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A dynamic online documentation of Italian ascomycetes with hosts and substrates:


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Early taxonomic studies of ascomycetous microfungi were conducted based on morphological observations. With the advent and advancement of DNA based molecular studies over the last few decades, species, genera, families and orders of Ascomycota have been subjected to rapid taxonomic changes. In the last eight years, we have introduced many novel fungal taxa with numerous new host and country records of ascomycetous microfungi from Italy. Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes are the major classes that we have investigated. These fungal species were collected from more than 300 host species in terrestrial habitats of different provinces in Italy. The hosts include shrubs, trees and grasses with the substrates differentiated as branches, stems and leaves. For these taxa, identification and classification were confirmed with comprehensive descriptions, colour illustrations and multi-gene phylogenetic analyses. These studies are scattered in different scientific journals. The online documentation at is a database for arranging all the published data together with novel updates of present and upcoming studies. Notes for species, genera and up-to-date records of Italian ascomycetes with accounts on different hosts and substrates are described here. This website provides a user-friendly and easily accessible framework to extract more information.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Submitted 9 July 2020, Accepted 21 December 2020, Published 21 January 2021
Corresponding Author: Kevin D. Hydee-mail 1
A dynamic online documentation of Italian ascomycetes with hosts
and substrates:
Wijesinghe SN1,2, Camporesi E3, Wanasinghe DN4,9,10, Maharachchikumbura
SSN5, Senanayake IC6,8, Phookamsak R4,9,10,11, Hongsanan S6, Tibpromma S4,9,10,
Thambugala KM7, Luangharn T1, McKenzie EHC12 and Hyde KD1,4,8*
1Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand
2School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand
3A.M.B. Gruppo Micologico Forlivese Antonio Cicognani, Via Roma 18, Forlì, Italy
4CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Biodiversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese
Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, Peoples Republic of China
5School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 611731,
Peoples Republic of China
6Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Plant Epigenetics, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Microbial Genetic
Engineering, College of Life Science and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, Peoples Republic of
7Genetics and Molecular Biology Unit, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila,
Nugegoda, Sri Lanka
8Innovative Institute of Plant Health, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Haizhu District, Guangzhou
510225, Peoples Republic of China
9East and Central Asia Regional Office, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Kunming 650201, Yunnan, Peoples
Republic of China
10Honghe Center for Mountain Futures, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Honghe County,
Yunnan, Peoples Republic of China
11Research Center of Microbial Diversity and Sustainable Utilization, Faculty of Sciences, Chiang Mai University,
Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
12Manaaki Whenua-Landcare Research, Private Bag 92170, Auckland Mail Centre, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
Wijesinghe SN, Camporesi E, Wanasinghe DN, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Senanayake IC,
Phookamsak R, Hongsanan S, Tibpromma S, Thambugala KM, Luangharn T, McKenzie EHC and
Hyde KD 2021 A dynamic online documentation of Italian ascomycetes with hosts and
substrates: Asian Journal of Mycology 4(1), 1018, Doi
Early taxonomic studies of ascomycetous microfungi were conducted based on
morphological observations. With the advent and advancement of DNA based molecular studies
over the last few decades, species, genera, families and orders of Ascomycota have been subjected
to rapid taxonomic changes. In the last eight years, we have introduced many novel fungal taxa
with numerous new host and country records of ascomycetous microfungi from Italy.
Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes are the major classes that we have investigated. These
fungal species were collected from more than 300 host species in terrestrial habitats of different
provinces in Italy. The hosts include shrubs, trees and grasses with the substrates differentiated as
branches, stems and leaves. For these taxa, identification and classification were confirmed with
comprehensive descriptions, colour illustrations and multi-gene phylogenetic analyses. These
studies are scattered in different scientific journals. The online documentation at
Asian Journal of Mycology 4(1): 1018 (2021) ISSN 2651-1339 Article
Doi 10.5943/ajom/4/1/2
2 is a database for arranging all the published data together with novel
updates of present and upcoming studies. Notes for species, genera and up-to-date records of Italian
ascomycetes with accounts on different hosts and substrates are described here. This website
provides a user-friendly and easily accessible framework to extract more information.
Keywords Classification Dothideomycetes Phylogeny Sordariomycetes Taxonomy
Fungi are ubiquitous and a highly diverse group of eukaryotes (Hyde et al. 2018, Sun et al.
2019). Their lifestyles vary as biotrophic, endophytic, epiphytic, hemibiotrophic, saprobic or
fungicolous (Hyde et al. 2018, Sun et al. 2019, Tennakoon et al. 2020). Over the last 300 years,
fungal identification, classification, and speculation on the relationships among taxa were based on
phenotypic characters. These phenotypic observations have been used as major tools of fungal
researchers and were recorded with descriptions and line drawings (Hyde et al. 2011, Jayasiri et al.
2015, Tekpinar & Kalmer 2019, Tennakoon et al. 2020). However, morphology may not always
reflect phylogenetic relationships (Judd et al. 2002). Identification of species based on morphology
is challenging and highly subjective, especially among species complexes, non-sporulating fungi
and cryptic species (Jeewon et al. 2002, Promputtha et al. 2005, 2007, Jayasiri et al. 2015). The
initial investigations of phenotypic approaches, as well as chemical, ecological, molecular and
physiological analyses, are very important in fungal taxonomy (Manawasinghe et al. 2019). The
project, Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life (AFToL), provided molecular data for most of the
orders and families of Ascomycota, and this was the start of the golden era of mycology (James et
al. 2006, Hyde et al. 2020a). Morphology was linked to analyze the results from advanced
molecular techniques, and DNA based phylogeny was developed as informative tools with better
taxonomic resolution (Senanayake et al. 2017a, Hongsanan et al. 2018, Wanasinghe et al. 2018,
Tennakoon et al. 2020). This combined taxonomic approach has led to the resolution of numerous
taxonomic issues and has provided more reliable classification than traditional morphology-based
tools (Jayasiri et al. 2015).
