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Food Science and Technology 2020 Available on-line at 355


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The basic tool for the improvement in the quality of the diet and for prevention against malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies is focused on agriculture and food-based strategies. Monkey cola with botanical name Cola millenii seed with its high nutritive were dried at varying interval at different temperatures ranging between 40 to 70 0 C. Effects of varying temperatures were carried out on total sugar and vitamin c content using standard methods. The result from the study showed that there is continuous decrease in the moisture content with increasing drying time. Drying at 60° C and open sun dried is recommended for monkey cola seeds based on high vitamin c and total sugar values. The results from the research had shown an evident that varying drying temperature affected the total sugar content and vitamin c content of Monkey cola seeds. The indigenous fruit monkey cola seeds can provide balanced diet (nutritive, antioxidant content, Vitamin c and Total sugar) needed throughout the year to maintain good health at lower cost.
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Annals. Food Science and Technology
Available on-line at 355 Volume 21, Issue 2, 2020
Olabinjo, Oyebola Odunayo1
1 Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology,
Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State Nigeria
The basic tool for the improvement in the quality of the diet and for prevention against malnutrition and nutritional
deficiencies is focused on agriculture and food-based strategies. Monkey cola with botanical name Cola millenii seed
with its high nutritive were dried at varying interval at different temperatures ranging between 40 to 700C. Effects of
varying temperatures were carried out on total sugar and vitamin c content using standard methods. The result from the
study showed that there is continuous decrease in the moisture content with increasing drying time. Drying at 60° C
and open sun dried is recommended for monkey cola seeds based on high vitamin c and total sugar values. The results
from the research had shown an evident that varying drying temperature affected the total sugar content and vitamin c
content of Monkey cola seeds. The indigenous fruit monkey cola seeds can provide balanced diet (nutritive, antioxidant
content, Vitamin c and Total sugar) needed throughout the year to maintain good health at lower cost.
Key words: Drying, Monkey cola, Nutritional quality, total sugars and Ascorbic acid
Received: 05.02.2020 Reviewed: 08.04.2020 Accepted: 29.04.2020
Agriculture offers food and basic source of
living for most developing countries which are
mostly vulnerable to ill health and
malnutrition. Agricultural development has a
great ability to make significant contributions
to decrease malnutrition and related ill health.
The immediate causes of under nutrition are
diets, feeding practices, food security and
gender equity in the agricultural sector. Food is
an important outcome of agricultural activities
so it’s a key input in good nutrition. Good
nutrition is guarantee with food from
agriculture; it includes access and availability
to quality food at all times. The basic tool for
improvement on the nutritional value of the
diet is food that is focused on agricultural and
food-based strategies. The agricultural and
food-based strategies emphasize the benefits
gotten from enjoying various forms of foods,
identifying the nutritional value of food, social
significance and supporting the rural
livelihoods. There is clear access and year-
round availability in adequate consumption of
nutritionally and various forms of food due to
multiple social, economic and health benefits
associated with successful food based
approaches. There is promotion in individual’s
health and nutritional well-being, supports
incomes, livelihood, community and national
wealth created and protected.
Food is mainly produced on land with an
average, 83% of the 697kg of food taken per
person per year, 93% of the 2884kcal per day,
80% of the 81% of protein eaten per day from
terrestrial production in 2013 (FAOSTAT
2018). Access to enough nutritious food, health
environments and access to health services are
the main underlying determinants of adequate
nutrition. Nutrition sensitive agriculture
ensures enough quantitative and qualitative to
meet the dietary requirements of populations in
a sustainable manner by ensuring the output
variety that is affordable, nutritious, culturally
appropriate and safe foods (FAO 2016).
Monkey cola with botanical name Cola millenii
is known as “atewo-edun” (Yoruba) or
“achiokokoro” (Igbo) and belongs to the family
Sterculiaceae (Ratsch, 2005). The tree grows
up to about 15 meters or more in height with a
low crown of arching branches. Leaves of
Cola millenii are reported to be used in the
Annals. Food Science and Technology
Available on-line at 356 Volume 21, Issue 2, 2020
treatment of ring worm, scabies, gonorrhea,
dysentery and ophthalmic conditions
(Odugbemi, 2006). The fruit is bright red in a
stellate clustern covered with a felted fibrous
coal and has an edible kernel/seed (Orisakeye
and Ojo, 2013). The phytochemical, proximate,
mineral element compositions and antioxidant
effects of leaves have been reported (Adeniyi et
al., 2004; Ibironke et al., 2013; Orisakeye and
Ojo, 2013).
