKHN@A MA>BK AHF> >GOBKHGF>GM BFIBG@>L HG P>EE
;>BG@ MAKHN@A MA> :;BEBMR MH LMKBD> : ;:E:G<> ;>MP>>G LN;C><MBO> :G=
H;C><MBO> <ENMM>K :G= MH GHMB<> MA> IHBGM :M PAB<A IHLL>LLBHGL <HGO>KM
?KHF : MK>:LNK>= BM>FL MH <ENMM>K :G= :<M :<<HK=BG@ER 1A>L> K>I>:M>=
:<MBHGL <HGMBGN:EER <NK:M> AHF> :L :G >QIK>LLBHG H? L>E?B=>GMBMR AHF>
:<JNBK>L BML F>:GBG@ MAKHN@A FNG=:G> =:BER IK:<MB<>L!BHG >M :E
 I 
4> MA>K>?HK> @>GMER <A:EE>G@> >QM:GM MA>HKB>L MA:M <ENMM>K BL F:E
:=:IMBO> =K:PBG@ :MM>GMBHG MH MA> subjective >QI>KB>G<> H? BM>FL ;>
BG@ BG HK HNM H? IE:<> :M AHF> :EB@GBG@ HK GHM PBMA L>E?B=>GMBMR :
?:<MHK HO>KEHHD>= BG <ENMM>K =>?BGBMBHGL MH =:M> 4> IKHIHL> MA> ?HE
UNCORRECTED PROOF
C.J. Rogers and D.R. Hart Journal of Environmental Psychology xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
EHPBG@ K>XG>= =>?BGBMBHG H? <ENMM>K ENMM>K BL : LN;C><MBO> >QI>KB>G<> H?
IHLL>LLBHGL F:M>KB:E HK HMA>K MA:M BGAB;BM MA> <NK:MBHG H? L>E?B=>GMBMR
:M AHF>
5.2Practical contribution
,NK XG=BG@L A:O> IK:<MB<:E NL> ?HK IKH?>LLBHG:E HK@:GBL>KL :G= ?HK
BG=BOB=N:EL P:GMBG@ MH M:<DE> <ENMM>K MA:M BL =>MK:<MBG@ ?KHF MA>BK JN:E
BMR H? EB?> $BO>G MA> >FIA:LBL HG LN;C><MBOBMR MABL LMN=R AB@AEB@AML MA>
BFIHKM:G<> H? GHGCN=@>F>GM:E I>KLHG<>GMK>= :IIKH:<A>L ?KHF IKH?>L
LBHG:E HK@:GBL>KL ,NK K>LNEML NG=>KEBG> MA> BFIHKM:G<> H? <NEMBO:MBG@ NG
=>KLM:G=BG@ H? <EB>GM O:EN>L :G= ?:FBEB:KBLBG@ MA>FL>EO>L PBMA AHNL>
AHE= <NEMNK> :G= GHKFL ;>?HK> >F;:KDBG@ HG <ENMM>K K>=N<MBHG LMK:M>
@B>L L>> /HLM>K  ?HK :G >Q<>EE>GM LNFF:KR H? I>KLHGIHLL>LLBHG
=BLIHL:E LMK:M>@B>L
$BO>G MA:M MA> P>EE;>BG@ :<<HFIEBLAF>GM ?:<MHK P:L FHLM LMKHG@ER
IK>=B<M>= ;R AHF> L>E?>QM>GLBHG =BF>GLBHGL MABL BG=B<:M>L MA:M :<<HF
IEBLAF>GM BGM>KO>GMBHGL <HNE= ;> NL>?NE PBMABG <ENMM>K K>=N<MBHG LMK:M>
@B>L "LM:;EBLABG@ <E>:K :<AB>O:;E> I>KLHGLI><BX< @H:EL MH <K>:M> AHF>
L>E?B=>GMBMR <:G @:EO:GBL> MAHL> LMKN@@EBG@ PBMA <ENMM>K MH M:<DE> BM
/><H@GBLBG@ MA> BFIHKM:GM I:KM IHLBMBO> >FHMBHGL IE:R BG AHF>
L>E?>QM>GLBHG <:G A>EI HK@:GBL>KL FHMBO:M> <EB>GML MH NG=>KM:D> PA:M
FB@AM ?>>E EBD> : F:FFHMA M:LD  XKLM LM>I PBMA :G HO>KPA>EF>= <EB>GM
FB@AM ;> MH LN@@>LM BGM>KO>GMBHGL MA:M IKHFHM> IHLBMBO> >FHMBHG L>> 0BG
 )RN;HFBKLDR  BFIKHOBG@ K>LBEB>G<> MH <HG?KHGM MA> M:LD
5.3Limitations and research recommendations
,NK L:FIE> :EMAHN@A LN?X<B>GMER E:K@> MH K>MNKG LM:MBLMB<:EER LB@GB?