Earlier treatments in Italian mycology dealt with macrofungi (Venturella 1991). Alfonso
Ciccarelli (15321585) completed the first mycological monograph for macrofungi in Italy based
on morphological and organoleptic aspects of truffles (Ciccarelli 1564). However, Italian
microfungal publications were concerned with only a few taxa (Venturella 1991). Giuseppe de
Notaris (18051877), Vincenzo de Cesati (18061883) and Pier Andrea Saccardo (18451920)
were significant early contributors to Italian, as well as world mycology (Onofri et al. 1999,
Phukhamsakda et al. 2020). Pampaloni (1902) reported the fossil records of Italian ascomycetes
related to the Miocene epoch. Saccardo (1882) provided detailed documentation for mycology and
a rapid increase in microfungal studies occurred between 19311990 (Venturella 1991). A checklist
of Sicilian fungi (Southern Italy) including hosts and substrates was published by Venturella
(1991), and it is a very important resource for understanding Italian fungal diversity and ecology.
Zucconi et al. (1997) studied the dematiaceous hyphomycetes microfungal communities in
Mediterranean evergreen forests in central Italy. Venturella et al. (2011) reported the estimated
number of regional ascomycetes and basidiomycetes up to 2010. The history of Italian mycology
and the valuable contributions of great mycologists are reported by Siniscalco et al. (2013).
Ascomycota is the largest phylum, comprising Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes as
major classes in the subphylum, Pezizomycotina (Hyde et al. 2013, 2020a, Maharachchikumbura et
al. 2015, 2016, Wijayawardene et al. 2018, 2020, Hongsanan et al. 2020). PhD researchers and
expert mycologists in the Center of Excellence in Fungal Research (CEFR) group have studied
most of the Italian ascomycetes collected by Erio Camporesi who has promoted mycological
studies as a prodigious amateur mycologist (Phukhamsakda et al. 2020). Currently, several PhD
students at CEFR are studying fresh specimens from Erio Camporesi with amazing discoveries of
novel taxa as well as novel host and geographical records of ascomycetes. These CEFR studies are
published regularly in different scientific journals. “Asian Journal of Mycology notes, Fungal
diversity notes and Mycosphere notesare key journal series providing more information of
worldwide fungi and include many Italian ascomycetes (Ariyawansa et al. 2015, Wijayawardene et
al. 2016, Hyde et al. 2017, 2019, 2020a, b, c, Senanayake et al. 2017b, Jayawardena et al. 2018,
Wanasinghe et al. 2018, Phookamsak et al. 2019). Preserving scientific data through the
documentation by recording fungal morphology, taxonomy and ecological information is a valuable
process in mycology (Lange 2010). Mycologists have a responsibility to popularize fungal
information, by inspiring and spreading informative outreach materials, and providing easily
accessible websites, and openly accessed databases (Lange 2010). A strong foundation for applied
biological fields such as ecology, pathology and industrial can be provided through spreading
primary fungal taxonomic data.
Why Italian microfungi are very important?
Early studies of Italian microfungi were based on morphological observations, as was the
case worldwide. Several mycologists in Italy contributed immensely to fungal systematics by
extensive collections of fungal specimens. Notable among these were the collections and early
studies by P. A. Saccardo. Italian fungal specimens are significant to study as among them are new
orders, families, genera and species as well as new hosts and geographic reports. Recollecting
fungal specimens can serve as epitypes and authentic herbarium materials of extant species with
sequence data. The host specificity and life mode details can be updated when dealing with
recollected specimens from different environments and host plants.
The need for Italian microfungi database
There is a massive collection of publications for Italian microfungi by the CEFR group.
These documentations can be categorized as providing novel taxa, new host records and new
geographical records from Italian sites. These publications comprise species descriptions,
illustrations, and molecular phylogeny, which provides a comprehensive analysis of species
delineation. However, it largely remains to reconstruct the accurate taxonomic placements for all
taxa, especially for earliest studied taxa with their DNA sequence data. In our new website, we deal
with the information of previously published Italian ascomycetes and will provide continuous
updates from novel studies that are currently being processed by the CEFR group. The objectives of
this website are to gather all information into one comprehensive source and to make it readily
available to mycologists worldwide. This study provides up-to-date accounts of Italian ascomycetes
on different hosts and substrates with recent taxonomic changes. In addition, we also provide notes
on genera and species reported from Italy.
Importance of gathering morphological and ecological data into a single tool
The preference of modern researchers is increasingly to refer to databases rather than books
and other publications to gather the scattered knowledge. A database is technically easy to handle
and much less time-consuming. Therefore, gathering morphological and ecological data into a
single tool is a very flexible and time-saving method for researchers. Index Fungorum
(, MycoBank (, Facesoffungi
(, Sordariomycetes (, Dothideomycetes
( and Coelomycetes ( are commonly used
websites in studies of ascomycetes.
