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Sensors in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) sense, process, and transmit information simultaneously. They mainly find applications in agriculture monitoring, environment monitoring, smart city development and defence. These applications demand high-end performance from the WSN. However, the performance of a WSN is highly vulnerable to various types of security threats. Any intrusion may reduce the performance of the WSN and result in fatal problems. Hence, fast intrusion detection and prevention is of great use. This paper aims towards fast detection and prevention of any intrusion using a machine learning approach based on Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) model. We proposed three methods (S-GPR, C-GPR and GPR) based on feature scaling for accurate prediction of k-barrier coverage probability. We have selected the number of nodes, sensing range, Sensor to Intruder Velocity Ratio (SIVR), Mobile to Static Node Ratio (MSNR), angle of the intrusion path and required k as the potential features. These features are extracted using an analytical approach. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method III accurately predicts the k-barrier coverage probability and outperforms the other two methods (I and II) with a correlation coefficient (R = 0.85) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE = 0.095). Further, the proposed methods achieve a higher accuracy as compared to other benchmark schemes.
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... The problem at hand can be resolved by employing machine learning approaches that are exceptionally competent for computational time [20,21]. For instance, the work presented in [22] provided a mathematical framework to evaluate the k-barrier coverage probability for a given intrusion path using mobile WSNs. The authors have proposed three machine learning models based on the GPR algorithm to predict the k-barrier coverage probability to overcome the computational and time complexity problem. ...
... These datasets can either be field derived (obtained by direct measurements) or generated synthetically (obtained through simple rules, statistical modelling, and simulations) [24]. The use of synthetic data is increasing exponentially in the domain of healthcare [25,26], WSNs [22,27], and data privacy [28]. ...
... To calculate each feature's relative importance score, we created a regression ensemble through boosting ensemble learning. We leverage LSBoost (Least Square gradient Boosting) algorithm to boost hundred regression trees, each having unity learning rate [22,30]. This algorithm assumes each decision tree as a weak learner and processes them individually by identifying their weak points. ...
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The dramatic increase in the computational facilities integrated with the explainable machine learning algorithms allows us to do fast intrusion detection and prevention at border areas using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This study proposed a novel approach to accurately predict the number of barriers required for fast intrusion detection and prevention. To do so, we extracted four features through Monte Carlo simulation: area of the Region of Interest (RoI), sensing range of the sensors, transmission range of the sensor, and the number of sensors. We evaluated feature importance and feature sensitivity to measure the relevancy and riskiness of the selected features. We applied log transformation and feature scaling on the feature set and trained the tuned Support Vector Regression (SVR) model (i.e., LT-FS-SVR model). We found that the model accurately predicts the number of barriers with a correlation coefficient (R) = 0.98, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 6.47, and bias = 12.35. For a fair evaluation, we compared the performance of the proposed approach with the benchmark algorithms, namely, Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Generalised Regression Neural Network (GRNN), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Random Forest (RF). We found that the proposed model outperforms all the benchmark algorithms
... Also, IoT devices are very expensive and require a huge amount of financial investment. The high time complexity and financial issues can be minimised to a negligible level using machine learning approaches to validate and predict the performance of WSNs before their actual deployment in a given region (Mishra et al., 2018;Singh et al., 2021b;Kotiyal et al., 2021). However, the accurate and timely detection and prevention of intrusion through machine learning approaches is still an ill-posed problem that has been insufficiently investigated. ...
... Here, they have calculated the total area covered by an intruder traveling at a given angle to cross the RoI, Then, this total area is utilised to obtain the closed-form expression for the k-barrier coverage probability of the WSN. In an another work presented in Singh et al. (2021b), the authors have employed three machine learning approaches, namely Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Scaling GPR (S-GPR), and Center mean GPR (C-GPR) to predict the k-barrier coverage probability of a WSN. The proposed GPR technique quickly detects and prevents any intrusion taking place at any location in the RoI. ...
... However, it does not convey how the features are associated with the predictand, i.e., whether the predictand value increases with feature (positive impact) or decreases with features (negative impact). To evaluate this, we have performed the sensitivity analysis of the features using Partial Dependence Plot (PDP) (Singh et al., 2021b;Friedman, 2001). PDP measures the average effect of a single or more feature by marginalising the effect of all other features taken into consideration. ...
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is a promising technology with enormous applications in almost every walk of life. One of the crucial applications of WSNs is intrusion detection and surveillance at the border areas and in the defense establishments. The border areas are stretched in hundreds to thousands of miles, hence, it is not possible to patrol the entire border region. As a result, an enemy may enter from any point absence of surveillance and cause the loss of lives or destroy the military establishments. WSNs can be a feasible solution for the problem of intrusion detection and surveillance at the border areas. Detection of an enemy at the border areas and nearby critical areas such as military cantonments is a time-sensitive task as a delay of few seconds may have disastrous consequences. Therefore, it becomes imperative to design systems that are able to identify and detect the enemy as soon as it comes in the range of the deployed system. In this paper, we have proposed a deep learning architecture based on a fully connected feed-forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for the accurate prediction of the number of k-barriers for fast intrusion detection and prevention. We have trained and evaluated the feed-forward ANN model using four potential features, namely area of the circular region, sensing range of sensors, the transmission range of sensors, and the number of sensor for Gaussian and uniform sensor distribution. These features are extracted through Monte Carlo simulation. In doing so, we found that the model accurately predicts the number of k-barriers for both Gaussian and uniform sensor distribution with correlation coefficient (R = 0.78) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE = 41.15) for the former and R = 0.79 and RMSE = 48.36 for the latter. Further, the proposed approach outperforms the other benchmark algorithms in terms of accuracy and computational time complexity.
... Also, IoT devices are very expensive and require a huge financial investment. The high time complexity and financial issues can be minimised to a negligible level using machine learning approaches to validate and predict the performance of WSNs before their actual deployment in a given region (Kotiyal, Singh, Sharma, Nagar, & Lee, 2021;Mishra, Varadharajan, Tupakula, & Pilli, 2018;Singh, Nagar, Sharma and Kotiyal, 2021). However, the accurate and timely detection and prevention of intrusion through machine learning approaches is still an ill-posed problem that has been insufficiently investigated. ...
