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Exercise‐induced muscle damage (EIMD) is characterized by histopathologicalmuscle tissue changes that originate skeletal muscle damage [...]
Nutrition and Muscle Recovery
Juan Mielgo-Ayuso 1,2,* and Diego Fernández-Lázaro 3,4
Citation: Mielgo-Ayuso, J.;
Fernández-Lázaro, D. Nutrition and
Muscle Recovery. Nutrients 2021,13,
Received: 4 December 2020
Accepted: 1 January 2021
Published: 20 January 2021
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1Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Burgos, 09001 Burgos, Spain
2ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and
Sport Sciences-INEF, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
3Department of Cellular Biology, Histology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of
Valladolid, Campus of Soria, 42003 Soria, Spain;
4Neurobiology Research Group, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, 47002 Valladolid, Spain
Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is characterized by histopathological muscle
tissue changes that originate skeletal muscle damage. The destruction of skeletal muscle
fibers causes an inflammatory response that decreases the athlete’s physical work capacity
and sports performance. Thus, muscle recovery becomes essential and has become a
priority for elite athletes in different sports modalities. To achieve optimal muscle recovery,
athletes often combine additional recovery strategies (biological, pharmacological, mechan-
ical, and nutritional) in the hope of improving physiological responses and competitive
performance. This extra preparation could contribute sensibly and legally to athletes to
adequately complement their training to obtain better performance or try “shortcuts” to
reach the sport’s elite in less time, with treatments and/or prohibited artificial methods
that improve their ability to achieve more extraordinary physical performance. Among
the strategies employed, the nutritional plan has a decisive influence on the stimulation
of muscle recovery. However, it is necessary to optimize the consumption of adequate
amounts of energy, nutrients, and liquids, establishing the correct frequency and associated
with the temporality of training and competition.
Furthermore, there are occasions when all these nutritional indications are insufficient,
and it becomes necessary to administer supplements to improve sports performance.
Dietary supplements are intended to complete and enhance the athlete’s diet, optimize
recovery during or after efforts, and increase the energy reserves needed to face strenuous
competitions. For this reason, in this Special Issue, Nutrition and Muscle Recovery, we
describe the most influential nutritional resources for promoting muscle anabolism. Studies
on proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, antioxidants, and dietary supplements have
demonstrated their importance and effectiveness in muscle recovery. It is also essential
to take into account the guidelines on quantity, time, and composition of each of the
nutritional elements to maximize their effectiveness, taking into account the principle of
sports specificity.
Nutrients’ special edition has brought together various research manuscripts [
and a systematic review [
]. This Special Issue, entitled Nutrition and Muscle Recovery,
gathered 12 manuscripts [
]; one manuscript (8.3%) [
] was related to the analysis of
the coach’s social skills influencing the athlete’s eating habits. In this way, the essential role
of eating habits to attain sporting success is demonstrated. Trigueros et al. [
] included
1547 subjects, men and women in different team sports (soccer, basketball, volleyball, and
handball), and 127 trainers. The main results showed that the psychological disorders
derived from anxiety, stress, and depression directly influenced the patterns of unhealthy
eating. Thus, these findings stimulate the implementation of a favorable social environment
to develop nutritional strategies that encourage a diet that achieves optimal health for
athletes to succeed in the sport. Trigueros et al. [
] showed that coaches’ respectful and
understanding behavior with their athletes improves psychological and emotional well-
Nutrients 2021,13, 294.
Nutrients 2021,13, 294 2 of 4
being, self-esteem, and confidence. In this way, the athletes can face sports practice stressors
and develop healthy eating habits that result in improvements in their sports performance.
