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This study adopted a cross-sectional survey design to investigate the effect of employee attitude on customer satisfaction in selected hotels in Kampala, Uganda. Using simple random sampling, 179 hotel employees were considered in the study. The findings revealed that employee attitude was generally poor (mean = 1.09), while customer satisfaction was at moderate (mean = 1.89) levels. The study also revealed a significant positive relationship between employee attitude and customer satisfaction among the selected hotel employees (R2=0.558, P<0.05). The conclusion drawn was that employee attitude was a suitable predictor of customer satisfaction in the selected hotels. The recommendation was given that then owners and hotel management have to focus on facilitating employee development, engagement and empowerment to enable them to develop a more positive attitude towards their job.
International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Studies, 1(2) (2020), 144-150
Employee attitude and customer satisfaction in selected hotels in Kampala,
Ahmed Jowalie Wampande
Lecturer, Tourism & Hospitality Management, Faculty of Management Sciences, Busitema University, Uganda,
Olutayo K. Osunsan
Lecturer, Business Management, College of Economics and Management (CEM), Kampala International University,
Received: 21/11/2020 Revised: 5/12/2020 Accepted: 14/12/2020 DOI:
1. Introduction
In a competitive market economy, employees’ attitude is a fundamental locus point for determining and
attaining efficiency, effectiveness and customer satisfaction in an Organization (Kwizera, et al 2019), especially in
a service sector and hospitality industry in particular. Attitude is crucial to customer satisfaction in the service and
hospitality industry world over among employees (Oni, Adewoye, & Eweoya, 2016). The services provided in the
hospitality industry are intangible and inseparable from the service provider. Due to these attributes the
assessment of service quality is principally subjective and resides mainly with the customer and their perception
of the experience (Maggon & Chaudhry, 2018). Subsequently human resource procedures, practices and policies
with regards to employee incentives among others are vital for the formation of an environment that endorses
customer oriented behavior (Namuleme, et al 2020).
Furthermore, the dynamic business environment with relations to the covid19 pandemic and rising customer
power have inspired businesses to embrace a customer-focused strategy (Shin & Kang, 2020). Consequently,
exceptional business processes and intangible assets such as brands, powerful human resources and customer
satisfaction, might become the most indispensable sources of sustainable competitive advantages (Kasemsap,
2017). Customer satisfaction is an imperative to investigate for several reasons: (i) customer satisfaction is a
rational gauge for non-financial performance for hotels and can thus ensure their survival. (ii) customer
satisfaction is not part of a firm’s financial reporting and not a financial indicator that can negatively be influenced
by heavy investments in innovation (Mahmoud, Hinson & Anim, 2018). (iii) satisfaction gauges signify an
indicator of the hotels’ standing in the competition for customers. (iv)a hotel’s customer satisfaction rating
signifies the repute and brand of the hotel compared to others. These rating are used by travellers and customers
as a whole before making a booking (Kasemsap, 2017; Obiero, 2018).
International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Studies
Journal Homepage:
ISSN 2709-0892 (Online) ISSN 2709-0884 (Print)
This study adopted a cross sectional survey design to investigate the effect of employee attitude on
customer satisfaction in selected hotels in Kampala, Uganda. Using simple random sampling, 179 hotel
employees were considered in the study. The findings revealed that employee attitude was generally poor
((mean = 1.09), while customer satisfaction was at moderate (mean = 1.89) levels. The study also revealed
a significant positive relationship between employee attitude and customer satisfaction among the selected
hotel employees (R2=0.558, P<0.05). The conclusion drawn was that employee attitude was a suitable
predictor of customer satisfaction in the selected hotels. The recommendation was given that then owners
and hotel management have to focus on facilitating employee development, engagement and
empowerment to enable them develop a more positive attitude towards their job.
Keywords: Employee Attitude; Customer Satisfaction; Hotels; Kampala; Uganda.