Italian microfungi website
In the Italian microfungi website, ascomycetous species associated with over 300 hosts from
different regions in Italy have been identified. The substrates are reported mainly as branches (from
shrubs and trees), stems (from herbaceous hosts and grasses) and rarely leaves (from shrubs, trees
and grasses). These specimens are mainly from the provinces of Forlì-Cesena (in the region of
Emilia-Romagna) and Arezzo (in the region of Tuscany) with fewer collections from the provinces
of Bologna and Ravenna (in Emilia-Romagna), Firenze (in Tuscany), Pesaro-Urbino (in Marche),
Trento (in Trentino-Alto Adige) and Udine (Friuli-Venezia Giulia). This is an informative and user-
friendly platform to provide in-depth knowledge of Italian ascomycetes and related host species.
The host specificity and the life modes of Italian ascomycetes are evaluated. In the pursuit of
discovering more fungi from Italy, this study is extending to investigate the taxonomy and
phylogeny of microfungal taxa. In addition, the other websites from the CEFR group;
Dothideomycetes (; Pem et al. 2019), Sordariomycetes
(; Bundhun et al. 2020) and Coelomycetes (;
Wijayawardene et al. 2016, Li et al. 2020) are linked to this new website for extracting relevant
information of Italian ascomycetes.
Italian ascomycetes, which were identified and published by the CEFR group, are listed on
the website together with their hosts and substrates. Species, which are currently being studied, will
be regularly entered. For each entry of identified species, Index Fungorum, Facesoffungi,
MycoBank and/or ex-type culture collection, dry culture collection, herbaria numbers and available
GenBank numbers for sequence data are provided. Updated information is periodically inserted
based on both previous and novel studies. Mycological experts who studied large numbers of
Italian ascomycetes during the past eight years have been assigned as curators to share their
knowledge and suggestions (Table 1).
Table 1 List of curators for Italian microfungi webpage.
Email address
Head curator
Kevin Hyde
Expert curator
Erio Camporesi
Managing curator
Subodini Wijesinghe
Dhanushka Wanasinghe
Indunil Senanayake
Kasun Thambugala
Rungtiwa Phooksamsak
Sinang Hongsanan
Sajeewa Maharachchikumbura
Saowaluck Tibpromma
Database interface and visualization
The Italian microfungi website is functional, easy to access and navigate for searching. The
overview of the homepage provides a comprehensive understanding of the website at a glance.
There are several navigation bars, searching options and some informative details are visualized on
the homepage (Figs. 1, 2).
Details of main headings
Home The homepage provides a detailed account of our entire project (Figs. 1, 2). When the
user opens the webpage, the objectives are envisioned at the left top (Fig. 1a). The main
headings are described as Home, Host/Substrate, Archives, Curators, History, References,
News and Contact (Fig. 1b). Below the header bar, a search box is included where information
on a specific fungal order, family, genus or species can be searched by entering the name (Fig.
1c). Recent news, genera and species which are updated (Fig. 1d) can be seen at the right side
of the interface. The user can easily cite the webpage using the citation at the front (Fig. 1e).
The contact details (Fig. 2a), publisher and copyright details are provided at the bottom (Fig.
Host/Substrate This gives the records of host occurrences on which fungal species are
collected. We follow the International Plant Names Index (IPNI) for host identification. The
search option is provided for easy searching of the hosts, based on user requirements (Fig. 3).
Archives Through this heading, the user can find the taxonomic classification of related taxa
at order, family, genus and species level (Fig. 4). When the user opens the Archives interface,
the list of orders related to Italian fungi is visualized. By clicking on relevant order, the link will
navigate to Read more about the orderor related family list of the order. Inside families, the
list of associated genera and species are available.
Curators Photographs and contact details of curators are provided (Fig. 5, Table 1).
History An account of Italian mycological history, ascomycetes, host list and collecting
provinces are provided (Fig. 6).
References A list of references used in the entries, history and other information related to the
Italian ascomycetes are provided under this heading.
News The key events, new findings and important information regarding Italian microfungi
are included here.
Contact Users can provide their comments and suggestions on this webpage.
Fig. 1 Homepage view of Italian microfungi webpage. a Objectives of the webpage. b Headers. c
Search box. d Recently updated news, recent genera and species. e Citation of the webpage.
Fig. 2Bottom view of the homepage. a Contact details. b Publisher and copyright information.
Fig. 3Host/substrate header of the webpage. a Find next. b Find previous. c Back to top.
Fig. 4Archives header of the webpage.
Fig. 5Curators header of the webpage.
Fig. 6History header of the webpage.
S.N. Wijesinghe offers her profound gratitude to the Mushroom Research Foundation (MRF),
Thailand for financial support and Mae Fah Luang University. Further, S.N. Wijesinghe would like
to thank Saranyaphat Boonmee for her precious assistance to continue this project. S. Tibpromma
would like to thank the International Postdoctoral Exchange Fellowship Program (number
Y9180822S1), CAS Presidents International Fellowship Initiative (PIFI) (number 2020PC0009),
China Postdoctoral Science Foundation and the Yunnan Human Resources, and Social Security
Department Foundation for funding her postdoctoral research. R. Phookamsak thanks CAS
Presidents International Fellowship Initiative (PIFI) for young staff (Grant No. Y9215811Q1), the
National Science Foundation of China (NSFC) project code 31850410489 (Grant No. Y81I982211)
and Chiang Mai University for their partial support of this research work. S. Hongsanan thanks
National Natural Science Foundation of China for supporting the project Biodiversity, Taxonomy,
Phylogeny, Evolution and Phytogeography of Phytopathogens in Dothideomycetes from Southern
China (Grant No. 31950410548). D.N. Wanasinghe would like to thank CAS Presidents
International Fellowship Initiative (PIFI) for funding his postdoctoral research (number
2019PC0008) and the 64th batch of China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No.