Food loss is the diminish in edible food during
production, postharvest, and processing,
whereas food disposed by consumers is
regarded as food waste (FAO 2011). Food loss
is the reduction in quantity or quality of save
and nutritious food available, accessible and
affordable for immediate human consumption.
Food loss can include loss in nutritional value,
economic value and food safety. Food waste is
a subset of food loss and refers to discarding or
making another alternative use of safe and
nutritious food at any point along food supply
chains. Food loss can take place at primary
production level and at post-harvest (handling
and storage), processing, distribution and is
embedded in the broader concept of sustainable
food systems such as agricultural, livestock,
forestry and food supply chains.
Food safety refers to the sureness that food will
not cause damage to the consumer when it is
prepared and/or eaten according to its intended
use. Safe food is free from hazards i.e. any
biological, chemical or physical agent in food
with the potential of jeopardize health. A great
effect of food insecurity is undernourishment
leading to malnutrition or nutrient deficiencies,
excesses, or imbalances in food nutrients. As
defined by FAO et al., (2018),
undernourishment exists when an individual’s
common food intake is inadequate to provide
the amount of dietary energy required to
maintain a normal, active, healthy life. The
precondition for good nutrition is that a
diversity of foods is available and affordable
for all individuals at all times. however, the
global food system is presently not meeting
global requirements for the production of
adequate amounts of nutritious foods necessary
for healthy diets. Diversification and
sustainable intensification of food production
have the potential to improve the availability,
affordability, stability and consumption of
diverse foods and to promote healthy,
nutritional and sustainable diets for all, while
simultaneously increasing climate resilience A
balanced diet is needed throughout the year to
maintain good health and nutrition.
Post-harvest handling, processing and storage
contribute to: maintaining a secure supply of
food (and thus of nutrients) throughout the
year; preserving the quality of harvested raw
material as it moves along the food supply
chain from the producer to the market;
reducing losses; and making fresh produce
available in local markets as well as in distant
locations. Vitamin C and total sugar are much
more sensitive to various modes of degradation
in food processing and subsequent storage.
2.1 Materials. Monkey Cola
The sample of Monkey Cola (Cola
Parchycarpa) studied was obtained from its
tree in a forest located in Ipetu Ile, Obokun
local government, Osun state. The good and
healthy fruits were sorted and treated from the
contaminated ones and the pod of the fruits was
separated from the seeds for further
experiments. The seed gotten from the
separation was naturally fermented for 2-3 days
using banana leaves as the anti-oxidizing and
fermentation agent. 100 g of the fermented
seed and 50 g of the separated fruit pod were
weighed into several separate cans and labelled
for thin layer drying experiments
2.2 Methods
2.2.1 Determination of Nutritional
Composition and Total phenolic content of
fresh monkey cola seeds
a Nutritional/Proximate analysis
Proximate analysis is the determination of the
different macronutrients. The Proximate
parameters analyzed were; moisture content,
ash, crude fiber, crude protein crude fat, and
carbohydrate. The experiment was carried out
in quadruplicate on each of mixes using
standard methods. Ash, protein, fat, and crude
fiber were determined according to the AOAC
Annals. Food Science and Technology
Available on-line at 357 Volume 21, Issue 2, 2020
(Association of Official Analytical Chemists)
(2011) method.
Carbohydrate content was determined by
difference method. The sum of percentage
moisture, ash, protein, fat, and crude fiber was
subtracted from 100 (equation 1).
Percentage (%) carbohydrate = 100 (% moisture
+ % ash + % protein + % fat + crude fiber). 1
b. Total phenolic compounds
Total phenolic compounds or Folin-Ciocalteau
reagent reducing substances method: Folin-
Ciocalteau reagent and sodium carbonate were
added to water-diluted extract, and after 2h in
the dark at room temperature, the absorbance
of samples and standard curve was read at 725
nm. Gallic acid was used as standard and
results were expressed as Gallic acid
equivalents (mg GAE) (Batista et al., 2016).
c. Determination of moisture content
The moisture content of the seeds was
determined by using the hot air (oven) method
set at 103 ±2 °C for 72 hours. Four samples
were heated in the oven until constant weight
was reached using ASABE S352. standard and
applied by Okoro and Osunde, (2013);
Abodenyi, et al., (2015); Oloyede, et al.,
(2015): Oniya, et al., (2016) for monkey cola
seeds. The experiment was replicated and the
average weight recorded. The moisture content
was evaluated using Equation 2.