... Here, they have calculated the total area covered by an intruder travelling at a given angle to cross the RoI, Then, this total area is utilised to obtain the closedform expression for the -barrier coverage probability of the WSN. In another work presented in Singh, Nagar et al. (2021), the authors have employed three machine learning approaches, namely Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Scaling GPR (S-GPR), and Center mean GPR (C-GPR) to predict the -barrier coverage probability of a WSN. The proposed GPR technique quickly detects and prevents any intrusion from taking place at any location in the RoI. ...
... However, it does not convey how the features are associated with the predictand, i.e., whether the predictand value increases with feature (positive impact) or decreases with features (negative impact). To evaluate this, we have performed the sensitivity analysis of the features using the Partial Dependence Plot (PDP) (Friedman, 2001;Singh, Nagar et al., 2021). PDP measures the average effect of a single or more features by marginalising the effect of all other features taken into consideration. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is a promising technology with enormous applications in almost every walk of life. One of the crucial applications of WSNs is intrusion detection and surveillance at the border areas and in the defense establishments. The border areas are stretched in hundreds to thousands of miles, hence, it is not possible to patrol the entire border region. As a result, an enemy may enter from any point absence of surveillance and cause the loss of lives or destroy the military establishments. WSNs can be a feasible solution for the problem of intrusion detection and surveillance at the border areas. Detection of an enemy at the border areas and nearby critical areas such as military cantonments is a time-sensitive task as a delay of few seconds may have disastrous consequences. Therefore, it becomes imperative to design systems that are able to identify and detect the enemy as soon as it comes in the range of the deployed system. In this paper, we have proposed a deep learning architecture based on a fully connected feed-forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for the accurate prediction of the number of k-barriers for fast intrusion detection and prevention. We have trained and evaluated the feed-forward ANN model using four potential features, namely area of the circular region, sensing range of sensors, the transmission range of sensors, and the number of sensor for Gaussian and uniform sensor distribution. These features are extracted through Monte Carlo simulation. In doing so, we found that the model accurately predicts the number of k-barriers for both Gaussian and uniform sensor distribution with correlation coefficient (R = 0.78) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE = 41.15) for the former and R = 0.79 and RMSE = 48.36 for the latter. Further, the proposed approach outperforms the other benchmark algorithms in terms of accuracy and computational time complexity.
... Recently, the authors in [19] proposed a regression-based machine learning algorithm for the accurate prediction of -barrier coverage probability. They showed how machine learning algorithms could be used for fast intrusion detection and prevention. ...
... PDP measures the average marginal effect of each feature over the response variable. In contrast, ICE shows the dis-aggregated results of PDP [19]. ...
... In earlier attempts, Singh et al. 2021 [19] proposed several novel approaches for predicting -barrier coverage probability using regression-based machine learning algorithms (support vector regression and gaussian process regression). They reported an R = 0.85 and an RMSE of 0.095 for the best machine learning model. ...
Article
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is one of the most widely employed technology because it has numerous applications in almost every walk of life. The analytical results available for large-scale WSNs cannot be utilised to estimate the performance of WSNs deployed in a finite region due to Boundary Effects (BEs). In addition, wireless channel characteristics are affected by diverse environmental phenomena such as the presence of impediments, interference, reflection, and refraction, etc. Therefore, we render an analytical model by considering BEs in the shadowed environments to estimate the κ-coverage metric of a WSN installed in a circular region (CR). Validation of the analytical models is a time-consuming and tedious task and requires hours. To overcome this problem, in this study, we proposed a framework based on feed-forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to map the κ-coverage probability using nodes, sensing range, the standard deviation of shadowing denoted by sigma, and required κ as features. These features were extracted through Monte Carlo simulations. We estimated the feature importance and performed the feature sensitivity analysis before training the ANN model. We trained two feed-forward ANN models for with and without BEs. We found sensing range is the most important feature in predicting the κ-coverage probability. Further, the proposed feed-forward framework performs equally well for both cases, with correlation coefficient (R) = 0.98 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 0.07. Furthermore, it also outperforms the results obtained through the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS).
... Technological accomplishments in micro-electromechanical systems have led to the fabrication of wireless nodes immensely being deployed to form WMNs-also recognized as wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and wireless ad hoc networks (WANETs) [1][2][3]. WMNs comprise an abundance of tiny, low-power, low-cost, but failure-prone nodes. These nodes operate in a distributed fashion without the necessity of any permanent foundation, i.e., nodes convey information with each other via either a single hop or a multihop path through a wireless channel [4]. ...
... WMNs can be set up ''on the fly'' smoothly in areas of emergency operations, in an unreachable territory, and in other hazardous surroundings. This fact has resulted in many applications of these networks in several decisive/non-decisive situations such as enemy chasing and espionage, telecommunication systems, automation, health, security, and mines detection in oceans [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9], etc. A WMN is connected when there is at least one wireless route between each pair of nodes. ...
... Mainly, there are two challenges in calculating the NIP P Iso r max ð Þ in (9) and the MNDD f D j; r max ð Þin (10), viz., 1 The first challenge is to compute the overlapping area A P; r max ð Þ\R j j = L Â x ð Þ by integrating the SEs and the BEs to achieve the cumulative distribution function (cdf) (8). 2 The second one is to compute the average value of cdf in (8) over the whole RSR R in shadowing environment to estimate the NIP P Iso r max ð Þ(9) and the MNDD f D j; r max ð Þ (10). ...
Article
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Connectivity is one of the critical performance parameters of wireless multihop networks (WMNs) explored in detail for the last few years. The assumption, a constant communication range (CR) of sensor nodes in all possible paths taken in earlier studies may not be accurate due to many fluctuations in the received signal strength (RSS) caused by the random nature of wireless channels and the presence of obstacles in the communication environment. Studies have also ignored the border effects (BEs), rendering an overestimated and erroneous result on performance parameters. In this study, we formulate an analytical framework considering BEs to investigate and analyze the influence of shadowing environments on minimum node degree distribution (MNDD), node isolation probability (NIP), and \(\kappa\)-connectivity of a WMN deployed in a rectangular-shaped region (RSR). The proposed framework provides closed-form expressions for the MNDD and NIP. Simulation results validate the outcomes obtained through the proposed framework. We observed that the NIP increases and the \(\kappa\)-connectivity degrades severely with the rise in the shadowing effects' standard deviation.
... In comparison to real data, acquiring synthetic data is efficient and cost-effective. Due to this, the use of synthetic datasets to train machine learning models is increased in the past lustrum 21,[26][27][28][29] . ...