B<:GM K>LNEML P:L IK>=HFBG:GMER ?>F:E> K>LMKB<MBG@ HIIHKMNGBMR MH >Q
IEHK> @>G=>K =B??>K>G<>L 1ABL K>L>:K<A LM:G=L HG MA> LAHNE=>KL H? HMA>KL
PBMA FHLMER HK :EE ?>F:E> I:KMB<BI:GML !BHG >M :E )>> 
/HLM>K >M :E  E>:=BG@ NL MH CHBG MA>BK <:EE ?HK ?NMNK> K>L>:K<A
BGMH <ENMM>K AHF> :G= @>G=>K ==BMBHG:EER MA> <HKK>E:MBHGL :G= K>@K>L
LBHGL K>IHKM>= BG MABL LMN=R F:R ;> L:FIE> LI><BX< HNK <HGO>GB>G<>
:G= LGHP;:EE L:FIEBG@ K>LMKB<M MA> :;BEBMR MH @>G>K:EBL> ?KHF MABL L:FIE>
MH E:K@>K IHINE:MBHGL #B>E=  :G= LBG<> GH K:<> HK >MAGB< HKB@BG
=:M: P:L <HEE><M>= <HFI:KBLHGL <:GGHM ;> F:=> 1ABL HO>KLB@AM BL =BL
:IIHBGMBG@ =N> MH BG=B<:MBHGL MA:M P>EE;>BG@ :G= <ENMM>K :K> >QI>KB>G<>=
=B??>K>GMER BG =B??>K>GM <NEMNK>L BK<A >M :E  KNF #>KK:KB

,NK =><ENMM>KBG@ A:;BMO:KB:;E> P:L : LBG@E> BM>F NGM>LM>= ?HK K>EB
:;BEBMR HK O:EB=BMR 4> :ELH GHM>= MA:M LHF> I:KMB<BI:GML F:R A:O> ?HNG=
MA> K>LIHGL> O:EN>L <HG?NLBG@ F>:GBG@ MA:M BG?>K>G<>L ?KHF MABL BM>F
<HNE= ;> NGK>EB:;E> 1A>K>?HK> BML LF:EE KHE> BG HNK XG=BG@L EHP MH
FH=>K:M> :LLH<B:MBHGL PBMA -"/* >E>F>GML FNLM ;> BGM>KIK>M>= <:N
MBHNLER
1A> LMN=RL BGM>GMBHG MH IK>O>GM IHM>GMB:E K>LIHGL> M>G=>G<R ;B:L
<HNE= ;> BFIKHO>= ;R :==BG@ L<:E>L MA:M :LL>LL K:MBG@ ;B:L B> LH<B:E
=>LBK:;BEBMR :G=HK :<JNB>L<>GM K>LIHG=BG@ &? <HGMKHEEBG@ ?HK MA>L> ;B
:L>L A:= GH LB@GB?B<:GM BFI:<M HG LM:MBLMB<:E :G:ERLBL BM PHNE= A:O> K>
BG?HK<>= MA> LMN=RL XG=BG@L (K>BM<AF:GG ;:= -HGLH=: +B>MH 
*HKBEEH 
 ?KNBM?NE :K>: ?HK ?NKMA>K K>L>:K<A FB@AM ;> MH ?H<NL HG =><ENM
M>KBG@ BGM>KO>GMBHGL MH =>XG> BM :L :G :<MBHG HKB>GM:M>= BGM>KO>GMBHG
:G= M>LM BML BFI:<M HG P>EE;>BG@ BG :G >QI>KBF>GM:E K>L>:K<A =>LB@G
4> LN@@>LM MA:M PBMABG =><ENMM>KBG@ <H:<ABG@ HK MK:BGBG@ MAHL> HO>K
PA>EF>= ;R <ENMM>K F:R ;>G>XM ?KHF NG=>KLM:G=BG@ MA> >QM>G=>=L>E?