 
 (2)
 is moisture content (% wet basis),
Mb is the weight of moisture can plus sample
weight before oven-drying (g),
Ma is the weight of moisture can plus sample
weight after oven-drying (g) and
Mc is weights of moisture can (g).
2.2.2 Drying
Thin layer drying experiments were conducted
at varying degrees of temperature ranging from
35, 40, 45, 50, 60-70°C using electrical
laboratory ovens and at normal atmospheric
temperature using the natural solar drying
system (open sun drying). The weight of each
sample were checked during drying using the
weighing scale at each interval of 1 hour until
they were dried to the temperature degree
variation of ±1°C for 1g of weighed samples,
where there’s no moisture content present in
the samples.
a. Determination of Ascorbic Acid (vitamin
C) Contents of monkey cola seeds
Thirty grams of the sample blended with
reasonable amount of 0.4% oxalic acid.
(4g/liter) and filtered by What man (No.1) filter
paper. The ample volume completed to 250 ml
with 0.4 oxalic acid. Twenty ml of filtrate
pipetted into a conical flask and titrated with a
known strength 2-6-dichlorophenol indophenol
until a faint pink color appeared. The dye
strength determined by taking 5 ml oxalic acid
10%(50mg/00ml) and added to a standard
ascorbic acid (0.05/250ml) oxalic acid 10%
titrated with 2-6-dichloerophenol indophenol
(0.2g/500ml) till faint pink color expressed in
mg/100g (AOAC, 2005).
b. Total sugar of dried sample monkey cola
Determination of Total Sugars Technique
described by A.O.A.C was used for the
determination of total sugar (AOAC. 2005;
Monday et al., 2017).
3.1 Nutrient composition of fresh Monkey
cola seeds
The nutritive composition of fresh Monkey
cola seeds using proximate analysis are as
a. Crude Fiber: - The fresh seeds of Monkey
cola fruit contained crude fiber value of
11.31% which is higher when compared to
pawpaw (0.69%), banana (0.51 %), Pomelo
(0.60 %), and Tamarind (1.84%) as reported
by Untalan et al., (2015). The fresh seeds of
Monkey cola contained crude fiber value of
11.31% which is lower when compared to
pawpaw seeds (14.02 ±0.2%), Bitter melon
seeds (12.00 ±0.20%), guava seeds (12.00
±0.20%), and Cherry seeds (10.00 ±0.00%) as
reported by Mathew et al., 2014. Fibers
purified the digestive tract by removing
potential carcinogens from the body and aid
the stoppage or absorption of excess
cholesterol. Adequate intake of dietary fiber
Annals. Food Science and Technology
Available on-line at 358 Volume 21, Issue 2, 2020
can lower the serum cholesterol level, risk of
coronary heart disease, hypertension,
constipation, diabetes, colon and breast cancer
(Ishida et al., 2000).
b. Ash Content: The ash content of monkey
cola seed recorded was about 1.150%. It was
higher than the ash content of apple juice
(0.30%)as reported by (Ekanem and Ekanem,
2019); papaya (0.55); pomelo (0.43%) and
lower than the value of ash content of banana
(1.70%); and tamarind as reported by Untalan
et al., (2015). The ash content was taken as a
rough measure of the mineral contents of the
food material (Anwar et al., 2008).
c. Protein content: Fresh Monkey cola seeds
have a value of 4.42%. The value of protein in
this research is higher than protein content of
banana (1.62%), papaya (1.47%), pomelo
(1.04%) and lower than tamarind (4.68%) as
reported by Untalan et al., 2015. In Nigeria,
Plant proteins are a major source of food
nutrient especially for the less privileged
population. Proteins are one of the
macromolecule and substitute for energy when
other energy sources are in short supply. They
are building block units and food protein is
needed to make life sustaining hormones,
important brain chemicals, antibodies,
digestive enzymes, and necessary elements for
the manufacture of DNA. Monkey cola seeds
can be a source of protein for human beings.
d. Fat Content: Fats play a critical role in
sustaining health skin and hair, insulating body
organs against shock, regulating body
temperature and promoting health cell function.
It is also indispensable in diets as they increase
the pleasant taste of food by absorbing and
retaining their flavours (Omotoso, 2006).