Additionally, two research papers (16.6%) analyzed the nutritional composition of sports
foods [
] that allows the generation of individualized diets according to the athlete’s sports
performance and competitive performance. Martínez-Sanz et al. [
] generated a database that
reports foods’ composition concerning the portion sizes usually consumed by athletes and/or
commercial recommendation guidelines. Three hundred and twenty-two foods with a high
interest in sports practice and 18 registered trademarks that provided nutritional data were
analyzed. These foods were classified into seven categories: “sports drinks; sports gels; sports
bars; sports confectionery; protein powders; protein bars; and liquid foods.” In this way, a tool
was generated for the nutrition professionals that facilitates the athletes’ dietetic-nutritional
planning before, during, or after the training and/or competition. Mielgo-Ayuso et al. [
analyzed the associations between EIMD, cardiac stress (EICS), and the diets of marathon
runners in the seven days prior to a competition. The results showed that semi-elite marathon
athletes had higher levels of EIMD and EICS caused by the intake of meat in general, and
butter and fatty meat in particular. In contrast, the consumption of fish, vegetables, and olive
oil would exert a modulating effect on the EIMD and EICS [
]. With these results, appropriate
nutrition education programs could be created for all sports professionals to achieve adequate
health status to optimize sports performance.
In this Special Issue, two manuscripts (16.6%) [
] evaluated the comparative efficacy
of whey proteins vs. vegetable-based proteins on EIMD. In this sense, Nieman et al. [
evaluated comparatively, through a randomized trial, pea protein, serum protein, and
placebo on muscle damage, inflammation, delayed onset of muscle pain (DOMS), and
physical performance for five days after a 90-min high eccentric activity in a non-athletic,
non-obese male population. These authors report that three doses of 0.3 g/kg per day of
serum protein isolate during the five post-exercise days reduce muscle damage in the tested
population. On the other hand, pea protein consumption had a minor effect on EIMD
attenuation. Together, these data support using three doses of 0.3 g/kg per day of serum
protein isolate during five days of recovery from intensive eccentric exercise to reduce
serum levels of biomarkers of muscle damage in untrained men, with pea protein intake
having an intermediate effect. Only the increase in muscle fiber size, muscle strength, and
muscle recovery caused by pre-sleep serum protein intake was observed. However, both
proteins used in the study (whey protein and pea protein) showed no significant decreases
in DOMS and no increase in physical performance compared to placebo [
]. In this way,
Saracino et al. [
] investigated to compare whey vs. plant-based (alternative protein
sources) pre-sleep protein dietary supplementation on muscle recovery in 27 physically
active middle-aged men. The results showed that the consumption of 1.08
0.02 g/kg/day
of the protein showed no effect on harmful eccentric exercise over 72 h. Pre-sleep protein
intake, independent of protein source, did not mitigate muscle damage. For these reasons,
Saracino et al. [
] state that adequate protein intake per day (1.2–1.6 g/kg or 1.4–2.0 g/kg)
and a protein intake close to physical activity stimulate muscle recovery. In summary,
these two studies [
] show that the development of lean mass, increased strength, and
improved recovery are achieved through protein supplementation following the guidelines
established in their research.
Carbohydrate (CHO) supplements may improve sports performance in certain phys-
ical activities of varying intensity and duration. In addition, during endurance exercise,
CHO intake showed to delay neuromuscular fatigue and significantly improve physical
work capacity, depending on the dose used and modulate EIMD biomarkers. Three studies
(25%) [
] of this Special Issue, Nutrition and Muscle Recovery, investigated the effects
of CHO ingestion on physical performance (repeated sprint efforts) [
], neuromuscular
function [
], and EIMD markers [
]. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled
crossover trial of 15 recreational athletes found that CHO ingestion immediately before
and during short, maximal, and repeated sprint exercise does not influence performance
and it does not increase the quality of training [
]. These findings question CHO’s potential
Nutrients 2021,13, 294 3 of 4
ergogenic value for longer durations’ anaerobic performance than previously observed in
other studies. McMahon et al. [
] provide some useful findings for prescribing CHO intakes
for the athlete to perform practical performance-enhancing training. The CHO intake may
not have been used to increase adenosine triphosphate (ATP) turnover, thus, improving
anaerobic cycling performance compared to placebo. This type of CHO ingestion does not
appear to provide any ergogenic benefits [
]. Two studies [
] from the same research
group examined and compared the effects of high CHO intake (120 g/h) in terms of CHO
intake recommendation (90 g/h) and regular CHO intake performed by ultra-endurance
athletes (60 g/h) during a mountain marathon, on neuromuscular function, high intensity
run capacity recovery, and EIMD in marathon elite runners. This research group [
showed, for the first time, that the intake of CHO higher than currently recommended
(up to 120 g/h) during an endurance test positively stimulates long-term neuromuscu-
lar recovery and modulates the decline in sports performance 24 h after the end of the
mountain marathon and constitutes a suitable strategy for modulating EIMD [
]. These
studies [
] provide new evidence on carbohydrate consumption in elite athletes with
results that modify previous results that establish the intestinal absorption limit at 90 g/h
through small bowel carriers. The 120 g/h of CHO does not produce adverse reactions in
the gastrointestinal tract. To achieve this, athletes must be trained to perform the maximum
possible individual intake of CHO (up to 120 g/h). The mixture of CHO in a ratio of
glucose and fructose of 2:1 could be considered an optimal composition to ingest high
CHO amounts (up to 120 g/h) [10,11].