MA>HKR #HK BGLM:G<> >ED  M:EDL H? <HGM:@BHG IHLL>LLBHGL
I>KF>:MBG@ >LL>G<> H? MA>BK HPG>KL  PAB<A BL PAR KBMN:EL MH <E>:GL>
:G= G>NMK:EBL> <:G ;> ;>G>X<B:E BG =BLIHLL>LLBHG 2G=>KLM:G=BG@ MA>
GHKF:E<R H? L>>FBG@ER BEEH@B<:E ?>>EBG@L :;HNM IHLL>L
LBHGL <HNE= HI>G MA> FBG= MH MA> M>FIHK:E G:MNK> H? IHLL>LLBHG L>E?>Q
M>GLBHG KMB<NE:MBG@ PA>MA>K : IHLL>LLBHG BL LMBEE F><:G ;> <A:EE>G@
BG@ ;NM MA> MKBNFIA :G= K>EB>? BG =HBG@ LH BL EB;>K:MBG@ ):LMHOB<D: 
#>KG:G=>S )>> 
6Conclusion
&G @>G>K:E IHINE:MBHGL <ENMM>K <HGLB=>K:MBHGL :K> G>BMA>K FNG=:G>
GHK MKBOB:E ;NM <>GMK:E :G= BFIHKM:GM MH P>EE;>BG@ ENMM>K K>@:K=E>LL
H? BML OHENF> BL : LN;C><MBO> <HGLMKN<M BG=BOB=N:EER =>XG>= :G= >QI>KB
>G<>= 4> H??>K : K>XG>= <ENMM>K =>?BGBMBHG >G<HFI:LLBG@ I>HIE>L LN;
C><MBO> >QI>KB>G<> :G= BGM>KIK>M:MBHG H? <ENMM>K
&G MA> <NKK>GM LMN=R <ENMM>K :G= ILR<AHEH@B<:E AHF> O:KB:;E>L
LMKHG@ER IK>=B<M>= P>EE;>BG@ O:KB:G<> 4BMABG MA> -"/* >E>F>GML H?