Y913083271). K.D. Hyde would like to thank the Thailand Research Fund (“Impact of climate
change on fungal diversity and biogeography in the Greater Mekong Sub-region RDG6130001”).
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... The new records will also benefit future studies which cover critical fields including fungal diagnostics and identification, economics and environmental management (Chethana et al. 2021). Several contemporary webpages provide data on fungal taxa from different habitats and regions, including descriptions, illustrations, phylogenetic trees, notes and the current number of accepted species (Pem et al. 2019a;Bundhun et al. 2020;Calabon et al. 2020b;Wijesinghe et al. 2021). ...
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This article is the 13th contribution in the Fungal Diversity Notes series, wherein 125 taxa from four phyla, ten classes, 31 orders, 69 families, 92 genera and three genera incertae sedis are treated, demonstrating worldwide and geographic distribution. Fungal taxa described and illustrated in the present study include three new genera, 69 new species, one new combination, one reference specimen and 51 new records on new hosts and new geographical distributions. Three new genera, Cylindrotorula (Torulaceae), Scolecoleotia (Leotiales genus incertae sedis) and Xenovaginatispora (Lindomycetaceae) are introduced based on distinct phylogenetic lineages and unique morphologies. Newly described species are Aspergillus lannaensis, Cercophora dulciaquae, Cladophialophora aquatica, Coprinellus punjabensis, Cortinarius alutarius, C. mammillatus, C. quercofocculosus, Coryneum fagi, Cruentomycena uttarakhandina, Cryptocoryneum rosae, Cyathus uniperidiolus, Cylindrotorula indica, Diaporthe chamaeropicola, Didymella azollae, Diplodia alanphillipsii, Dothiora coronicola, Efbula rodriguezarmasiae, Erysiphe salicicola, Fusarium queenslandicum, Geastrum gorgonicum, G. hansagiense, Helicosporium sexualis, Helminthosporium chiangraiensis, Hongkongmyces kokensis, Hydrophilomyces hydraenae, Hygrocybe boertmannii, Hyphoderma australosetigerum, Hyphodontia yunnanensis, Khaleijomyces umikazeana, Laboulbenia divisa, Laboulbenia triarthronis, Laccaria populina, Lactarius pallidozonarius, Lepidosphaeria strobelii, Longipedicellata megafusiformis, Lophiotrema lincangensis, Marasmius benghalensis, M. jinfoshanensis, M. subtropicus, Mariannaea camelliae, Melanographium smilaxii, Microbotryum polycnemoides, Mimeomyces digitatus, Minutisphaera thailandensis, Mortierella solitaria, Mucor harpali, Nigrograna jinghongensis, Odontia huanrenensis, O. parvispina, Paraconiothyrium ajrekarii, Parafuscosporella niloticus, Phaeocytostroma yomensis, Phaeoisaria synnematicus, Phanerochaete hainanensis, Pleopunctum thailandicum, Pleurotheciella dimorphospora, Pseudochaetosphaeronema chiangraiense, Pseudodactylaria albicolonia, Rhexoacrodictys nigrospora, Russula paravioleipes, Scolecoleotia eriocamporesi, Seriascoma honghense, Synandromyces makranczyi, Thyridaria aureobrunnea, Torula lancangjiangensis, Tubeufa longihelicospora, Wicklowia fusiformispora, Xenovaginatispora phichaiensis and Xylaria apiospora. One new combination, Pseudobactrodesmium stilboideus is proposed. A reference specimen of Comoclathris permunda is designated. New host or distribution records are provided for Acrocalymma fci, Aliquandostipite khaoyaiensis, Camarosporidiella laburni, Canalisporium caribense, Chaetoscutula juniperi, Chlorophyllum demangei, C. globosum, C. hortense, Cladophialophora abundans, Dendryphion hydei, Diaporthe foeniculina, D. pseudophoenicicola, D. pyracanthae, Dictyosporium pandanicola, Dyfrolomyces distoseptatus, Ernakulamia tanakae, Eutypa favovirens, E. lata, Favolus septatus, Fusarium atrovinosum, F. clavum, Helicosporium luteosporum, Hermatomyces nabanheensis, Hermatomyces sphaericoides, Longipedicellata aquatica, Lophiostoma caudata, L. clematidisvitalbae, Lophiotrema hydei, L. neoarundinaria, Marasmiellus palmivorus, Megacapitula villosa, Micropsalliota globocystis, M. gracilis, Montagnula thailandica, Neohelicosporium irregulare, N. parisporum, Paradictyoarthrinium difractum, Phaeoisaria aquatica, Poaceascoma taiwanense, Saproamanita manicata, Spegazzinia camelliae, Submersispora variabilis, Thyronectria caudata, T. mackenziei, Tubeufa chiangmaiensis, T. roseohelicospora, Vaginatispora nypae, Wicklowia submersa, Xanthagaricus necopinatus and Xylaria haemorrhoidalis. The data presented herein are based on morphological examination of fresh specimens, coupled with analysis of phylogenetic sequence data to better integrate taxa into appropriate taxonomic ranks and infer their evolutionary relationships.