... We calculated the relevancy of the selected predictors in estimating the k-barriers by estimating each predictor's relative predictor importance score. To do so, we have used the regression tree ensemble technique 21,34 . It is an inbuilt class with a tree-based classifier that assigns a relative score for every predictor or attribute of the data. ...
... Predictor sensitivity. We have performed the sensitivity analysis of the predictors using Partial Dependence Plot (PDP) 21,35 . PDP depicts whether a model's predicted response (outcome) changes as a single explanatory variable varies. ...
Article
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Momentous increase in the popularity of explainable machine learning models coupled with the dramatic increase in the use of synthetic data facilitates us to develop a cost-efficient machine learning model for fast intrusion detection and prevention at frontier areas using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The performance of any explainable machine learning model is driven by its hyperparameters. Several approaches have been developed and implemented successfully for optimising or tuning these hyperparameters for skillful predictions. However, the major drawback of these techniques, including the manual selection of the optimal hyperparameters, is that they depend highly on the problem and demand application-specific expertise. In this paper, we introduced Automated Machine Learning (AutoML) model to automatically select the machine learning model (among support vector regression, Gaussian process regression, binary decision tree, bagging ensemble learning, boosting ensemble learning, kernel regression, and linear regression model) and to automate the hyperparameters optimisation for accurate prediction of numbers of k-barriers for fast intrusion detection and prevention using Bayesian optimisation. To do so, we extracted four synthetic predictors, namely, area of the region, sensing range of the sensor, transmission range of the sensor, and the number of sensors using Monte Carlo simulation. We used 80% of the datasets to train the models and the remaining 20% for testing the performance of the trained model. We found that the Gaussian process regression performs prodigiously and outperforms all the other considered explainable machine learning models with correlation coefficient (R = 1), root mean square error (RMSE = 0.007), and bias = − 0.006. Further, we also tested the AutoML performance on a publicly available intrusion dataset, and we observed a similar performance. This study will help the researchers accurately predict the required number of k-barriers for fast intrusion detection and prevention.
... Typically, each sensor has a sensing unit, power unit, processing unit and an antenna to receive or transmit the sensed information. Sensors are inherently resource-constrained as they have a limited battery, limited storage capacity, and limited processing power due to their compact size [11,12]. WSNs possess considerable potential for monitoring large or complicated-to-reach areas such as forest fire monitoring [13,14]. ...
... , n) 2 Define objective function, Obj(x); (x = x 1 , x 2 , . . . , x d ) (from Equation (5) if (x j < X min ) then 11 x j ← X min 12 if (x j > X max ) then 13 x j ← X max 14 Calculate the fitness of new cuckoos, F j = Obj(x j ) 15 Choose a random nest (x k ) from existing n nests randomly 16 if (F j > F k ) then 17 x j ← x k F j ← F k 18 Find the current best solution out of n nests 19 for all x i do 20 Compute the mutation probability, P a 21 Generate a random number, P ∈ [0,1] 22 if (P < P a ) then 23 Generate new solution (cuckoo) (x rand ) randomly within the solution range, (X min to X max ) if (F rand > F i ) then 24 Replace the existing solution with the new random solution (cuckoo) 25 Find the global best solution of the iteration 26 Calculate differences of last three consecutive pairs of best solutions: ...
Article
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Node localisation plays a critical role in setting up Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A sensor in WSNs senses, processes and transmits the sensed information simultaneously. Along with the sensed information, it is crucial to have the positional information associated with the information source. A promising method to localise these randomly deployed sensors is to use bio-inspired meta-heuristic algorithms. In this way, a node localisation problem is converted to an optimisation problem. Afterwards, the optimisation problem is solved for an optimal solution by minimising the errors. Various bio-inspired algorithms, including the conventional Cuckoo Search (CS) and modified CS algorithm, have already been explored. However, these algorithms demand a predetermined number of iterations to reach the optimal solution, even when not required. In this way, they unnecessarily exploit the limited resources of the sensors resulting in a slow search process. This paper proposes an Enhanced Cuckoo Search (ECS) algorithm to minimise the Average Localisation Error (ALE) and the time taken to localise an unknown node. In this algorithm, we have implemented an Early Stopping (ES) mechanism, which improves the search process significantly by exiting the search loop whenever the optimal solution is reached. Further, we have evaluated the ECS algorithm and compared it with the modified CS algorithm. While doing so, note that the proposed algorithm localised all the localisable nodes in the network with an ALE of 0.5-0.8 m. In addition, the proposed algorithm also shows an 80% decrease in the average time taken to localise all the localisable nodes. Consequently, the performance of the proposed ECS algorithm makes it desirable to implement in practical scenarios for node localisation.
... The work presented in literatures 22,23) studied the impact of wireless channel environment on the coverage metric of WSNs and found that interference and multipath fading have severely deteriorating influence on the cov-erage metric of the deployed network. Nowadays, artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms are being applied in the domain of WSNs 24,25,26) . In literature 25 , the authors have proposed three machine learning algorithms to predict the average localization error in the position of SNs at the time of deployment. ...
... Nowadays, artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms are being applied in the domain of WSNs 24,25,26) . In literature 25 , the authors have proposed three machine learning algorithms to predict the average localization error in the position of SNs at the time of deployment. The authors found that their proposed algorithms are very efficient with Root Mean Square Error (RMSE = 0.147m). ...
Article
Coverage is one of the most critical performance metric of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) because it shows how well a region of interest (RoI) is being monitored by the deployed network. In general, the RoI is either circular or rectangular in shape which have boundary regions. Sensor nodes (SNs) deployed in these regions suffer boundary effects (BEs), i.e., the useful coverage area of an SN deployed near the boundary regions is less as compared to the SNs deployed in the middle of the RoI. It is imperative to consider these BEs while evaluating the performance of WSNs because analytical results derived for large networks are not valid for finite networks. In addition, SNs of a deployed WSN are prone to failure due to a large number of factors such as battery drainage, high temperature, and other environmental conditions. Earlier researchers have ignored the impact of BEs in the presence of sensor failure while evaluating the coverage performance of WSNs. In this work, we derive an analytical model by considering BEs and sensor failure to achieve a closed form expression for the k-coverage performance of a WSN deployed in a rectangular RoI. Further, we analyze the influence of various network parameters such as number of SNs, sensing range, and sensor failure rate on the k-coverage performance of the network. The results obtained using the proposed model show a good match with simulations outcomes with Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) no more than 0.03, thus, validating our model. For 𝑟𝑟𝑠𝑠 = 80 m and N = 100, 1-coverage probabilities are found to be 0.9874, 0.9313 and 0.8069 for k = 1, 2 and 3 respectively showing that the k-coverage probability deriorates with the increase in the value of k.