P>EE;>BG@ :<<HFIEBLAF>GM :G= IHLBMBO> >FHMBHG P>K> FHLM LMKHG@ER
IK>=B<M>= ;R AHF> >QM>GLBHG O:KB:;E>L 1A> XG=BG@L :ELH LN@@>LM>= MA:M
<ENMM>K BL GHM >Q<ENLBO>ER F:E:=:IMBO> PA>G MABG@L :K> BG MA>BK IE:<>
PA>K>O>K MA:M FB@AM ;> :G= AHF> >QIK>LL>L L>E?B=>GMBMR P>EE;>BG@ BL
FHK> EBD>ER MH ;> IK>L>GM
1A>K> :K> P:RL BG=BOB=N:EL :G= IKH?>LLBHG:E HK@:GBL>KL <:G :IIER HNK
XG=BG@L ;HMA MH FHMBO:M> <EB>GML :G= >FIEHR :L I:KM H? <ENMM>K K>=N<MBHG
LMK:M>@B>L MH IKHFHM> AHF>L K>Y><MBG@ <EB>GMLL>E?B=>GMBMR ->KLHGLI>
<BX< BGM>KO>GMBHGL ?:<BEBM:MBG@ @H:E L>MMBG@ :G= K:BLBG@ IHLBMBO> >FHMBHG
<:G A>EI I>HIE> @>M MH @KBIL PBMA <ENMM>K HO>KPA>EF
1A> LMN=R <HGMKB;NM>L MH MHIB<L H? <ENMM>K :G= AHF> &M LN;LM:GMB:M>L
MA:M AHF> BL : IE:M?HKF ?HK P>EE;>BG@
CRediT authorship contribution statement
Caroline J. Rogers: HG<>IMN:EBS:MBHG *>MAH=HEH@R 3:EB=:
MBHG #HKF:E :G:ERLBL &GO>LMB@:MBHG />LHNK<>L !:M: <NK:MBHG 4KBMBG@
HKB@BG:E =K:?M 4KBMBG@ K>OB>P  >=BMBG@ 3BLN:EBS:MBHG -KHC><M :=FBG
BLMK:MBHG Dr Rona Hart: HG<>IMN:EBS:MBHG *>MAH=HEH@R #HKF:E
:G:ERLBL 4KBMBG@ HKB@BG:E =K:?M 4KBMBG@ K>OB>P >=BMBG@ 0NI>KOB
LBHG
Declarations of competing interest
:KHEBG> /H@>KL PHKDL :L : IKH?>LLBHG:E HK@:GBL>K :G= BL : F>F;>K
H? MA> LLH<B:MBHG H? -KH?>LLBHG:E !><ENMM>K>KL :G= ,K@:GBL>KL
Acknowledgements
1H MAHL> H? RHN PAH F:=> MBF> MH <HFIE>M> MA> K>L>:K<A LNKO>R :G=
LA:K> BM PBMA HMA>KL MA:M P:L : DBG=G>LL :G= <HGMKB;NMBHG MH MABL PHKD
FHK> MA:G P> <:G L:R 1A:GD RHN
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F>KB<:G -LR<AB:MKB< LLH<B:MBHG  Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental
disorders !0* 4:LABG@MHG !  F>KB<:G -LR<AB:MKB< LLH<B:MBHG
G 0( *:M:BQ HEL ! ):PK>G<> +0 4HH=>KLHG 0 $B:FIB>MKH 3 0I><D>GL 
>M :E  1H =BL<:K= HK GHM MH =BL<:K= 1A> G>NK:E ;:LBL H? AH:K=BG@ LRFIMHFL BG
H;L>LLBO><HFINELBO> =BLHK=>K *HE><NE:K -LR<AB:MKR   =HB
LCFI
GMHG " ):PK>G<>   %HF> BL PA>K> MA> A>:KM BL 1A> >\><M H? IE:<>
H? K>LB=>G<> HG IE:<> :MM:<AF>GM :G= <HFFNGBMR I:KMB<BI:MBHG 'HNKG:E H?
"GOBKHGF>GM:E -LR<AHEH@R   =HBCC>GOI
KGHE= '" ):G@ 2  A:G@BG@ F>KB<:G AHF> EB?> 1K>G=L BG =HF>LMB<
E>BLNK> :G= LMHK:@> :FHG@ FB==E><E:LL ?:FBEB>L 'HNKG:E H? #:FBER :G= "<HGHFB<
&LLN>L   =HBL
LH 5  G >=N<:MBHG:E IKH@K:F ?HK RHNG@ I>HIE> PAH A:O> =BZ<NEMR =><ENMM>KBG@
:G= HK@:GBSBG@ 1A> "NKHI>:G 'HNKG:E H? -N;EB< %>:EMA 0NIIE>F>GM  
LH 5 5:F:HD: ( +>FHMH  +:@:GNF: 5  0:BMH *  "\><MBO>G>LL H?