Employee attitude and customer satisfaction in selected hotels in Kampala, Uganda Wampande &
International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Studies, 1(2) (2020), 144-150
Before the outbreak of the Covid19 pandemic, the hotel industry had experienced significant growth in
Uganda and world over. The increased number of restaurant choices for consumers has fostered heightened
competition among dining establishments and hotels (Nakazibwe, 2018). Coupled with the fact that there is a high
turnover among hotel employees in Kampala (Nambooze, 2019), suggesting there might be an issue with
employees and the working conditions. This has called for the need to guarantee customer satisfaction among
hotels in order to retain their clientele, however this practically impossible without a positive employee attitude
to their work (Lee, Moon & Song, 2018). The purpose of this study therefore is to examine the relationship
between employee attitude and customers satisfaction in selected hotels in Kampala, Uganda. This paper sought
to build on prior studies (Kurdi, et al 2020) by investigative the degree to which employee attitude affected
customer satisfaction.
2. Literature Review
2.1. Employee Attitude
Employees play a significant role in organisation success and competitiveness and this feeds into the
confusion and debate among practitioners on the topic of employee attitudes. Employee attitude varies from
employee to employee with respect to their jobs, their careers, and their organizations (Lee, Moon & Song, 2018).
The need by businesses to retain and attract the right talents and foster the right attitude has led to the measuring
of employees’ attitude provides a signal on how effective the organization is in promoting a favourable
environment which breeds the right attitude among employees towards their Job and employer (Balta, 2018).
A positive attitude is achieved through many ways such as good pay (Ogbonnaya, Daniels & Nielsen, 2017),
training and development that facilitates employees with the necessary skills and knowledge to fulfil the
businesses objectives (Fletcher, Alfes & Robinson, 2018). Wikhamn (2019) emphasized the role of innovative and
sustainable human resource management that develops employee competence in numerous ways as a means of
imparting commitment, the result of which can be seen in the employees improved performance. Organizational
support has been documented to influence employee performance in several ways (Kwizera, et al 2019). Effective
compensation strategies have also been pointed out as a practice that creates increased commitment through
compensating the employees in line with their superior performance, using both financial and non-financial
means (Ogbonnaya, Daniels & Nielsen, 2017). Similarly, communication gives all employees a voice within the
organization, which enables each employee to understand what is expected in regards to their responsibilities and
organizational mission statement. Good or positive employee attitude will enable employees offer good service
with a feeling of belongingness (King et al 2013). The factors that influence employee attitude includes employee
empowerment (Stavrinoudis & Simos, 2016), quality leadership (Asrar-ul-Haq & Kuchinke, 2016), and work life
balance (Iqbal, et al 2017). Customer loyalty is influenced by many factors, among which is attitude displayed by
employees. Others are services pricing, quality, location and class of patrons (Thanabordeekij, 2018) can influence
how the employee feel about their work and the prestige attached to it. All these influences the level of attitude of
employees in the service sector including hotels and these actually work hand in hand (Namuleme, et al 2020).
2.2. Customer Satisfaction
Customer satisfaction is a measure of how products and services supplied by a business meet or surpass
customer or client expectation (Fornell, et al 2020). Customer satisfaction is argued to be a psychological notion
that involves the sensation of wellbeing and pleasure that is the outcome of obtaining what one hopes for and
expects from a product or service (Kotler and Keller, 2016). It is a judgment that a product or service feature, or
the product or service itself, provides pleasurable consumption related fulfilment (Basari & Shamsudin, 2020).
Customer satisfaction is a dominant theme in the service sector (Kwizera, et al 2019) and more so in the
hospitality industry. According to Leninkumar (2017) customer satisfaction is linked to customer loyalty, this
suggests that pleased customers have the potential to become loyal customers and to attract new clients to the
hotel. It is widely understood that customer satisfaction is crucial for enhancing profitability in the hospitality
sector (Eklof, Podkorytova & Malova, et al 2018). In a competitive marketplace where a business contends for
customers, customer satisfaction is seen as a core differentiator and has progressively developed to become a
main element of business strategy. Seeing that hotels of the same star category offer similar services it is
comprehensible that they compete on the basis of better satisfy customers (Sánchez-Pérez, Illescas-Manzano &
Martínez-Puertas, 2020). This makes customer satisfaction an asset that should be scrutinised and managed just
like any tangible asset. The relationship between customer service and customer satisfaction is a vital one
(Kasemsap, 2017) and the role of employee attitude can never be underestimated.