Nutritional supplements were studied in four studies (33.2%) in this Special Is-
sue [
]. Bazzucchi et al. [
] and Martin-Rincon et al. [
] have studied the effect of
polyphenols on muscle recovery, EIMD, and muscle pain, with quercetin (Q) in monother-
apy and quercetin plus Zynamite
(mango leaf extract), respectively. Q is a flavonol-
type polyphenol and Zynamite
is a natural polyphenol; both have antioxidant and
anti-inflammatory attributes that may stop EIMD and promote muscle recovery [
]. The
supplementation with Q (1 gr/d) for 14 days following a double-blind crossover study
design improve recovery from EIMD, the deterioration of neuromuscular function, and
modulated the increase in muscular biomarkers such as creatine kinase (CK) and lactate-
dehydrogenase (LDH) [
] in healthy men. Similarly, an only dose before 60 min the exercise
(140 mg Zynamite
plus 140 mg quercetin), followed by after 3 extra-doses every 8 h
allowed modulates EIMD and stimulates the recovery of muscle performance [
]. Recovery
of muscle strength and performance after intense exercise is enhanced by polyphenol
supplementation, probably due to protection against oxidative damage that prevents post-
exercise muscle soreness. These effects impact the redox process and factors acting at the
central nervous system level by eliminating free radicals involved in nociception [1,4].
Athletes often turn to nutritional supplements such as proteins and amino acids
to keep health and increase sports performance to the maximum. The proteins and
amino acids represent the most consumed ergogenic aids. In this Special Issue, two
manuscripts [
] described the effect of two amino acid supplementation strategies on
sports performance. Fernandez-Landa et al. [
] created one of a small number of research
studies of the additional effect level of amino acid mixing (creatine monohydrate (CrM) and
-methylbutyrate (HMB)); also, they have identified whether their effects are
synergistic in professional rowers. The main findings of these authors [
] are that the mix-
ture of CrM plus HMB has a highly synergistic effect on anaerobic performance evaluated
on 4 mmol and 8 mmol blood lactate concentration. The results of this research have an
immediate practical application as the supplementation for 10 weeks HMB (3 g/day) plus
CrM (0.04 g/kg/day) improves sports performance. Furthermore, this represents a novel
way of evaluating supplementation strategies’ real effect from the research perspective.
There is only one review in this special volume. This is a systematic review and
meta-analysis [
] to estimate the impacts of arginine (Arg) supplementation on sport
performance. It additionally investigates the effective dose and timing of Arg. Eighteen
randomized controlled clinical trials investigated Arg supplementation on the potential
Nutrients 2021,13, 294 4 of 4
effect on aerobic and anaerobic performance tests. The meta-analysis results determined
that the acute administration of Arg at 0.15 g/kg (10–11 g) 60–90 min prior to exercise
stimulates substantial improvements in both aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity. After
chronic administration of Arg 1.5 to 2 g/day for 4 to 7 or more doses (10 to 12 g/day for 8
weeks), different relevant results showed improvements in athletic performance [
]. All
studies in this systematic review and meta-analysis included Arg in monotherapy. This
prevents the evaluation of possible additive effects with other ergo-nutritional supplements,
such as the study developed by Fernandez-Landa et al. [2].