:PHKDLAHI HG =><ENMM>KBG@ :G= HK@:GBLBG@IKH@K:FF> ?HK M>>GL :G= FB==E>:@>=
:=NEML PBMA =BZ<NEMR =><ENMM>KBG@  LMN=R IKHMH<HE H? :G HI>GE:;>E K:G=HFBL>=
I:K:EE>E@KHNI LNI>KBHKBMR MKB:E BG ':I:G *' ,I>G   =HB
;FCHI>G
:KG>MM> ''  "\><ML H? LM>F :G= )BD>KM K>LIHGL> HIMBHG K>O>KL:EL HG LNKO>R
BGM>KG:E <HGLBLM>G<R &? RHN ?>>E MA> G>>= MA>K> BL : ;>MM>K :EM>KG:MBO> MH NLBG@
UNCORRECTED PROOF
C.J. Rogers and D.R. Hart Journal of Environmental Psychology xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
MAHL> G>@:MBO>ER PHK=>= LM>FL "=N<:MBHG:E :G= -LR<AHEH@B<:E *>:LNK>F>GM 
 =HB
>ED /4  -HLL>LLBHGL :G= MA> >QM>G=>= L>E? 'HNKG:E H? HGLNF>K />L>:K<A
  =HB
>ED /4  "QM>G=>= L>E? BG : =B@BM:E PHKE= 'HNKG:E H? HGLNF>K />L>:K<A 
 =HB
>ED /4 0>H '5  )B "  !BKMR EBMME> L><K>M %HF> <A:HL :G= IKH?>LLBHG:E
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=HBBCPOB
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YHNKBLABG@ &GM>KG:MBHG:E 'HNKG:E H? 4>EE;>BG@   =HBBCPOB
A>KKB>K % >ED /  !><ENMM>KBG@ &G HHD !1 /R:G '* "=L 1A> PBE>R
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'HAG 4BE>R  0HGL =HBP;><<L
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BG MA> =HF>LMB< PHKE= 'HNKG:E H? !>LB@G %BLMHKR  
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!BHG ! 0:;KB ,  $NBEE:K= 3  %HF> LP>>M F>LLR AHF> *:G:@BG@ LRF;HEB<
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!HSB>K *" R>KL /  3:EB=:MBHG H? MA> <ENMM>K BF:@> K:MBG@ BG HE=>K :=NEML
PBMA AH:K=BG@ =BLHK=>K &GM>KG:MBHG:E -LR<AH@>KB:MKB<L   =HB
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(BG@L  *HNE=BG@ / (GB@AM 1  5HN :K> PA:M RHN HPG />OB>PBG@ MA> EBGD
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):LMHOB<D: ')  #>KG:G=>S (3  1AK>> I:MAL MH =BLIHLBMBHG 1A> FHO>F>GM H?
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/>OB>P  
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/H:G> !* ):G=>KL  0A>KK:MM '  4BELHG $0  %H:K=BG@ BG MA> >E=>KER
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/H@>KL  MA>HKR H? MA>K:IR I>KLHG:EBMR :G= BGM>KI>KLHG:E K>E:MBHGLABIL :L
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... 2) [1].. 24 Roster and colleagues [1] found support for a theoretical model of psychological home 25 and latent variables, including clutter and subjective well-being. In addition, previous 26 literature found a significant relationship between clutter, sense of psychological home, 27 subjective well-being with a variety of different samples, such as women of color, persons 28 who are indecisive, and high anxiety [1,2,3,4,5,6]. However, to date, no previous 29 research compared older adults' (≥ 65 years old) and younger adults' (≤ 64 years old) 30 experiences with clutter, sense of psychological home, and subjective well-being. ...