Service quality is one of the factors that contribute to customer satisfaction and is therefore a component of
customer satisfaction measure (Nunkoo, et al 2020). One of the main elements determining customer satisfaction
is the customer’s perception of service quality. Studies have shown that evidence support the relationship
between customer satisfaction and service quality (Sharma & Srivastava, 2018). Similarly studies also confirm the
relationship between services environment and customer satisfaction (Namuleme, et al 2020). It is a fact that
Employee attitude and customer satisfaction in selected hotels in Kampala, Uganda Wampande &
International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Studies, 1(2) (2020), 144-150
customer satisfaction is almost impossible and impractical without employee involvement (Bahadur, Aziz &
Zulfiqar, 2018).
2.3. Employee Attitude and Customer Satisfaction
It is argued that service is an attitude and outstanding service yields customers satisfaction (Kwizera, et al
2019). Outstanding service and profitable growth have a direct link, consequently, to employee attitude and
satisfaction. In fact, the way employees feel about their employer has a significant effect on the overall business of
a company. Employee attitude is not always easy to measure or control but neglecting it could have calamitous
results for any company. According to Kurdi, Alshurideh and Alnaser (2020) there is a solid positive link between
employee attitude and customer satisfaction. This suggests that if employees have bad attitude and low morale,
their productivity and work quality would be radically lower than the required standards resulting in lower
customer satisfaction, while the opposite would ring true if employees were happy and satisfied with a company.
Lee, Moon and Song (2018) found similar relationship in their study, they also pointed out the fact that employees
attitude reflected the quality of services. Kind and friendly employees tend to build rapport with customers which
ultimately results in customer satisfaction (Lee et al 2018). Sebastiampillai and Holm (2017) found that job
satisfaction, employee empowerment and customer orientation were significantly correlated with customer
satisfaction. Customer service can be seen in the attitude of the staff towards the customer. It is said that service
and for this matter, customer service is inseparable from the service provider (Bahadur, et al 2018). Numerous
empirical studies show a strong positive relationship between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction. As
suggested by a wealth of findings (Nunkoo, et al 2020; Kloutsiniotis & Mihail, 2018; Alhelalat, Ma’moun & Twaissi,
2017; Singh et al 2017), positive changes in employee attitudes lead to positive changes in customer satisfaction.
On the basis of the reviewed literature, the following null hypothesis is stated:
Employee attitude does not significantly affect customer satisfaction in selected hotels in Kampala,
3. Methodology
The study adopted a cross sectional survey design and a quantitative approach. A quantitative approach is
strongly related to deductive testing of theories through hypotheses, while the cross sectional was design was
adopted due to the fact that it makes data collection faster (Osunsan, 2020). The survey design was adopted
because of its versatility in data collection; its effectiveness in collecting data on several variables at low cost and
quickly; and its generalizability (Osunsan, 2020). Employees of 46 hotels in Kampala were considered for the
study (Uganda Hotel Owners’ Association, 2016), targeting 276 respondents and the response was 179. Simple
random sampling was used to identify 6 hotel employees in the respective hotels. This sampling was adopted in
the context of this study due to its ease, fairness, representativeness of the population, and the fact that it can be
used to draw conclusions on the basis of the results of the study (Sharma 2017). The response rate was 65%,
which exceeded the 60% response rate considered to be minimally acceptable (Pickett, 2017). The research
instrument consisted of 3 sections collecting data on demographic characteristics, employee attitude and
customer satisfaction respectively. A four-point scale questionnaire was used to collect data on perception of
employee attitude (11 items) and customer satisfaction (10 items); the four-point scale included: 1=strongly
disagree; 2=disagree; 3=not sure and 4=agree. Some of Sebastiampillai and Holm (2017) suggestion were used
as measures for customer satisfaction, while some of the indicators of Kwizera, et al (2019) were used for
employee performance. The study found that the content validity index (CVI) of the instrument was 0.79 with
reference to Masuwai and Saad (2017) who stated that if the CVI is ≥ 0.70, the instrument can then be considered
valid. The analysis was conducted using Means and Standard Deviations to compute the central tendency and
measure of dispersion of the study variables. To interpret the mean values, the following numerical values and
descriptions were used: 3.26-4.00 Very good, 2.51-3.25 -Good, 1.76-2.50 Moderate, and 1.00-1.75 -Poor.