... This concept is known as The Internet of Things (IoT) by Kevin Ashton [1]. IoT is the physical object network that allows specific objects to gather and share data with computers, instruments, cars, buildings, and other items embedded with processors, circuitry, applications, sensors, and network connectivity [2][3][4]. ...
... The following Eqs. (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12) describe the grey wolf surrounding the prey [37]. ...
Article
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The intrusion detection system is a method for detection against attacks, making it one of the essential defense layers. Researchers are trying to find new algorithms to inspect all inbound and outbound activities and identify suspicious patterns that may show an attempted system attack. The proposed technique for detecting intrusions uses the Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) to solve feature selection problems and hybridizing it with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to utilize the best value to update the information of each grey wolf position. This technique preserves the individual's best position information by the PSO algorithm, which prevents the GWO algorithm from falling into a local optimum. The NSL KDD dataset is used to verify the performance of the proposed technique. The classification is done using the k-means and SVM algorithms to measure the performance in terms of accuracy, detection rate, false alarm rate, number of features, and execution time. The results have shown that the proposed technique attained the necessary improvement of the GWO algorithm when using K-means or SVM algorithms.
... This can lead to accelerated convergence of the optimization process and helps to approach optimization problems in a more global manner. The main disadvantages of Gaussian processes, on the other hand, their high computational complexity of O(n 3 ) and their difficulties in higher dimensions, do not arise in the problem at hand (Yetilmezsoy et al. 2021;Akbari et al. 2019;Singh et al. 2021). ...
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The presented paper describes a shape optimization workflow using Bayesian strategies. It is applied to a novel automotive axle system consisting of leaf springs made from glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP). Besides the primary objectives of cost and mass reduction, the assembly has to meet multiple technical constraints with respect to various loading conditions. The related large-scale finite element model is fully parameterized by splines, hence the general shape of the guide curve as well as the spring’s height, width and material properties can be altered by the corresponding workflow. For this purpose, a novel method is developed to automatically generate high-quality meshes depending on the geometry of the respective springs. The size and complexity of the model demands the implementation of efficient optimization techniques with a preferably small number of required response function evaluations. Therefore, an existing optimization framework is extended by state-of-the-art Bayesian methods, including different kernel combinations and multiple acquisition function approaches, which are then tested, evaluated and compared. To properly address the use of GFRP as spring material in the objective function, an appropriate cost model is derived. Emerging challenges, such as conflicting targets regarding direct material costs and potential lightweight measures, are considered and investigated. The intermediate steps of the developed optimization procedure are tested on various sample functions and simplified models. The entire workflow is finally applied to the complete model and evaluated. Concluding, ideas and possibilities in improving the optimization process, such as the use of models with varying complexity, are discussed.
... Moreover, they do not require any pre-installed infrastructure for their operations [4]. As a result, they have a large number of civilians as well as defence applications like precision agriculture through soil moisture, landslide prediction, vehicle traffic monitoring, internet of things (IoT), healthcare, telecommunication, enemy tacking, battlefield surveillance, reconnaissance [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18], and so on. ...
Article
Coverage is a crucial quality of service (QoS) parameter for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which tells how effectively the deployed network monitors a given region. Analytical models available for the coverage analysis of finite WSNs are not scalable for large networks due to boundary effects (BEs).The effective coverage area (ECA) of a sensor node lying near the boundary regions is less than the ECA of a sensor node lying in the region's middle. Also, with the presence of obstacles in the transmission path and the radio irregularities, there are frequent changes in the wireless channel characteristics known as shadowing effects (SEs). Therefore, it becomes crucial to include BEs and SEs while investigating the coverage performance of WSNs. In this work, we analyze the-coverage performance of a WSN spread in a circular region of interest (RoI) by considering BEs and using a binary and a log-normal sensing range model.Furthermore, we also assess the effect of various network parameters viz.,the number of sensor nodes, maximum sensing range, and standard deviation of SEs on the-coverage of the WSN. Also, we compare the-coverage outcomes obtained by considering BEs with the results obtained by ignoring BEs. It is found that both BEs and SEs have a significant effect on the-coverage performance of the WSNs. The simulation outcomes substantiate analytical results and match upto a great extent.
... Then, the authors adopted the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) method to reduce the number of the feature temperature points to search for a more efficient and economic thermal error model for the spindle. GPR [35,36] has high robustness and accuracy and is easy to implement. It can adjust the hyperparameters by maximizing the marginal likelihood and by accurately optimizing them according to the value of the hyperparameters. ...
Article
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Thermal error is one of the main sources of machining error of machine tools. Being a key component of the machine tool, the spindle will generate a lot of heat in the machining process and thereby result in a thermal error of itself. Real-time measurement of thermal error will interrupt the machining process. Therefore, this paper presents a machine learning model to estimate the thermal error of the spindle from its feature temperature points. The authors adopt random forests and Gaussian process regression to model the thermal error of the spindle and Pearson correlation coefficients to select the feature temperature points. The result shows that random forests collocating with Pearson correlation coefficients is an efficient and accurate method for the thermal error modeling of the spindle. Its accuracy reaches to 90.49% based on only four feature temperature points—two points at the bearings and two points at the inner housing—and the spindle speed. If the accuracy requirement is not very onerous, one can select just the temperature points of the bearings, because the installation of temperature sensors at these positions is acceptable for the spindle or machine tool manufacture, while the other positions may interfere with the cooling pipeline of the spindle.
... A wireless multihop network (WMN) is formed by spreading a hundred to thousands of miniature, lowpower, and low-cost sensor nodes (SNs) with identical sensing, computation, and communication capabilities [1]. These networks do not need any fixed infrastructure and operate in a decentralized and self-organized manner [2,3]. Therefore, WMNs have found a colossal number of applications such as battlefield surveillance, reconnaissance, enemy tracking, vehicle traffic monitoring, monitoring in underground coal mines, telecommunication, internet of things (IoT), environmental monitoring, structural health monitoring, industrial automation, health sector, to name a few, [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. ...