The diversity of articles published in the Special Issue Nutrition and Muscle Recovery
highlights the role of diet, healthy behavior, nutritional strategies, and dietary supplements
on muscle recovery to improve sports performance and/or reduce fatigue in sport.
Author Contributions:
J.M.-A. and D.F.-L. wrote the editorial. All authors have read and agreed to
the published version of the manuscript.
Funding: This research received no external funding.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Bazzucchi, I.; Patrizio, F.; Ceci, R.; Duranti, G.; Sabatini, S.; Sgrò, P.; Luigi, L.D.; Sacchetti, M. Quercetin Supplementation Improves
Neuromuscular Function Recovery from Muscle Damage. Nutrients 2020,12, 2850. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fernández-Landa, J.; Fernández-Lázaro, D.; Calleja-González, J.; Caballero-García, A.; Córdova Martínez, A.; León-Guereño, P.;
Mielgo-Ayuso, J. Effect of ten weeks of creatine monohydrate plus HMB supplementation on athletic performance tests in elite
male endurance athletes. Nutrients 2020,12, 193. [CrossRef]
Martínez-Sanz, J.M.; Menal-Puey, S.; Sospedra, I.; Russolillo, G.; Norte, A.; Marques-Lopes, I. Development of a sport food
exchange list for dietetic practice in sport nutrition. Nutrients 2020,12, 2403. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Martin-Rincon, M.; Gelabert-Rebato, M.; Galvan-Alvarez, V.; Gallego-Selles, A.; Martinez-Canton, M.; Lopez-Rios, L.; Wiebe,
J.C.; Martin-Rodriguez, S.; Arteaga-Ortiz, R.; Dorado, C.; et al. Supplementation with a Mango Leaf Extract (Zynamite
) in
Combination with Quercetin Attenuates Muscle Damage and Pain and Accelerates Recovery after Strenuous Damaging Exercise.
Nutrients 2020,12, 614. [CrossRef]
McMahon, G.; Thornbury, A. Ingestion of Carbohydrate Prior to and during Maximal, Sprint Interval Cycling Has No Ergogenic
Effect: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Crossover Study. Nutrients 2020,12, 2223. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mielgo-Ayuso, J.; Calleja-González, J.; Refoyo, I.; León-Guereño, P.; Cordova, A.; Del Coso, J. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage
and Cardiac Stress During a Marathon Could be Associated with Dietary Intake During the Week Before the Race. Nutrients
12, 316. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Nieman, D.C.; Zwetsloot, K.A.; Simonson, A.J.; Hoyle, A.T.; Wang, X.; Nelson, H.K.; Lefranc-Millot, C.; Guérin-Deremaux, L.
Effects of Whey and Pea Protein Supplementation on Post-Eccentric Exercise Muscle Damage: A Randomized Trial. Nutrients
2020,12, 2382. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Saracino, P.G.; Saylor, H.E.; Hanna, B.R.; Hickner, R.C.; Kim, J.-S.; Ormsbee, M.J. Effects of Pre-Sleep Whey vs. Plant-Based
Protein Consumption on Muscle Recovery Following Damaging Morning Exercise. Nutrients 2020,12, 2049. [CrossRef]
Trigueros, R.; Mercader, I.; González-Bernal, J.J.; Aguilar-Parra, J.M.; González-Santos, J.; Navarro-Gómez, N.; Soto-Cámara,
R. The Influence of the Trainer’s Social Behaviors on the Resilience, Anxiety, Stress, Depression and Eating Habits of Athletes.
Nutrients 2020,12, 2405. [CrossRef]
Urdampilleta, A.; Arribalzaga, S.; Viribay, A.; Castañeda-Babarro, A.; Seco-Calvo, J.; Mielgo-Ayuso, J. Effects of 120 vs. 60 and
90 g/h Carbohydrate Intake during a Trail Marathon on Neuromuscular Function and High Intensity Run Capacity Recovery.