Monkey cola seed had a crude fat value of
1.45% the value is higher than crude fat of
apple juice as reported by Ekanem and Ekanem
(2019). The crude fat of Monkey cola
contributes to the energy value and could be
source of oil.
e. Carbohydrate Content; The carbohydrate
constitutes a major class of naturally occur
organic compound which is essential for
maintenance of both plant and animals. The
carbohydrate content of Monkey cola seeds had
26.81% and was lower than value of apple
juice (11.79%) as reported by Ekanem and
Ekanem (2019). Carbohydrates are crucial for
the maintenance of life in living organisms and
also source of raw materials for many
industries (Ebun-Oluwa and Alade, 2007).
Carbohydrates from plants are one of the three
major energy sources in food, along with
protein and fat.
Total phenolic contents (TPC) of fresh
Monkey cola seeds
Total phenolic compounds have a broad
spectrum of health benefits such as anti-
bacterial, anti-mutagenic and anti-
inflammatory, antioxidant activity and
minimize oxidative stress as reported by Celep
and Rastmanesh (2013). The TPC value of
fresh Monkey cola seeds recorded in this study
was 14.148mg/100g which was lower than
TPC value of mango (80.40 ± 0.36 mg
GAE/100 mL) and higher than Fresh
pomegranate juice had the lowest TPC (13.38 ±
0.42 mg GAE/100 mL) as reported by Khaw et
al., (2016). Previous research studies reported
that oxidative stress in human body resulted
from excessive free radicals which was
associated with high risk of non-communicable
diseases (NCD) (Alfadda and Sallam 2012;
Durackova 2010; Gupta et al., 2014). The Total
Phenolic content is responsible for antioxidant
capacity of plants as reported by
Bahramikia et al., 2009; Sahreen et al., 2010;
Barros et al., 2012).
3.2 Moisture content
The initial moisture content of the fresh sample
of the seeds was determined by oven drying
method (AOAC, 2010). The moisture content
in wet basis was calculated and its results
tabulated in Table 1.
Table 1. The initial moisture content of sour
sop leaves in triplicate
Initial Mass 10.00 10.06 10.10
Final Mass 4.45 4.49 4.58
MCwb 55.50 55.70 55.20
Annals. Food Science and Technology
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The Moisture content of the Monkey cola seed
was observed to range from 55.20 to 55.70%
wet basis.
a. Drying curve of monkey cola
The drying curves for thin layer drying of
Monkey Cola (Cola Parchycarpa) under
various temperature conditions in oven and
open are shown in Figure 1. The monkey kola
seed were dried at varying interval at different
temperature of 40, 50, 60, 65 and 700C
respectively to reach constant mass, the curve
showed that the moisture content decreased
continuously with increasing drying time.
b. Effect of temperature on Vitamin c of
Monkey cola seeds
Vitamin C is also used as an index of the
nutrient quality for fruit and vegetable
products. Vitamin C content of the dried
Monkey cola ranges from 1.108 to
2.229mg/100g. The fresh Monkey cola seeds
had vitamin c value of 1.273mg/100g, the
highest value of 2.229mg/100g was recorded
with seeds dried at 60° C followed by open sun
dried with value of 2.063mg/100g and least
recorded by oven dried at 50° C with value of
1.108mg/100g. Ascorbate content of Monkey
cola seeds is lower than Strawberry and
Fragaria species, ranging from 10 to 80 mg/100
g as reported by Cruz-Rus et al., 2011;
Mezzetti et al., 2016 and apple juice of
22.15mg/100g reported by Ekanem and
Ekanem (2019). It is generally recognized that
a diet rich in ascorbate has various health
benefits (Wintergerst et al., 2006; Reczek and
Chandel, 2015; Carr and Maggini, 2017; van
Gorkom et al., 2018). Vitamin C (ascorbic
acid) is requisite, for the biosynthesis of
collagen, carnitine and catecholamines.
Insufficiency of vitamin C in the diet causes
the disease called scurvy, which is prevented
by as little as 10 mg/day of vitamin C. There is
no technological evidence that large amounts
of vitamin C are harmful or exert severe
adverse health effects (Bendich, 1997; Johnson.
1999). Most fruits and vegetables contain
vitamin C, which can be reduced by application
of heat. Drying monkey cola seed at 60° C
increase the vitamin C value and it can be
source of vitamin c.
L-Ascorbic Acid (L-threo-hex-2-enono-1, 4-
lactone, ascorbate), also called vitamin C, is a
vital antioxidant molecule common in plant
and animal metabolism and also as a cofactor
in many enzymes. It has been established by
the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA
Panel on Dietetic Products and Nutrition and
Allergies [NDA], 2013) that an Average
Requirement (AR) of 90 mg/day for men and
80 mg/day for women, and a Population
Reference Intake (PRI) of 110 mg/day for men
and 95 mg/day for women of vitamin c.