Article
The performance of wireless multihop networks (WSNs) deployed in a finite region is affected by environmental phenomena such as shadowing and boundary effects. The shadowing effect affects the actual sensing range of sensor nodes due to varying amounts of signal path-losses, whereas the useful coverage area of a sensor node gets affected by its location within the deployed region-known as boundary effects. The existing analytical solutions for large networks are not conformable for finite networks as boundary effects distort the linearities between the network variables and cause non-linear behaviour of network dynamics. Earlier works have provided the analytical solution for the performance metrics of (WSNs) by considering either shadowing or boundary effects separately but considering these effects together is still non-existent. Therefore, it is imperative to study the impact of boundary and shadowing effects simultaneously while estimating the performance of a WMN as it indicates – how well the network monitors a given region? This work provides an analytical solution by considering boundary and shadowing effects simultaneously to compute the κ-coverage probability of a random location within a circular region. The proposed analytical solution is verified through exhaustive simulations with a root mean square error of less than or equal to 0.0189 between the analytical and simulation outcomes. This work has also analysed the influence of different network parameters on the network κ-coverage performance and concludes that the sensing range and the number of sensor nodes have positive, whereas the standard deviation of the shadowing effect has a negative impact on the coverage.
... This is considered a non-linear sensitivity analysis that disaggregates the averaging effects and evaluates the model at each instance. The average of all the ICE lines provides the PDP plot [94][95][96]. The averaging effect of PDP conceals any heterogeneous relationship present at any particular instance. ...
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We apply the Support Vector Regression (SVR) machine learning model to estimate surface roughness on a large alluvial fan of the Kosi River in the Himalayan Foreland from satellite images. To train the model, we used input features such as radar backscatter values in Vertical–Vertical (VV) and Vertical–Horizontal (VH) polarisation, incidence angle from Sentinel-1, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Sentinel-2, and surface elevation from Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM). We generated additional features (VH/VV and VH–VV) through a linear data fusion of the existing features. For the training and validation of our model, we conducted a field campaign during 11–20 December 2019. We measured surface roughness at 78 different locations over the entire fan surface using an in-house-developed mechanical pin-profiler. We used the regression tree ensemble approach to assess the relative importance of individual input feature to predict the surface soil roughness from SVR model. We eliminated the irrelevant input features using an iterative backward elimination approach. We then performed feature sensitivity to evaluate the riskiness of the selected features. Finally, we applied the dimension reduction and scaling to minimise the data redundancy and bring them to a similar level. Based on these, we proposed five SVR methods (PCA-NS-SVR, PCA-CM-SVR, PCA-ZM-SVR, PCA-MM-SVR, and PCA-S-SVR). We trained and evaluated the performance of all variants of SVR with a 60:40 ratio using the input features and the in-situ surface roughness. We compared the performance of SVR models with six different benchmark machine learning models (i.e., Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Generalised Regression Neural Network (GRNN), Binary Decision Tree (BDT), Bragging Ensemble Learning, Boosting Ensemble Learning, and Automated Machine Learning (AutoML)). We observed that the PCA-MM-SVR perform better with a coefficient of correlation (R = 0.74), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE = 0.16 cm), and Mean Square Error (MSE = 0.025 cm2). To ensure a fair selection of the machine learning model, we evaluated the Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC), corrected AIC (AICc), and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). We observed that SVR exhibits the lowest values of AIC, corrected AIC, and BIC of all the other methods; this indicates the best goodness-of-fit. Eventually, we also compared the result of PCA-MM-SVR with the surface roughness estimated from different empirical and semi-empirical radar backscatter models. The accuracy of the PCA-MM-SVR model is better than the backscatter models. This study provides a robust approach to measure surface roughness at high spatial and temporal resolutions solely from the satellite data. Keywords: surface roughness; Sentinel-1; Sentinel-2; machine learning models; AutoML; backscatter models
... Despite the useful contributions of these authors, not much attention has been placed on the choice of kernels in GPR. The authors in [17] used three GPR models to show the efficacy of GPR in intrusion detection in wireless sensors without concern for time complexity. In particular, the three GPR models were implemented using squared exponential kernel. ...
... A wireless multihop network (WMN) is formed by spreading a hundred to thousands of miniature, low-power, and low-cost sensor nodes (SNs) with identical sensing, computation, and communication capabilities [1]. These networks do not need any fixed infrastructure and operate in a decentralized and selforganized manner [2,3]. Therefore, WMNs have found a colossal number of applications such as battlefield surveillance, reconnaissance, enemy tracking, vehicle traffic monitoring, monitoring in underground coal mines, telecommunication, internet of things (IoT), environmental monitoring, structural health monitoring, industrial automation, health sector, to name a few, [4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. ...
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The performance of wireless multihop networks deployed in a finite region is affected by environmental phenomena such as shadowing and boundary effects. The shadowing effect affects the actual sensing range of sensor nodes due to varying amounts of signal path-losses whereas the useful coverage area of a sensor node gets affected by its location within the deployed region-known as boundary effects. The existing analytical solutions for large networks are not conformable for finite networks as boundary effects distorts the linearities between the network variables and cause non-linear behaviour of network dynamics. Earlier works have provided the analytical solution for the performance metrics of wireless multihop networks by considering either shadowing or boundary effects separately but considering these effects together is still non-existent. Therefore, it is imperative to study the impact of boundary and shadowing effects simultaneously while estimating the performance of a wireless multihop network. Network coverage is one of the critical quality of service metric of a wireless multihop network indicating-how well the network monitors a given region of deployment? This work provides an analytical solution by considering boundary and shadowing effects simultaneously to compute the-coverage probability of a random location within a circular region. The proposed analytical solution is verified through exhaustive simulations with a root mean square error of less than or equal to 0.0189 between the analytical and simulation outcomes. This work has also analysed the influence of different network parameters on network-coverage performance and concludes that the sensing range and the number of sensor nodes have positive whereas the standard deviaton of shadowing effect has a negative impact on the coverage.
... Most of these threats are propagated through the Internet and other network typologies. However, many security mechanisms exist [1]- [4] to counter these threats, but the unpredictable actions of these threats become a nightmare for network engineers and security experts. In many cases, these external threats stand far ahead of the existing security mechanisms, such as firewalls [5]. ...