Nutrients 2020,12, 2094. [CrossRef]
Viribay, A.; Arribalzaga, S.; Mielgo-Ayuso, J.; Castañeda-Babarro, A.; Seco-Calvo, J.; Urdampilleta, A. Effects of 120 g/h of
Carbohydrates Intake during a Mountain Marathon on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Elite Runners. Nutrients
1367. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Viribay, A.; Burgos, J.; Fernández-Landa, J.; Seco-Calvo, J.; Mielgo-Ayuso, J. Effects of Arginine Supplementation on Athletic
Performance Based on Energy Metabolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients
,12, 1300. [CrossRef]
Bu kitapta sağlık kavramı açıklanarak, fiziksel aktivitenin birey ve toplum sağlığın korunması ve iyileştirilmesi üzerindeki etkileri kapsamlı olarak ele alınmaktadır. Bireyin günlük yaşamını sürdürmesi için gerekli olan enerji harcaması olarak tanımlanan fiziksel aktivite ile sağlıkla ilgili fiziksel uygunluğun bir veya birkaç bileşenini iyileştirmeyi amaçlayan egzersiz eğitimiyle ilgili konular farklı yönleriyle ve zengin bir içerikte fizyoterapist bakış açısıyla yer bulmaktadır. Beslenme ile ilgili temel prensipler, yaşamın farklı dönemlerinde, kronik hastalıklarda, engelli bireylerde, çalışan kişilerde ve sporcularda sağlığın korunmasında beslenmenin önemi diyetisyen bakış açısıyla kapsamlı olarak irdelenmektedir. Omurga, diş, işitme sağlığı, bilişsel sağlık, üreme sistemi ve cinsel sağlık, uyku ve tütün kontrolü gibi sağlığın korunması açısından özel konular hakkındaki bilgiler alanlarında değerli deneyime sahip akademisyenler tarafından kitapta yer bulmaktadır.
Full-text available
This study was aimed at investigating whether quercetin (Q) may improve the recovery of neuromuscular function and biochemical parameters in the 7 days following an eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EEIMD). Sixteen men (25.9 ± 3.3 y) ingested Q (1000 mg/day) or placebo (PLA) for 14 days following a double-blind crossover study design. A neuromuscular (NM) test was performed pre-post, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h and 7 days after an intense eccentric exercise. The force-velocity relationship of the elbow flexor muscles and their maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) were recorded simultaneously to the electromyographic signals (EMG). Pain, joint angle, arm circumference, plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) were also assessed. The results showed that Q supplementation significantly attenuated the strength loss compared to PLA. During the recovery, force-velocity relationship and mean fibers conduction velocity (MFCV) persisted significantly less when participants consumed PLA rather than Q, especially at the highest angular velocities (p < 0.02). A greater increase in biomarkers of damage was also evident in PLA with respect to Q. Q supplementation for 14 days seems able to ameliorate the recovery of eccentric exercise-induced weakness, neuromuscular function impairment and biochemical parameters increase probably due to its strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action.
Full-text available
Food exchange lists have been widely used in dietary practice in health and disease situations, but there are still no exchange lists for sports foods. The aim of this study was to apply a previous published methodology to design food exchange lists to the development of a sports food exchange list, with sport products available in Spain. A cross-sectional study of the nutritional composition of sports foods, regarding macronutrients and energy, was carried out. A total of 322 sports foods from 18 companies were selected, taking into account their interest in sports practice and with nutritional data provided by companies. Sports foods were divided into seven groups: sports drinks; sports gels; sports bars; sports confectionery; protein powders; protein bars; and liquid meals. A sports food composition database based on portion size usually consumed by athletes and/or recommended in commercial packaging was created. Within each sports foods group, different subgroups were defined due to differences in the main and/or secondary macronutrient. The definition of each exchange list with the amounts—in grams—of each sports food within each group and subgroup, was done using statistical criteria such as mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and Z value. Final exchange values for energy and macronutrient have been established for each group and subgroup using a methodology to design food exchange lists previously published by the authors. In addition, those products with high Z values that can provide greater variability in dietary planning were included. The usefulness of sport foods lists as well as the use of an exchange system in the dietary practice of sports nutrition is discussed, and examples of how to use them with athletes are presented. This first sport foods exchange list showed in this study, with commercial sports products available in Spain, can be a novel tool for dietetic practice and also can allow sport nutrition professionals to develop another sport food list using the methodology described in this paper. Its management would allow dietitians to adapt dietary plans more precisely to the training and/or competition of the athlete.