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This article is the 15th contribution in the Fungal Diversity Notes series, wherein 115 taxa from three phyla, nine classes, 28 orders, 48 families, and 64 genera are treated. Fungal taxa described and illustrated in the present study include a new family, five new genera, 61 new species, five new combinations, one synonym, one new variety and 31 records on new hosts or new geographical distributions. Ageratinicolaceae fam. nov. is introduced and accommodated in Pleosporales. The new genera introduced in this study are Ageratinicola, Kevinia, Pseudomultiseptospora (Parabambusicolaceae), Marasmiellomycena, and Vizzinia (Porotheleaceae). Newly described species are Abrothallus altoandinus, Ageratinicola kunmingensis, Allocryptovalsa aceris, Allophoma yuccae, Apiospora cannae, A. elliptica, A. pallidesporae, Boeremia wisteriae, Calycina papaeana, Clypeococcum lichenostigmoides, Coniochaeta riskali-shoyakubovii, Cryphonectria kunmingensis, Diaporthe angustiapiculata, D. campylandrae, D. longipapillata, Diatrypella guangdongense, Dothiorella franceschinii, Endocalyx phoenicis, Epicoccum terminosporum, Fulvifomes karaiensis, F. pannaensis, Ganoderma ghatensis, Hysterobrevium baoshanense, Inocybe avellaneorosea, I. lucida, Jahnula oblonga, Kevinia lignicola, Kirschsteiniothelia guangdongensis, Laboulbenia caprina, L. clavulata, L. cobiae, L. cosmodisci, L. nilotica, L. omalii, L. robusta, L. similis, L. stigmatophora, Laccaria rubriporus, Lasiodiplodia morindae, Lyophyllum agnijum, Marasmiellomycena pseudoomphaliiformis, Melomastia beihaiensis, Nemania guangdongensis, Nigrograna thailandica, Nigrospora ficuum, Oxydothis chinensis, O. yunnanensis, Petriella thailandica, Phaeoacremonium chinensis, Phialocephala chinensis, Phytophthora debattistii, Polyplosphaeria nigrospora, Pronectria loweniae, Seriascoma acutispora, Setoseptoria bambusae, Stictis anomianthi, Tarzetta tibetensis, Tarzetta urceolata, Tetraploa obpyriformis, Trichoglossum beninense, and Tricoderma pyrrosiae. We provide an emendation for Urnula ailaoshanensis Agaricus duplocingulatoides var. brevisporus introduced as a new variety based on morphology and phylogeny.
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An updated account of Fagales-inhabiting Italian Ascomycota and mycogeography, with additions to Pezizomycotina. Abstract Studies of plant-associated Ascomycota are topical, as they have varied life modes depending on their hosts in different ecosystems. In Italy, Fagales are economically and ecologically important plants, especially in the Alps and Apennine mountain ranges. Fagales species host numerous ascomycetous species, comprising endophytes, saprobes, or pathogens. We retrieved data from 308 publications from 1873 to 2021 and listed 776 Ascomycota on Fagales in Italy. Among these, 696 were identified at the species level and 80 at the genus level. Documented taxa belong to Pezizomycotina (746), Saccharomycotina (2), Taphrinomycotina (5), and Ascomycota genera incertae sedis (23). Sordariomycetes are dominant (34%), followed by Dothideomycetes (24%), Lecanoromycetes (16%), and Leotiomycetes (11%). Distribution maps were provided for the occurrence of Fagales trees and Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Leotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes, and Sordariomycetes taxa. Lichenized taxa were excluded from the mapping. We provided additions to Valsariaceae (Valsaria rudis) in Dothideomycetes, Coryneaceae (Coryneum modonium), Melanconiellaceae (Melanconiella flavovirens and M. meridionalis), and Woswasiaceae (Woswasia atropurpurea) in Sordariomycetes. These taxa represent a novel host record, a provincial record, and four regional records in Italy. Species boundaries were defined using polyphasic approaches. In addition, taxonomic notes were provided for each reported class, including incertae sedis genera. The study provides information on the taxonomy, hosts, and distribution of Ascomycota in Italy to encourage further research related to important plant species. Keywords – checklist – host-fungal distribution – morphology – phylogeny – taxonomy
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Fungi are an understudied resource possessing huge potential for developing products that can greatly improve human well-being. In the current paper, we highlight some important discoveries and developments in applied mycology and interdisciplinary Life Science research. These examples concern recently introduced drugs for the treatment of infections and neurological diseases; application of –OMICS techniques and genetic tools in medical mycology and the regulation of mycotoxin production; as well as some highlights of mushroom cultivaton in Asia. Examples for new diagnostic tools in medical mycology and the exploitation of new candidates for therapeutic drugs, are also given. In addition, two entries illustrating the latest developments in the use of fungi for biodegradation and fungal biomaterial production are provided. Some other areas where there have been and/or will be significant developments are also included. It is our hope that this paper will help realise the importance of fungi as a potential industrial resource and see the next two decades bring forward many new fungal and fungus-derived products.
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The number of species in Sordariomycetes has increased dramatically. However, some genera discovered earlier are poorly known, documented and thus need to be redescribed. This paper continues the work on 'Taxonomic studies of some often overlooked Diaporthomycetidae and Sordariomycetidae'. We provide descriptions, notes and figures or drawings for 71 overlooked genera belonging to Bertiaceae, Ceratostomataceae, Chaetosphaerellaceae, Coronophoraceae, Niessliaceae, Nitschkiaceae and Scortechiniaceae in Hypocreomycetidae based on observation of type materials, authentic specimens or studying the literature. The taxonomic placements of the genera are redefined based on morphology and/or phylogenetic results. As a result, Gonatobotrys and Neotrotteria, which are often overlooked and have unstable taxonomic placements in previous studies, belong to Ceratostomataceae based on morphology and phylogeny. The lichenicolous genus, Nitschkiopsis, which lacks DNA sequence data, is placed in Niessliaceae based on its setose ascomata and hyaline ellipsoidal ascospores similar to Niesslia species. The type species of Cryptosphaerella lacks molecular data and is morphologically similar to Cryptosphaeria or Coronophora, both of which have ostiolate ascomata. Therefore, it is placed in Sordariomycetes, not in Scortechiniaceae, whose species are characterized by ascomata that lack ostioles. In addition, the taxonomy of species with ascomata lacking ostioles in Cryptosphaerella have been revised and introduced as two new genera; Neocryptosphaerella and Pseudocryptosphaerella based on the phylogenetic result. Seven new combinations proposed are Fracchiaea myricoides (≡ Coronophora myricoides), Neocryptosphaerella celata (≡ Cryptosphaerella celata), N. globosa (≡ Cry. globosa), Pseudocryptosphaerella costaricensis (≡ Cry. costaricensis), P. cylindriformis (≡ Cry. cylindriformis), P. elliptica (≡ Cry. elliptica) and P. malindensis (≡ Cry. malindensis).