Article
Researchers are motivated to build effective Intrusion Detection Systems because of the implications of malicious actions in computing, communication, and cyber–physical systems (IDSs). In order to develop signature-based intrusion detection techniques that are suitable for use in cyber–physical environments, state-of-the-art supervised learning algorithms are devised. The main contribution of this research is the introduction of a signature-based intrusion detection model that is based on a hybrid Decision Table and Naive Bayes technique. In addition, the contribution of the suggested method is evaluated by comparing it to the existing literature in the field. In the preprocessing stage, Multi-Objective Evolutionary Feature Selection (MOEFS) feature selection has been used to select only five attack features from the recent CICIDS017 dataset. Keeping in view the class imbalance nature of CICIDS2017 dataset, adequate attack samples has been selected with more weightage to the attack classes having a smaller number of instances in the dataset. A hybrid of Decision Table and Naive Bayes models were combined to train and detect intrusions. Detection of botnets, port scans, Denial of Service (DoS)/Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, such as Golden-Eye, Hulk, Slow httptest, slowloris, Heartbleed, Brute Force attacks, such as Patator (FTP), Patator (SSH), and Web attacks such as Infiltration, Web Brute Force, SQL Injection, and XSS, are all successfully detected by the proposed hybrid detection model. The proposed approach shows and accuracy 96.8% using five features of CICIDS2017, which is higher than the accuracy of methods discussed in the literatures.
... Bio-inspired algorithms [4,5] normally are mathematical models of animals and insects' social behaviour in a manner that leads problems to an optimal solution during iterations by specific number of populations in each generation. These algorithms could be employed in multiple optimization tasks, such as regression [6], clustering [7,9], feature selection [8], Minimum Spanning Tree (MST), Hub Location Allocation (HLA) and more. One of these bio-inspired algorithms which has highly efficiency is called Bees Algorithm (BA) [10,11,18]. ...
Conference Paper
Feature selection could be defined as an optimization problem and solved by bio-inspired algorithms. Bees Algorithm (BA) shows decent performance in feature selection optimization task. On the other hand, Local Phase Quantization (LPQ) is a frequency domain feature which has excellent performance on Depth images. Here, after extracting LPQ features out of RGB (colour) and Depth images from the Iranian Kinect Face Database (IKFDB), the Bees feature selection algorithm applies to select desired number of features for final classification tasks. IKFDB is recorded with Kinect sensor V.2 and contains colour and depth images for facial and facial micro-expressions recognition purposes. Here five facial expressions of Anger, Joy, Surprise, Disgust and Fear are used for final validation. The proposed Bees LPQ method is compared with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) LPQ, PCA LPQ, Lasso LPQ, and just LPQ features for classification tasks with Support Vector Machines (SVM), K-Nearest Neighbourhood (KNN), Shallow Neural Network and Ensemble Subspace KNN. Returned results, show a decent performance of the proposed algorithm (99 % accuracy) in comparison with others.
... Therefore, they can be deployed in almost no time in emergency situations and no man lands easily. All these features of WSN have [13752] made this technology popular and is being employed for an enormous number of military as well as civilian applications like smart border surveillance, intrusion detection, precision agriculture, disaster management, health monitoring, internet of things, forest fire detections, and so on [5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. ...
Article
Binary sensing range model does not imitate the true sensing characteristics of sensor nodes (SNs) as it ignores the environmental factors affecting the sensing abilities of SNs, thus, over estimates the coverage performance. To consider the influence of environmental factors in the sensing characteristics, Elfes sensing model was proposed which is a probabilistic sensing range model. Further, sensor failure is an important issue and may cause disrupted and declined coverage and connectivity. This paper investigates the coverage performance of WSN spread in a circular region (CR) employing both Elfes and binary sensing range models. The coverage metric obtained using the derived expression employing binary sensing range model provides higher coverage as compared to coverage achieved using Elfes model. Besides, we analysed the impact of different network parameters on network coverage and found that the sensing range and the SNs count have positive impact whereas sensor failure probability and required value of k have negative impact on the networks k-coverage metric.
... The use of machine learning to improve these identifications has been extensively discussed in the literature, thus making it a subject of great relevance and scope in science [17]. Authors have already proposed solutions to the problem using Gaussian processes [18], coverage probability in a mobile sensor network [19], low-power sensors inside the region of interest [20] and on-demand distance vector routing [21]. However, until the present moment, the interpretability of these sensors during identification has not been specified. ...
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Evolving fuzzy neural networks have the adaptive capacity to solve complex problems by interpreting them. This is due to the fact that this type of approach provides valuable insights that facilitate understanding the behavior of the problem being analyzed, because they can extract knowledge from a set of investigated data. Thus, this work proposes applying an evolving fuzzy neural network capable of solving data stream regression problems with considerable interpretability. The dataset is based on a necessary prediction of k barriers with wireless sensors to identify unauthorized persons entering a protected territory. Our method was empirically compared with state-of-the-art evolving methods, showing significantly lower RMSE values for separate test data sets and also lower accumulated mean absolute errors (MAEs) when evaluating the methods in a stream-based interleaved-predict-and-then-update procedure. In addition, the model could offer relevant information in terms of interpretable fuzzy rules, allowing an explainable evaluation of the regression problems contained in the data streams.
... It is countered by choosing a trust-based system [23,24]. Any IDS detects a suspicious activity with the help of any technique such as machine learning [25] and deep learning, which trains the system against various scenarios. Then with the help of the trained scenarios, any intrusion can be detected [26]. ...
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Wireless communication networks have much data to sense, process, and transmit. It tends to develop a security mechanism to care for these needs for such modern-day systems. An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a solution that has recently gained the researcher's attention with the application of deep learning techniques in IDS. In this paper, we propose an IDS model that uses a deep learning algorithm, conditional generative adversarial network (CGAN), enabling unsupervised learning in the model and adding an eXtreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) classifier for faster comparison and visualization of results. The proposed method can reduce the need to deploy extra sensors to generate fake data to fool the intruder 1.2-2.6%, as the proposed system generates this fake data. The parameters were selected to give optimal results to our model without significant alterations and complications. The model learns from its dataset samples with the multiple-layer network for a refined training process. We aimed that the proposed model could improve the accuracy and thus, decrease the false detection rate and obtain good precision in the cases of both the datasets, NSL-KDD and the CICIDS2017, which can be used as a detector for cyber intrusions. The false alarm rate of the proposed model decreases by about 1.827%.
... Moreover, external causes and dynamic changes in the wireless sensor networks affect cluster head selection, routing, delay, localization, quality of service, fault detection, coverage, reliability, and security [46][47][48][49][50][51]. Hence, the network may require a redesign, but the classical approaches for wireless sensor networks are programmed explicitly. ...