Full-text available
During their sporting lives, athletes must face multiple difficulties that can have consequences for their mental health and changes in their eating patterns. Therefore, the present study aims to analyze how social skills of the trainer influence the coping capacity, psychological well-being, and eating habits of the athlete, elements that are key to achieving success during competition. This study involved 1547 athletes and 127 trainer. In order to achieve the objective, the mean, standard deviation, bivariate correlations, reliability analysis and a structural equation model were analysed. The results showed that prosocial behaviours were positively related to resilience, while antisocial behaviours were negatively related. Resilience was negatively related to anxiety, stress and depression. Finally, anxiety, stress and depression were negatively related to healthy eating and positively related to unhealthy eating. These results highlight the importance of creating a positive social climate to develop coping strategies that promote mental health and healthy eating habits of athletes.
Full-text available
This randomized trial compared pea protein, whey protein, and water-only supplementation on muscle damage, inflammation, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), and physical fitness test performance during a 5-day period after a 90-min eccentric exercise bout in non-athletic non-obese males (n = 92, ages 18–55 years). The two protein sources (0.9 g protein/kg divided into three doses/day) were administered under double blind procedures. The eccentric exercise protocol induced significant muscle damage and soreness, and reduced bench press and 30-s Wingate performance. Whey protein supplementation significantly attenuated post-exercise blood levels for biomarkers of muscle damage compared to water-only, with large effect sizes for creatine kinase and myoglobin during the fourth and fifth days of recovery (Cohen’s d > 0.80); pea protein versus water supplementation had an intermediate non-significant effect (Cohen’s d < 0.50); and no significant differences between whey and pea protein were found. Whey and pea protein compared to water supplementation had no significant effects on post-exercise DOMS and the fitness tests. In conclusion, high intake of whey protein for 5 days after intensive eccentric exercise mitigated the efflux of muscle damage biomarkers, with the intake of pea protein having an intermediate effect.
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Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion may improve intermittent sprint performance in repeated sprint efforts ≤15 s. Yet, evidence for its efficacy on sprint interval durations ~30 s is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CHO ingestion on maximal sprint interval exercise. Fifteen (n = 15) recreational athletes (13/2 males/females, age 22 ± 2 years; height 176 ± 11 cm; mass 76.8 ± 11.3 kg) volunteered for this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Participants completed two experimental trials (performed 10-days apart) involving the ingestion of an 8% CHO solution or a flavour and appearance-matched placebo (PLA) solution (5 mL/kg/bw), immediately before exercise, and preceding the second interval of four × 30 s bouts of repeated maximal sprint efforts (separated by 3.5 min of passive recovery). Peak and mean power (W) output progressively decreased during the repeated sprints (main effect of time, p < 0.0001), but there were no differences between CHO and PLA during any of the sprints (p > 0.05 for condition main effect and condition × time interaction). Physiological responses (blood lactate, heart rate, oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio and RPE) were also unaltered by CHO ingestion. In conclusion, CHO ingestion does not enhance performance or modulate physiological responses during intermittent maximal, sprint cycling.