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The class Dothideomycetes is the largest and most ecologically diverse class of fungi, comprising endophytes, epiphytes, saprobes, human and plant pathogens, lichens, and lichenicolous, nematode trapping and rock-inhabiting taxa. Members of this class are mainly characterized by bitunicate asci with fissitunicate dehiscence, and occur on broad range of hosts in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Since the last monograph of families of Dothideomycetes in 2013, numerous novel species, genera, families and orders have been discovered. This has expanded information which has led to the modern classification in Dothideomycetes. In this paper, we provide a refined updated document on families of Dothideomycetes with emphasis on Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. We accept three orders with 25 families and four orders with 94 families in Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae, respectively. The new family Paralophiostomataceae is introduced in Pleosporales. Each family is provided with an updated description, notes, including figures to represent the morphology, list of accepted genera, and economic and ecological significances. We also provide an overall phylogenetic tree of families in Dothideomycetes based on combined analysis of LSU, SSU, rpb-2 and tef1 sequence data, and phylogenetic trees for each order in Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. Family-level trees are provided for the families which include several genera such as Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae. Two new genera (Ligninsphaeriopsis and Paralophiostoma) are introduced. Five new species (Biatrisopora borsei, Comoclathris galatellae, Ligninsphaeriopsis thailandica, Paralophiostoma hysterioides and Torula thailandica) are introduced based on morphology and phylogeny, together with nine new reports and seven new collections from different families.
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Coelomycete is a general term used for asexual fungi which produce conidia in fruiting bodies: pycnidial, acervular, cupulate, pycnothyria or stromatic conidiomata. The group contains numerous plant pathogenic, saprobic and endophytic species associated with a wide range of hosts. Traditionally, morphological characters and host associations have been used as criteria to identify and classify coelomycetes, and this has resulted in a poor understanding of their generic and species boundaries. DNA based taxonomic studies have provided a better outlook of the phylogenetic and evolutionary trends in coelomycetes. However, the present outcomes represent only a preliminary step towards the understanding of coelomycetes. Many genera have not been revisited since they were first described. The present study revises the classification of the hyaline-spored coelomycetes and provides a modern taxonomic framework based on both morphology and phylogeny. In total, 248 genera were investigated, of which less than 100 are known to have sequence data. Multi-locus sequence data analyses of 28S nrDNA, 18S nrDNA, ITS, RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), and part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (tef1) and β-tubulin (tub2) gene regions were analysed. As a result, three new genera and 23 new species are introduced. In addition, three new links between sexual and asexual genera are provided. There are 138 genera that lack sequence data, and these are treated as Ascomycota, genera incertae sedis. Line drawings and descriptions are provided based on the examination of types and fresh collections and on the literature.
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We are proud to publish a special issue of Fungal Diversity in honour of the contributions made by Erio Camporesi, who has promoted mycological research as a prodigious amateur mycologist and collector of fungi. The special issue includes Fungal Diversity notes 11, with many taxa named in Erio’s honour and a monograph of hyaline-spored Coelomycetes, both incorporating many of Erio’s collections.
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This article provides an outline of the classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi. i.e. dispersed spores, mycelia, sporophores, mycorrhizas). We treat 19 phyla of fungi. These are Aphelidiomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Entorrhizomycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Olpidiomycota, Rozellomycota and Zoopagomycota. The placement of all fungal genera is provided at the class-, order- and family-level. The described number of species per genus is also given. Notes are provided of taxa for which recent changes or disagreements have been presented. Fungus-like taxa that were traditionally treated as fungi are also incorporated in this outline (i.e. Eumycetozoa, Dictyosteliomycetes, Ceratiomyxomycetes and Myxomycetes). Four new taxa are introduced: Amblyosporida ord. nov. Neopereziida ord. nov. and Ovavesiculida ord. nov. in Rozellomycota, and Protosporangiaceae fam. nov. in Dictyosteliomycetes. Two different classifications (in outline section and in discussion) are provided for Glomeromycota and Leotiomycetes based on recent studies. The phylogenetic reconstruction of a four-gene dataset (18S and 28S rRNA, RPB1, RPB2) of 433 taxa is presented, including all currently described orders of fungi.