Article
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have attracted various academic researchers, engineers, science, and technology communities. This attraction is due to their broad research areas such as energy efficiency, data communication, coverage, connectivity, load balancing, security, reliability, scalability, and network lifetime. Researchers are looking towards cost-effective approaches to improve the existing solutions that reveal novel schemes, methods, concepts, protocols, and algorithms in the desired domain. Generally, review studies provide complete, easy access or solution to these concepts. Considering this as a driving force and the impact of clustering on the deterioration of energy consumption in wireless sensor networks, this review focus on clustering methods based on different aspects. This study’s significant contribution is to provide a brief review in the field of clustering in wireless sensor networks based on three different categories, such as classical, optimization, and machine learning techniques. For each of these categories, various performance metrics and parameters are provided, and a comparative assessment of the corresponding aspects like cluster head selection, routing protocols, reliability, security, and unequal clustering are discussed. Various advantages, limitations, applications of each method, research gaps, challenges, and research directions are considered in this study, motivating the researchers to carry out further research by providing relevant information in cluster-based wireless sensor networks.
... Especially, presented and adopted Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) metaheuristics model for improving the classification accuracy in CPS perception layers. Singh et al. [16] focused on faster prevention and detection of intrusion with an ML method based Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) technique. Also developed three models based feature scaling for precise estimation of k-barrier coverage possibility. ...
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Recently, cyber physical system (CPS) has gained significant attention which mainly depends upon an effective collaboration with computation and physical components. The greatly interrelated and united characteristics of CPS resulting in the development of cyber physical energy systems (CPES). At the same time, the rising ubiquity of wireless sensor networks (WSN) in several application areas makes it a vital part of the design of CPES. Since security and energy efficiency are the major challenging issues in CPES, this study offers an energy aware secure cyber physical systems with clustered wireless sensor networks using metaheuristic algorithms (EASCPSMA). The presented EASCPS-MA technique intends to attain lower energy utilization via clustering and security using intrusion detection. The EASCPSMA technique encompasses two main stages namely improved fruit fly optimization algorithm (IFFOA) based clustering and optimal deep stacked autoencoder (OSAE) based intrusion detection. Besides, the optimal selection of stacked autoencoder (SAE) parameters takes place using root mean square propagation (RMSProp) model. The extensive performance validation of the EASCPS-MA technique takes place and the results are inspected under varying aspects. The simulation results reported the improved effectiveness of the EASCPS-MA technique over other recent approaches interms of several measures.
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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) found application in many diverse fields, starting from environment monitoring to machine health monitoring. The sensor in WSNs senses information. Sensing and transmitting this information consume most of the energy. Also, this information requires proper processing before final usages. This paper deals with minimising the redundant information sensed by the sensors in WSNs to reduce the unnecessary energy consumption and prolong the network lifetime. The redundant information is expressed in terms of the overlapping sensing area of the working sensors set. A mathematical model is proposed to find the redundant information in terms of the overlapping area. A combined meta-heuristic approach is used to achieve the optimal coverage, and the effect of the overlapping area is considered in the objective function to reduce the amount of redundant information sensed by the working sensors set. Improved genetic algorithm (IGA) and Binary ant colony algorithm (BACA) are used as heuristic tools to optimise the multi-objective function. The objective was to find the minimum number of sensors that cover a complete scenario with minimum overlapping sensing region. The results show that optimal coverage with the minimum working sensor set is achieved and then by incorporating the concept of overlapping area in the objective function, sensing of redundant information is further reduced.
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Nickel-based superalloys, used extensively in advanced gas turbine engines, exhibit complex microstructures that evolve during exposure to high temperatures (i.e., aging treatments). In this work, we examine critically if the principal component (PC) representation of rotationally invariant 2-point spatial correlations can adequately capture the salient features of the microstructure evolution in the thermal aging of the superalloys. For this purpose, an experimental study involving microstructure characterization of 27 differently aged (i.e., different combinations of temperature and time of exposure) samples was designed and conducted. Of these, 23 samples were employed for training a Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) model that took the aging temperature and the aging time as inputs, and predicted the microstructure statistics as output. The viability of the approach described above was evaluated critically by comparing the predictions for the four samples that were not used in the training of the GPR model. Furthermore, a new strategy was developed and implemented to generate digital microstructures corresponding to the predicted microstructure statistics. The predicted microstructures were found to be in good agreement with the experimentally measured one, validating the novel framework presented in this work.
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In this letter, we present a comprehensive analysis of the use of machine and deep learning solutions for IDS systems in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). To accomplish this, we introduce Restricted Boltzmann Machine-based Clustered IDS (RBC-IDS), a potential deep learning-based IDS methodology for monitoring critical infrastructures by WSNs. We study the performance of RBC-IDS, and compare it to the previously proposed adaptive machine learning-based IDS: The Adaptively Supervised and Clustered Hybrid IDS (ASCH-IDS). Numerical results show that RBC-IDS and ASCH-IDS achieve the same detection and accuracy rates, though the detection time of RBC-IDS is approximately twice that of ASCH-IDS.
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An effective security strategy for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is imperative to counteract security threats. Meanwhile, energy consumption directly affects the network lifetime of a wireless sensor. Thus, an attempt to exploit a low-consumption Intrusion Detection System (IDS) to detect malicious attacks makes a lot of sense. Existing Intrusion Detection Systems can only detect specific attacks and their network lifetime is short due to their high energy consumption. For the purpose of reducing energy consumption and ensuring high efficiency, this paper proposes an intrusion detection model based on game theory and an autoregressive model. The paper not only improves the autoregressive theory model into a non-cooperative, complete-information, static game model, but also predicts attack pattern reliably. The proposed approach improves on previous approaches in two main ways: (1) it takes energy consumption of the intrusion detection process into account, and (2) it obtains the optimal defense strategy that balances the system's detection efficiency and energy consumption by analyzing the model's mixed Nash equilibrium solution. In the simulation experiment, the running time of the process is regarded as the main indicator of energy consumption of the system. The simulation results show that our proposed IDS not only effectively predicts the attack time and the next targeted cluster based on the game theory, but also reduces energy consumption.
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Function estimation/approximation is viewed from the perspective of numerical optimization iti function space, rather than parameter space. A connection is made between stagewise additive expansions and steepest-descent minimization. A general gradient descent "boosting" paradigm is developed for additive expansions based on any fitting criterion. Specific algorithms are presented for least-squares, least absolute deviation, and Huber-M loss functions for regression, and multiclass logistic likelihood for classification. Special enhancements are derived for the particular case where the individual additive components are regression trees, and tools for interpreting such "TreeBoost" models are presented. Gradient boosting of regression trees produces competitives highly robust, interpretable procedures for both regression and classification, especially appropriate for mining less than clean data. Connections between this approach and the boosting methods of Freund and Shapire and Friedman, Hastie and Tibshirani are discussed.