Additionally, inferential statistics was used to determine the variations in the dependent variable. Specifically,
linear regression analysis was used to determine the effect of the independent variables on the dependent
variable. In addition, simple regression analysis was conducted as: Y = β0 + β1 X1 +μ. Where, Y = independent
variable, β0 = intercept of Y, β= parameter of the dependent variables, and μ = error term. The equation was
converted in order to estimate the regression model as follows: EA = β0 + β1CS . Where EA= Employee
attitude, β0 = Constant, β1 = Coefficient of Customer Satisfaction, μ = Error term, CS = Customer Satisfaction. The
coefficient β1 was used to identify the effect of employee attitude on customer satisfaction in selected hotels in
Kampala, Uganda. A significant (positive or negative) coefficient would suggest a positive or negative effect of the
employee attitude on customer satisfaction. All the tests were at the five percent (5%) significance level which is
the convention for the social sciences (Osunsan, 2020).
Employee attitude and customer satisfaction in selected hotels in Kampala, Uganda Wampande &
International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Studies, 1(2) (2020), 144-150
4. Findings
4.1. Characteristics of Respondent
A big proportion (56.2%) of the respondents were between 18 and 30 years of age. 56.2% of the respondents
were females compared to only 43.8% who were males. More than half (53.1%) were educated up to ordinary
level, 28.1% were educated up to advanced level, only 15.6% were educated up to degree level, while only 3.1%
had primary school education. The majority (93.8%) of the respondents had worked for the hotel for less than 5
years and only 6.2% had worked for more than five years.
4.2. Levels of Employee Attitude
Table (1): Employee Attitude
Std Dev.
Table 1 shows that Job satisfaction ranked the poorest (mean = 1.09) while work life balance (mean =2.02;
moderate) ranked highest. Table 1 further confirms that employee attitude is generally poor and this is
accentuated by the fact that employee empowerment (mean=1.18), sufficient training (mean=1.16), perceived
support (both), job satisfaction, and organisational commitment were all poor (mean < 1.76). The moderate level
in job commitment shows that employee like their chosen career this is confirmed by the moderate level in job
requirement, but the poor level of organisation commitment shows that they do not have a strong bond to the
organisation and will be willing to leave of the opportunity arises.
4.3. Level of Customer Satisfaction
Table (2): Perceived Customer Satisfaction
Std. Dev.
Service delivery speed
Employee courtesy
Service timing
Employee politeness
Employee accessibility
Employee timely response
Employee get it right the first time
Employee professionalism
Employee go above and beyond
Employee ask for feedback
Customer Satisfaction
Table 2 reveals that perceived customer satisfaction is moderate (mean = 1.89), however this is expected
due to the fact that it is based on the perception of the employee and they would not want to rate themselves
harshly. The generally moderate levels in several indicators show that customer satisfaction might not be at its
best. Employee courtesy ranked highest with a mean of 3.05 (Good), followed by employee professionalism (mean
= 2.19; moderate), while employee ask for feedback ranked lowest (mean =1.14; poor). The low mean scores can
act as a good indicator of the true reflection of what customer service is probably like in the case study hotel.