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Fungal diversity notes is one of the important journal series of fungal taxonomy that provide detailed descriptions and illustrations of new fungal taxa, as well as providing new information of fungal taxa worldwide. This article is the 11th contribution to the fungal diversity notes series, in which 126 taxa distributed in two phyla, six classes, 24 orders and 55 families are described and illustrated. Taxa in this study were mainly collected from Italy by Erio Camporesi and also collected from China, India and Thailand, as well as in some other European, North American and South American countries. Taxa described in the present study include two new families, 12 new genera, 82 new species, five new combinations and 25 new records on new hosts and new geographical distributions as well as sexual-asexual reports. The two new families are Eriomycetaceae (Dothideomycetes, family incertae sedis) and Fasciatisporaceae (Xylariales, Sordariomycetes). The twelve new genera comprise Bhagirathimyces (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Camporesiomyces (Tubeufiaceae), Eriocamporesia (Cryphonectriaceae), Eriomyces (Eriomycetaceae), Neomonodictys (Pleurotheciaceae), Paraloratospora (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Paramonodictys (Parabambusicolaceae), Pseudoconlarium (Diaporthomycetidae, genus incertae sedis), Pseudomurilentithecium (Lentitheciaceae), Setoapiospora (Muyocopronaceae), Srinivasanomyces (Vibrisseaceae) and Xenoanthostomella (Xylariales, genera incertae sedis). The 82 new species comprise Acremonium chiangraiense, Adustochaete nivea, Angustimassarina camporesii, Bhagirathimyces himalayensis, Brunneoclavispora camporesii, Camarosporidiella camporesii, Camporesiomyces mali, Camposporium appendiculatum, Camposporium multiseptatum, Camposporium septatum, Canalisporium aquaticium, Clonostachys eriocamporesiana, Clonostachys eriocamporesii, Colletotrichum hederiicola, Coniochaeta vineae, Conioscypha verrucosa, Cortinarius ainsworthii, Cortinarius aurae, Cortinarius britannicus, Cortinarius heatherae, Cortinarius scoticus, Cortinarius subsaniosus, Cytospora fusispora, Cytospora rosigena, Diaporthe camporesii, Diaporthe nigra, Diatrypella yunnanensis, Dictyosporium muriformis, Didymella camporesii, Diutina bernali, Diutina sipiczkii, Eriocamporesia aurantia, Eriomyces heveae, Ernakulamia tanakae, Falciformispora uttaraditensis, Fasciatispora cocoes, Foliophoma camporesii, Fuscostagonospora camporesii, Helvella subtinta, Kalmusia erioi, Keissleriella camporesiana, Keissleriella camporesii, Lanspora cylindrospora, Loratospora arezzoensis, Mariannaea atlantica, Melanographium phoenicis, Montagnula camporesii, Neodidymelliopsis camporesii, Neokalmusia kunmingensis, Neoleptosporella camporesiana, Neomonodictys muriformis, Neomyrmecridium guizhouense, Neosetophoma camporesii, Paraloratospora camporesii, Paramonodictys solitarius, Periconia palmicola, Plenodomus triseptatus, Pseudocamarosporium camporesii, Pseudocercospora maetaengensis, Pseudochaetosphaeronema kunmingense, Pseudoconlarium punctiforme, Pseudodactylaria camporesiana, Pseudomurilentithecium camporesii, Pseudotetraploa rajmachiensis, Pseudotruncatella camporesii, Rhexocercosporidium senecionis, Rhytidhysteron camporesii, Rhytidhysteron erioi, Septoriella camporesii, Setoapiospora thailandica, Srinivasanomyces kangrensis, Tetraploa dwibahubeeja, Tetraploa pseudoaristata, Tetraploa thrayabahubeeja, Torula camporesii, Tremateia camporesii, Tremateia lamiacearum, Uzbekistanica pruni, Verruconis mangrovei, Wilcoxina verruculosa, Xenoanthostomella chromolaenae and Xenodidymella camporesii. The five new combinations are Camporesiomyces patagoniensis, Camporesiomyces vaccinia, Camposporium lycopodiellae, Paraloratospora gahniae and Rhexocercosporidium microsporum. The 22 new records on host and geographical distribution comprise Arthrinium marii, Ascochyta medicaginicola, Ascochyta pisi, Astrocystis bambusicola, Camposporium pellucidum, Dendryphiella phitsanulokensis, Diaporthe foeniculina, Didymella macrostoma, Diplodia mutila, Diplodia seriata, Heterosphaeria patella, Hysterobrevium constrictum, Neodidymelliopsis ranunculi, Neovaginatispora fuckelii, Nothophoma quercina, Occultibambusa bambusae, Phaeosphaeria chinensis, Pseudopestalotiopsis theae, Pyxine berteriana, Tetraploa sasicola, Torula gaodangensis and Wojnowiciella dactylidis. In addition, the sexual morphs of Dissoconium eucalypti and Phaeosphaeriopsis pseudoagavacearum are reported from Laurus nobilis and Yucca gloriosa in Italy, respectively. The holomorph of Diaporthe cynaroidis is also reported for the first time.
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This is a continuation of the papers “Towards a classification of Sordariomycetes” (2015) and “Families of Sordariomycetes” (2016) in which we compile a treatment of the class Sordariomycetes. The present treatment is needed as our knowledge has rapidly increased, from 32 orders, 105 families and 1331 genera in 2016, to 45 orders, 167 families and 1499 genera (with 308 genera incertae sedis) at the time of publication. In this treatment we provide notes on each order, families and short notes on each genus. We provide up-to-date DNA based phylogenies for 45 orders and 163 families. Three new genera and 16 new species are introduced with illustrations and descriptions, while 23 new records and three new species combinations are provided. We also list 308 taxa in Sordariomycetes genera incertae sedis. For each family we provide general descriptions and illustrate the type genus or another genus, the latter where the placement has generally been confirmed with molecular data. Both the sexual and asexual morphs representative of a family are illustrated where available. Notes on ecological and economic considerations are also given.