Full-text available
Background: Current carbohydrate (CHO) intake recommendations for ultra-trail activities lasting more than 2.5 h is 90 g/h. However, the benefits of ingesting 120 g/h during a mountain marathon in terms of post-exercise muscle damage have been recently demonstrated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and compare the effects of 120 g/h CHO intake with the recommendations (90 g/h) and the usual intake for ultra-endurance athletes (60 g/h) during a mountain marathon on internal exercise load, and post-exercise neuromuscular function and recovery of high intensity run capacity. Methods: Twenty-six elite trail-runners were randomly distributed into three groups: LOW (60 g/h), MED (90 g/h) and HIGH (120 g/h), according to CHO intake during a 4000-m cumulative slope mountain marathon. Runners were measured using the Abalakov Jump test, a maximum a half-squat test and an aerobic power-capacity test at baseline (T1) and 24 h after completing the race (T2). Results: Changes in Abalakov jump time (ABKJT), Abalakov jump height (ABKH), half-squat test 1 repetition maximum (HST1RM) between T1 and T2 showed significant differences by Wilcoxon signed rank test only in LOW and MED (p < 0.05), but not in the HIGH group (p > 0.05). Internal load was significantly lower in the HIGH group (p = 0.017) regarding LOW and MED by Mann Whitney u test. A significantly lower change during the study in ABKJT (p = 0.038), ABKH (p = 0.038) HST1RM (p = 0.041) and in terms of fatigue (p = 0.018) and lactate (p = 0.012) within the aerobic power-capacity test was presented in HIGH relative to LOW and MED. Conclusions: 120 g/h CHO intake during a mountain marathon might limit neuromuscular fatigue and improve recovery of high intensity run capacity 24 h after a physiologically challenging event when compared to 90 g/h and 60 g/h.
Full-text available
Pre-sleep whey protein intake has been shown to improve overnight muscle protein synthesis, muscle size and strength, and muscle recovery. Despite a growing interest in alternative protein sources, such as plant-based protein, there is no evidence regarding the efficacy of plant-based proteins consumed pre-sleep. Therefore, we aimed to compare whey vs. plant-based pre-sleep protein dietary supplementation on muscle recovery in middle-aged men. Twenty-seven recreationally active, middle-aged men performed 5 sets of 15 repetitions of maximal eccentric voluntary contractions (ECC) for the knee extensors (ext) and flexors (flex), respectively, in the morning. Participants consumed 40 g of either whey hydrolysate (WH, n = 9), whey isolate (WI, n = 6), rice and pea combination (RP, n = 6), or placebo (PL, n = 6) 30 min pre-sleep on the day of ECC and the following two nights. Catered meals (15% PRO, 55% CHO, 30% Fat) were provided to participants for 5 days to standardize nutrition. Plasma creatine kinase (CK), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured at pre, immediately post (+0), +4, +6, +24, +48, and +72 h post-ECC. Isometric (ISOM) and isokinetic (ISOK) maximal voluntary contraction force were measured at pre, immediately post (+0), +24, +48, and +72 h post-ECC. Muscle soreness, thigh circumference, and HOMA-IR were measured at pre, +24, +48, and +72 h post-ECC. CK was increased at +4 h post-ECC, remained elevated at all time points compared to baseline (p < 0.001), and was significantly greater at +72 h compared to all other time points (p < 0.001). IL-6 was increased at +6 h (p = 0.002) with no other time differing from baseline. ISOMext was reduced after ECC (p = 0.001) and remained reduced until returning to baseline at +72 h. ISOMflex, ISOKext, and ISOKflex were reduced after ECC and remained reduced at +72 h (p < 0.001). Muscle soreness increased post-ECC (p < 0.001) and did not return to baseline. Thigh circumference (p = 0.456) and HOMA-IR (p = 0.396) did not change post-ECC. There were no significant differences between groups for any outcome measure. These data suggest that middle-aged men consuming 1.08 ± 0.02 g/kg/day PRO did not recover from damaging eccentric exercise at +72 h and that pre-sleep protein ingestion, regardless of protein source, did not aid in muscle recovery when damaging eccentric exercise was performed in the morning.