4.4. Employee Attitude and Customer Satisfaction
Table (3): Effect of Employee Attitude on Customer Satisfaction
Unstandardized Coefficients
Std. Error
Employee Attitude
Adjusted R2
Table 3 confirms that employee attitude has a significant positive effect on customer satisfaction by causing a
variance of 55.8% (R2=0.558, P<0.05). This implies that when employee attitude improves so does the level of
customer satisfaction in the case study hotel. The study revealed that the regression model was the best fit for
Employee attitude and customer satisfaction in selected hotels in Kampala, Uganda Wampande &
International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Studies, 1(2) (2020), 144-150
predicting the effect of employee attitude on customer satisfaction (F=109.95, P>0.05). The Durbin-Watson (d =
1.87), which is between the two critical values of 1.5 < d < 2.5. Therefore, we can assume that there is no first
order linear auto-correlation in our multiple linear regression data. On the basis of table 3 the null hypothesis
(Ho1) is rejected and the alternate is accepted. Therefore, employee attitude does significantly affect customer
satisfaction in selected hotels in Kampala, Uganda.
5. Conclusions and Recommendations
This study confirms the role of employee attitude in influencing customer satisfaction. More specifically it
shows that employee attitude significantly effects customer satisfaction in the case study hotel. This finding
resonates with others studies (Kurdi et al 2020; Lee et al 2018; Sebastiampillai & Holm, 2017) from others part of
the world. However, this study shows that employee attitude is poor in spite of the fact that several of the
employees like their career, but not necessary their employment condition. This finding appears to be more
specific to the context of the study and can suggest potential issues with customer satisfaction in the long run.
Employee feelings about their job not only has an influence on their quality of work life, but also on tangible
business outcomes such as customer satisfaction, sales, and ultimately profit (Kwizera et al 2019). Employees can
significantly contribute to an organization’s success by embracing a customer-centric approach in their work and
work-related interactions all this however is contingent on the employees’ attitude.
Given the influence of customer satisfaction on business profit in the long run, it is essential for hotels to
understand what dimensions of service quality need to be monitored and used to develop customer satisfaction
awareness, and customer-oriented work behaviours. This calls for employers to create a conducive work
environment that can stimulate employee ability to develop, engage and be empowered in their jobs. When all is
said and done employee attitude in the workplace is mostly influenced by the owners and top management in the
organisation, due to the fact that they are the ones who can put in place what is needed to alter employee attitude.
It cannot be over emphasized, that it is the responsibility of the owners and top management of the organisation,
hotels in this case to ensure the happiness and welfare of its employees, which in turn would lead to positive
employee attitude and thus customer satisfaction.
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The study sought to determine the relationship between service environment on customer satisfaction at centenary bank, Kabalagala branch and the main objectives were to examine the level of customer satisfaction at Centenary bank, Kabalagala branch, to identify the level of service environment at Centenary bank, Kabalagala branch and to establish whether there is a relationship between service environment and customer satisfaction at Centenary bank, Kabalagala branch. The study used a survey research design and data was collected from 80 respondents. The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between service environment and customer satisfaction (p < .05, r = 0.85). The null hypothesis was rejected and the alternate was accepted, therefore there is a significant relationship between Service Environment and Customer Satisfaction in Centenary Bank Kabalagala, Kampala – Uganda. This was also asserted as the conclusion. The recommendation was made that in order for the positive and significant relationship between the two variables to be maintained, issues relating ‘employee to customer ratio’ and ‘ATM accessibility’ have to be addressed.
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Drawing on competition, signalling and agglomeration perspectives, we investigate how vertical and horizontal differentiation influence price, and how hotel competition and agglomeration may moderate any such effects. We argue that vertical differentiation should include online reputation to complement category, and that hotel clustering can provide benefits for incumbents. Hypotheses are tested using quantile regression on a sample of 1870 hotels. In order to account for any service dimensions, an index of differentiation is estimated. We found that local competition and agglomeration moderates the relationship between differentiation and pricing. Furthermore, online reputation effects are more intense for low priced hotels. Indeed, when competition is intense, the positive effect of horizontal differentiation is lower for low priced hotels. Similarly, hotel clustering reinforces the impact of category on price, but it reduces the benefits of offering more services.