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In order to establish the phylogenetic relationships and to resolve the natural classification of species in Dothideomycetes, it is necessary to use multi-gene phylogeny as well as morphology. Phaeodothis mori is a new species collected from dead leaves of Morus australis from Chiayi, Taiwan. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were performed based on multi-locus phylogenies of ITS, LSU, SSU and tef1-α to clarify the phylogenetic affinities of the species. Phaeodothis mori is distinguished from the other Phaeodothis species based on distinct size differences in ascomata, asci, ascospores and base pair differences in DNA sequence data. Remarkably, this is the first Phaeodothis species recorded from Morus australis. The new species was compared with the type species of Phaeodothis and a comprehensive description and micrographs were provided.
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Grapevine trunk diseases have become one of the main threats to grape production worldwide, with Diaporthe species as an emerging group of pathogens in China. At present, relatively little is known about the taxonomy and genetic diversity of Chinese Diaporthe populations, including their relationships to other populations worldwide. Here, we conducted an extensive field survey in six provinces in China to identify and characterize Diaporthe species in grape vineyards. Ninety-four isolates were identified and analyzed using multi-locus phylogeny. The isolates belonged to eight species, including three novel taxa, Diaporthe guangxiensis (D. guangxiensis), Diaporthe hubeiensis (D. hubeiensis), Diaporthe viniferae (D. viniferae), and three new host records, Diaporthe gulyae (D. gulyae), Diaporthe pescicola (D. pescicola), and Diaporthe unshiuensis (D. unshiuensis). The most commonly isolated species was Diaporthe eres (D. eres). In addition, high genetic diversity was observed for D. eres in Chinese vineyards. Haplotype network analysis of D. eres isolates from China and Europe showed a close relationship between samples from the two geographical locations and evidence for recombination. In comparative pathogenicity testing, D. gulyae was the most aggressive taxon, whereas D. hubeiensis was the least aggressive. This study provides new insights into the Diaporthe species associated with grapevines in China, and our results can be used to develop effective disease management strategies.
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This article is the tenth series of the Fungal Diversity Notes, where 114 taxa distributed in three phyla, ten classes, 30 orders and 53 families are described and illustrated. Taxa described in the present study include one new family (viz. Pseudoberkleasmiaceae in Dothideomycetes), five new genera (Caatingomyces, Cryptoschizotrema, Neoacladium, Paramassaria and Trochilispora) and 71 new species, (viz. Acrogenospora thailandica, Amniculicola aquatica, A. guttulata, Angustimassarina sylvatica, Blackwellomyces lateris, Boubovia gelatinosa, Buellia viridula, Caatingomyces brasiliensis, Calophoma humuli, Camarosporidiella mori, Canalisporium dehongense, Cantharellus brunneopallidus, C. griseotinctus, Castanediella meliponae, Coprinopsis psammophila, Cordyceps succavus, Cortinarius minusculus, C. subscotoides, Diaporthe italiana, D. rumicicola, Diatrypella delonicis, Dictyocheirospora aquadulcis, D. taiwanense, Digitodesmium chiangmaiense, Distoseptispora dehongensis, D. palmarum, Dothiorella styphnolobii, Ellisembia aurea, Falciformispora aquatic, Fomitiporia carpinea, F. lagerstroemiae, Grammothele aurantiaca, G. micropora, Hermatomyces bauhiniae, Jahnula queenslandica, Kamalomyces mangrovei, Lecidella yunnanensis, Micarea squamulosa, Muriphaeosphaeria angustifoliae, Neoacladium indicum, Neodidymelliopsis sambuci, Neosetophoma miscanthi, N. salicis, Nodulosphaeria aquilegiae, N. thalictri, Paramassaria samaneae, Penicillium circulare, P. geumsanense, P. mali-pumilae, P. psychrotrophicum, P. wandoense, Phaeoisaria siamensis, Phaeopoacea asparagicola, Phaeosphaeria penniseti, Plectocarpon galapagoense, Porina sorediata, Pseudoberkleasmium chiangmaiense, Pyrenochaetopsis sinensis, Rhizophydium koreanum, Russula prasina, Sporoschisma chiangraiense, Stigmatomyces chamaemyiae, S. cocksii, S. papei, S. tschirnhausii, S. vikhrevii, Thysanorea uniseptata, Torula breviconidiophora, T. polyseptata, Trochilispora schefflerae and Vaginatispora palmae). Further, twelve new combinations (viz. Cryptoschizotrema cryptotrema, Prolixandromyces australi, P. elongatus, P. falcatus, P. longispinae, P. microveliae, P. neoalardi, P. polhemorum, P. protuberans, P. pseudoveliae, P. tenuistipitis and P. umbonatus), an epitype is chosen for Cantharellus goossensiae, a reference specimen for Acrogenospora sphaerocephala and new synonym Prolixandromyces are designated. Twenty-four new records on new hosts and new geographical distributions are also reported (i.e. Acrostalagmus annulatus, Cantharellus goossensiae, Coprinopsis villosa, Dothiorella plurivora, Dothiorella rhamni, Dothiorella symphoricarposicola, Dictyocheirospora rotunda, Fasciatispora arengae, Grammothele brasiliensis, Lasiodiplodia iraniensis, Lembosia xyliae, Morenoina palmicola, Murispora cicognanii, Neodidymelliopsis farokhinejadii, Neolinocarpon rachidis, Nothophoma quercina, Peroneutypa scoparia, Pestalotiopsis aggestorum, Pilidium concavum, Plagiostoma salicellum, Protofenestella ulmi, Sarocladium kiliense, Tetraploa nagasakiensis and Vaginatispora armatispora).