... 58 Most previous clutter research utilized life satisfaction as the objective definition for 59 subjective well-being when testing clutter's relationship to subjective well-being [1, 2, 5, 60 6]. In addition to subjective well-being research on clutter found excessive items impact 61 many other aspects of individual's lives; including employee burnout/tension and 62 satisfaction with one's job [21], indecision (decisional procrastination) and behavioral 63 procrastination [22], need for cognition [5], and psychological home [1,2,5,6]. Results 64 from previous literature testing relationships between clutter, psychological home, and 65 subjective well-being concluded that the more clutter someone has the less sense of 66 psychological home and subjective well-being they report [1,2,5,6]. 67 Previous research that found a relationship between clutter, sense of psychological 68 home, and subjective well-being had samples that included emerging and younger adults 69 [2, 4, 23), women of color [3], employees [21][22], college students [4-5] and middle-age 70 adult samples [1,4,6]. ...
... In addition to subjective well-being research on clutter found excessive items impact 61 many other aspects of individual's lives; including employee burnout/tension and 62 satisfaction with one's job [21], indecision (decisional procrastination) and behavioral 63 procrastination [22], need for cognition [5], and psychological home [1,2,5,6]. Results 64 from previous literature testing relationships between clutter, psychological home, and 65 subjective well-being concluded that the more clutter someone has the less sense of 66 psychological home and subjective well-being they report [1,2,5,6]. 67 Previous research that found a relationship between clutter, sense of psychological 68 home, and subjective well-being had samples that included emerging and younger adults 69 [2, 4, 23), women of color [3], employees [21][22], college students [4-5] and middle-age 70 adult samples [1,4,6]. When comparing three different samples, college students (M age 71 = 21), younger adults (age range: 18-44, M age = 31), and middle-aged adults (age range: 72 21-84, M age = 54), Ferrari and Roster [4] found that clutter issues were negatively related 73 with satisfaction with life, but only for the middle-age sample. ...
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Previous research found mixed results for clutter’s impact on individuals’ sense of home and subjective well-being in a variety of samples. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, archival data were utilized to examine the relationship between clutter, psychological home, and subjective well-being across two age categories, specifically older adults aged ≥65 (n = 225), and younger adults aged ≤64 (n = 225). Three moderation analyses used age categories as a moderator exploring the relationship between (a) clutter predicting psychological home, (b) psychological home predicting subjective well-being, and (c) clutter predicting subjective well-being. Results found that age categories significantly moderated the relationship between clutter and psychological home but did not moderate the other variable relationships.
... In the first category, when the interviewee declares "what my consumption represents and reveals about me to other people", I believe that the symbolism behind this comment is also linked to the use of possession as a form of social positioning through the extension of the individual's self (Belk 1988;Rogers and Hart 2021). Thus, it can also be argued that the construction of an identity based on brands and products is also linked to the impact that such a factor can have on self-esteem (Oh 2021) and self-concept (Yoon, Skurnik and Carpenter 2013) of the individual, which may have consequences for their well-being (Rogers and Hart 2021). ...
... In the first category, when the interviewee declares "what my consumption represents and reveals about me to other people", I believe that the symbolism behind this comment is also linked to the use of possession as a form of social positioning through the extension of the individual's self (Belk 1988;Rogers and Hart 2021). Thus, it can also be argued that the construction of an identity based on brands and products is also linked to the impact that such a factor can have on self-esteem (Oh 2021) and self-concept (Yoon, Skurnik and Carpenter 2013) of the individual, which may have consequences for their well-being (Rogers and Hart 2021). The form of analysis and arrangement of comments in relation to the text could be explored further to better explain the phenomenon in a systematic and clear way. ...
... Architectural clutter has been defined by the number and the variance (or structure) of architectural features (Olivia et al., 2014;Pieters et al., 2007;Rogers & Hart, 2021;Rosenholtz et al., 2005). An increasing number of architectural features generally decreases the salience of individual features due to increased crowding and diminished ability for visual grouping (i.e., making sense of an environment). ...
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