In the competitive hotel industry, individual hotels find ways to be unique to make their products and services shine amongst others. Hotels do not leave any stone unturned to deliver best of the services to magnetize the customers. Therefore, the purpose of this review paper is to study whether high level of quality service actually leads to satisfied customers and makes them loyal towards a particular hotel brand. Further, the study intends to explore whether SERVQUAL model is applicable for the hotels to satisfy their customers. Papers related to service quality and customer satisfaction were reviewed from the online database. This paper contributes to the existing literature to explore the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction and suggests that SERVQUAL method can be applied to the hotel industry to measure the customer satisfaction on the basis of five factors known as assurance, empathy, reliability, and tangibility, which will further lead the hoteliers to improvise customer services
In the business world, customer relationship management (CRM) has emerged as the main marketing activity of the service firms. Organizations thrive to maintain long-lasting relationships with their customers. The priority of the firms is to maximize the relationship share (RS) with profitable customers. The current study aims at identifying determinants of RS for hotels leisure travellers. The findings indicate that customer satisfaction (CS) and attitude towards the hotel in the relationship are major predictors of RS. Besides, CS indirectly affects RS through customer’s attitude towards the hotel. The findings of the present study will help the practitioners to design CRM programme better and reap its maximum benefits.
As an essential risk-reduction strategy, technology innovation is likely to play a key role in the hotel industry's recovery from the 2020 coronavirus pandemic. However, its impact on customer decision-making behavior is unknown. Focusing on technology innovation for reducing guest interaction with employees and enhancing cleanliness, the purpose of this research was to examine the impact of expected interaction and expected cleanliness on perceived health risk and hotel booking intention. Three experimental studies were conducted using online consumer samples. The studies found that low levels of expected interaction through technology-mediated systems lead to low levels of perceived health risk. Perceived health risk mediates the relationship between expected interaction and hotel booking intention. In addition, high levels of expected cleanliness through advanced cleaning technologies moderate the impacts of expected interaction on perceived health risk. Importantly, the proposed perceived risk mechanism was effective in post-pandemic scenarios. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Internationalization is believed to be an essential component of business success, more so in relation to survival, longevity, market expansion, access to new technology, access to capital, access to expertise, and the gradual establishment as a key player in regional markets and economies. Though efforts are being made by agencies such as the Uganda Export Promotion Board championing this cause, a big part of cross-border transactions still remain informal and a larger number of small businesses seem not to embrace the notion of internationalizing. Internationalization is particularly important in the context of Uganda due to the evolving regional economic integration initiatives to consolidate an East African market, which should be an added motivator to internationalizing among small businesses. This book identifies the levels of internationalization and why such levels exist among small businesses in Kampala, Uganda.
Viewed from the lens of the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI), customer satisfaction is a strategic company asset that should be optimized, not maximized, and certainly not ignored. Companies do not thrive only by delivering on increasingly higher customer satisfaction. They thrive by managing the optimization of customer satisfaction. Consequently, customer satisfaction levels change over time, and impacts on a company’s operations and financial performance are the focus. Given these issues, the scope of ACSI and its customer-centric assessment of the quality and quantity of national economic output are discussed in this chapter. Beyond customer satisfaction, the ACSI model also includes customer expectations, quality (product and service), value, complaint behavior, and customer loyalty at the company, industry, economic sector, and national levels.
This research contributes to customer satisfaction knowledge with regard to accommodation in South Africa whose star grading differs. A multi-group analysis and an importance-performance map analysis by means of PLS-SEM allow us to differentiate between service quality performance scores and their influences on customer satisfaction across accommodation with a different star grading. The two most important predictors of satisfaction with one-star and two-star category accommodation are the accommodation infrastructure and the employee expertise. Both predictors were found to have relatively low levels of performance. Safety and security and room quality are two significant determinants of satisfaction with three-star establishments, although they under-perform with regard to safety and security. In respect of four-star and five-star accommodation, waiting time and customer interaction, both of which have above average performance scores, influence customer satisfaction. We provide specific guidelines for managerial interventions to improve service quality and guests’ satisfaction for each grading category.