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Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and internal exercise load are increased after competing in ultraendurance events such as mountain marathons. Adequate carbohydrate (CHO) intake during exercise optimizes athletic performance and could limit EIMD, reduce internal exercise load and, thus, improve recovery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to research into and compare the effects of high CHO intake (120 g/h) in terms of CHO intake recommendation (90 g/h) and regular CHO intake performed by ultraendurance athletes (60 g/h) during a mountain marathon, on exercise load and EIMD markers (creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), urea and creatinine). Materials and Methods-a randomized trial was carried out on 20 male elite runners who had previously undertaken nutritional and gut training, and who consumed different CHO dosages according to experimental (EXP-120 g/h), control (CON-90 g/h) and low CHO intake (LOW-60 g/h) groups during a~4000 m cumulative slope mountain marathon. EIMD markers were analyzed before the race and 24 h afterwards. Internal exercise load was calculated based on rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during and after the marathon event. Results-internal exercise load during the mountain marathon was significantly lower (p = 0.019; η 2 p = 0.471) in EXP (3805 ± 281 AU) compared to LOW (4688 ± 705 AU) and CON (4692 ± 716 AU). Moreover, results revealed that the EXP group evidenced significantly lower CK (p = 0.019; η 2 p = 0.373), LDH (p < 0.001; η 2 p = 0.615) and GOT (p = 0.003; η 2 p = 0.500) values 24 h after the mountain marathon race compared to LOW and CON. Along these lines, EIMD and exercise load evidenced a close correlation (R = 0.742; p < 0.001). Conclusion: High CHO intake (120 g/h) during a mountain marathon could limit the EIMD observed by CK, LDH and GOT and internal exercise load compared to CHO ingestion of 60 and 90 g/h.
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Nitric oxide related ergogenic aids such as arginine (Arg) have shown to impact positively on sport performance through several physiological and metabolic mechanisms. However, research results have shown to be controversial. The great differences regarding required metabolic pathways and physiological demands between aerobic and anaerobic sport disciplines could be the reasons. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of Arg supplementation on aerobic (≤VO 2 max) and anaerobic (>VO 2 max) performance. Likewise, to show the effective dose and timing of this supplementation. A structured search was carried out in accordance with PRISMA ® (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement and PICOS guidelines in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science (WOS), and Scopus databases from inception to January 2020. Eighteen studies were included which compare Arg supplementation with placebo in an identical situation and testing its effects on aerobic and anaerobic performance tests. Trials analyzing supplementation with other supplements were removed and there was not athlete's level, gender, ethnicity, or age filters. The performed meta-analysis included 15 studies and random effects model and pooled standardized mean differences (SMD) were used according to Hedges' g. Results revealed that Arg supplementation could improve aerobic (SMD, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.12 to 1.56; magnitude of SMD (MSMD), large; I2, 89%; p = 0.02) and anaerobic (SMD, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.43; MSMD, small; I2, 0%; p = 0.01) performance tests. In conclusion, acute Arg supplementation protocols to improve aerobic and anaerobic performance should be adjusted to 0.15 g/kg of body weight ingested between 60-90 min before. Moreover, chronic Arg supplementation should include 1.5-2 g/day for 4-7 weeks in order to improve aerobic performance, and 10-12 g/day for 8 weeks to enhance anaerobic performance.
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Prolonged or unusual exercise may cause exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). To test whether Zynamite®, a mango leaf extract rich in the natural polyphenol mangiferin, administered in combination with quercetin facilitates recovery after EIMD, 24 women and 33 men were randomly assigned to two treatment groups matched by sex and 5 km running performance, and ran a 10 km race followed by 100 drop jumps to elicit EIMD. One hour before the competition, and every 8 hours thereafter for 24 hours, they ingested placebo (728 mg of maltodextrin) or 140 mg of Zynamite® combined with 140 mg of quercetin (double-blind). Although competition times were similar, polyphenol supplementation attenuated the muscle pain felt after the competition (6.8 ± 1.5 and 5.7 ± 2.2 a.u., p = 0.035) and the loss of jumping performance (9.4 ± 11.5 and 3.9 ± 5.2%, p = 0.036; p = 0.034) and mechanical impulse (p = 0.038) 24 hours later. The polyphenols attenuated the increase of serum myoglobin and alanine aminotransferase in men, but not in women (interaction p < 0.05). In conclusion, a single dose of 140 mg Zynamite® combined with 140 mg of quercetin, administered one hour before competition, followed by three additional doses every eight hours, attenuates muscle pain and damage, and accelerates the recovery of muscle performance.