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The optimal design problem is tackled in the framework of a new model and new objectives. A regression model is proposed in which the regression function is permitted to take any form over the space of independent variables. The design objective is based on fitting a simplified function for prediction. The approach is Bayesian throughout. The new designs are more robust than conventional ones. They also avoid the need to limit artificially design points to a predetermined subset of . New solutions are also offered for the problems of smoothing, curve fitting and the selection of regressor variables.
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Barrier coverage problem in mobile sensor networks has been an interesting research issue. Existing solutions are mainly concerned with deciding one-time movement for individual sensors to construct as many barriers as possible, which may not be suitable when there are no sufficient sensors to form a single barrier. In this paper, we aim to achieve barrier coverage in sensor scarcity scenario by dynamic sensor patrolling. In specific, we design a periodic monitoring scheduling (PMS) algorithm. Based on the insight from PMS, we then propose a coordinated sensor patrolling (CSP) algorithm to further improve the barrier coverage. By jointly exploiting sensor mobility and intruder arrival information, CSP is able to significantly enhance barrier coverage. We prove that the total distance the sensors move during each time slot in CSP is the minimum. Considering the decentralized nature of mobile sensor networks, we further introduce two distributed versions of CSP: S-DCSP and G-DCSP. We study the scenario where sensors are moving on two barriers and propose two heuristic algorithms to guide the movement of sensors. Through extensive simulations, we demonstrate that CSP has a desired barrier coverage performance and S-DCSP and G-DCSP have similar performance as that of CSP.
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This paper presents a method of using Gaussian process regression to model spatial functions for mobile wireless sensor networks. A distributed Gaussian process regression (DGPR) approach is developed by using a sparse Gaussian process regression method and a compactly supported covariance function. The resultant formulation of the DGPR approach only requires neighbor-to-neighbor communication, which enables each sensor node within a network to produce the regression result independently. The collective motion control is implemented by using a locational optimization algorithm, which utilizes the information entropy from the DGPR result. The collective mobility of sensor networks plus the online learning capability of the DGPR approach also enables the mobile sensor network to adapt to spatiotemporal functions. Simulation results are provided to show the performance of the proposed approach in modeling stationary spatial functions and spatiotemporal functions.
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This paper proposes a new variational approximation for infinite mixtures of Gaussian processes. As an extension of the single Gaussian process regression model, mixtures of Gaussian processes can characterize varying covariances or multimodal data and reduce the deficiency of the computationally cubic complexity of the single Gaussian process model. The infinite mixture of Gaussian processes further integrates a Dirichlet process prior to allowing the number of mixture components to automatically be determined from data. We use variational inference and a truncated stick-breaking representation of the Dirichlet process to approximate the posterior of hidden variables involved in the model. To fix the hyperparameters of the model, the variational EM algorithm and a greedy algorithm are employed. In addition to presenting the variational infinite-mixture model, we apply it to the problem of traffic flow prediction. Experiments with comparisons to other approaches show the effectiveness of the proposed model.
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We provide a new unifying view, including all existing proper probabilistic sparse approximations for Gaussian process regression. Our approach relies on expressing the effective prior which the methods are using. This allows new insights to be gained, and highlights the relationship between existing methods. It also allows for a clear theoretically justified ranking of the closeness of the known approximations to the corresponding full GPs. Finally we point directly to designs of new better sparse approximations, combining the best of the existing strategies, within attractive computational constraints.
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The partially improper prior behind the smoothing spline model is used to obtain a generalization of the maximum likelihood (GML) estimate for the smoothing parameter. Then this estimate is compared with the generalized cross validation (GCV) estimate both analytically and by Monte Carlo methods. The comparison is based on a predictive mean square error criteria. It is shown that if the true, unknown function being estimated is smooth in a sense to be defined then the GML estimate undersmooths relative to the GCV estimate and the predictive mean square error using the GML estimate goes to zero at a slower rate than the mean square error using the GCV estimate. If the true function is "rough" then the GCV and GML estimates have asymptotically similar behavior. A Monte Carlo experiment was designed to see if the asymptotic results in the smooth case were evident in small sample sizes. Mixed results were obtained for $n = 32$, GCV was somewhat better than GML for $n = 64$, and GCV was decidedly superior for $n = 128$. In the $n = 32$ case GCV was better for smaller $\sigma^2$ and the comparison close for larger $\sigma^2$. The theoretical results are shown to extend to the generalized spline smoothing model, which includes the estimate of functions given noisy values of various integrals of them.
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Function approximation is viewed from the perspective of numerical optimization in function space, rather than parameter space. A connection is made between stagewise additive expansions and steepest--descent minimization. A general gradient--descent "boosting" paradigm is developed for additive expansions based on any fitting criterion. Specific algorithms are presented for least--squares, least--absolute--deviation, and Huber--M loss functions for regression, and multi--class logistic likelihood for classification. Special enhancements are derived for the particular case where the individual additive components are decision trees, and tools for interpreting such "TreeBoost" models are presented. Gradient boosting of decision trees produces competitive, highly robust, interpretable procedures for regression and classification, especially appropriate for mining less than clean data. Connections between this approach and the boosting methods of Freund and Shapire 1996, and Fr...
The intrusion detection in mobile sensor network
  • G Y Keung
  • B Li
  • Q Zhang
Keung, G. Y., Li, B., & Zhang, Q. (2012). The intrusion detection in mobile sensor network. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 20, 1152-1161.
Intrusion detection using dynamic feature selection and fuzzy temporal decision tree classification for wireless sensor networks
  • P Nancy
  • S Muthurajkumar
  • S Ganapathy
  • S S Kumar
  • M Selvi
  • K Arputharaj
Nancy, P., Muthurajkumar, S., Ganapathy, S., Kumar, S. S., Selvi, M., & Arputharaj, K. (2020). Intrusion detection using dynamic feature selection and fuzzy temporal decision tree classification for wireless sensor networks. IET Communications, 14, 888-895.
Efficient deployment quality analysis for intrusion detection in wireless sensor networks
  • Assad
The intrusion detection in mobile sensor network
  • Keung
Intrusion detection using dynamic feature selection and fuzzy temporal decision tree classification for wireless sensor networks
  • Nancy