Throughout evolution, lots of animals had lost
the potential to synthesize ascorbic acid
(ascorbate, vitamin C), an essential molecule in
the physiology of animals and plants. Thus,
vitamin C must be gotten through the diet.
Furthermore, ascorbate has been used as a
treatment against different types of cancer
through different ways such as increasing
TET’s activity, inducing oxidative stress in
cancer cells or enhancing the activity of various
chemical treatments (Ko et al., 2015; Yun et
al., 2015; Agathocleous et al., 2017; Cimmino
et al., 2017; Shenoy et al., 2017; Lu et al.,
2018; Miura et al., 2018). The result of the
vitamin c showed an increase in the value for
the entire dried sample except the dried seeds
at 50°C with decrease in value as shown in
Figure 2. Drying at 60° C and open sun dried is
recommended for monkey cola seeds based on
high vitamin c value.
a. Effect of temperature on Total sugar
of Monkey cola seeds
Sugars are one of the vital constituents of fruit
products and are essential factor for the flavor
of the food products and act as a natural food
preservative (Pavlova et al., 2013). The initial
total sugars content of monkey cola seeds
2.602mg/g decreased by 98.6% and 91.11%
after drying at 65 °C and sun drying,
respectively. The losses in sugars calculated in
this study recorded highest and lowest with
oven dried at 65 °C and sun drying
respectively. From the results shown in Figure
3 it is evident that drying temperature affected
the total sugar content of Monkey cola seeds.
Annals. Food Science and Technology
Available on-line at 360 Volume 21, Issue 2, 2020
Figure 1. Variation of moisture content (%wb) of monkey cola seed with drying time (hours) for oven and
open sun drying methods.
Figure 2. Vitamin C content of dried Monkey cola seeds using oven and open sun drying methods.
Figure 3. Total sugar content of dried Monkey cola seeds using oven and open sun drying methods.
010 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Moisture content (% wb)
Time (h)
70 ⁰C
65 C
60 C
50 C
40 C
Sun drying
40ºC 50ºC 60ºC 65ºC 70ºC Sun drying
Vitamin c (mg/100g)
Dried monkey cola seeds
Vitamin C
40 50 60 65 70 open sun
Total sugar (mg/g)
Drying methods
Total sugar
Annals. Food Science and Technology
Available on-line at 361 Volume 21, Issue 2, 2020
The nutritive content of fresh seeds Monkey
cola fruit contained high crude fiber value than
most common fruits. The monkey kola seed
were dried at varying interval at different
temperatures ranging between 40 to 700C and
showed that the moisture content decreased
continuously with increasing drying time.
Drying at 60° C and open sun dried is
recommended for monkey cola seeds based on
high vitamin c and total sugar values. The
results from the research had shown an evident
that varying drying temperature affected the
total sugar content and vitamin c content of
Monkey cola seeds. The indigenous fruit
monkey cola seeds can provide balanced diet
(nutritive, antioxidant content, Vitamin c and
Total sugar) needed throughout the year to
maintain good health at lower cost.
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The Proximate composition, Vitamin C and the organoleptic properties of freshly produced apple juice were investigated. The proximate analysis of the test fruit revealed it to be a poor source of protein (0.05%) but with a high moisture content (87.73%). The results showed low concentrations of ash (0.30%), lipid (0.13%) and fibre (1.21%). The juice was a good source of vitamin C (22.15mg/100). Organoleptic parameters like colour, flavour, and taste of the apple juice with the various preservatives (garlic, ginger and sodium benzoate) were acceptable throughout the 8 days storage periodat refrigerating temperature (4 o C) except for juice stored at room temperature(23 o C) which showed deterioration in taste, flavour and overall acceptance after the 3 rd day of storage. There was variation in color and flavor in prepared juice with the three different preservatives and shows that variation in temperature has great effect on storage quality of food products.
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Vitamin C or ascorbic acid (AA) is implicated in many biological processes and has been proposed as a supplement for various conditions, including cancer. In this review, we discuss the effects of AA on the development and function of lymphocytes. This is important in the light of cancer treatment, as the immune system needs to regenerate following chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation, while cancer patients are often AA-deficient. We focus on lymphocytes, as these white blood cells are the slowest to restore, rendering patients susceptible to often lethal infections. T lymphocytes mediate cellular immunity and have been most extensively studied in the context of AA biology. In vitro studies demonstrate that T cell development requires AA, while AA also enhances T cell proliferation and may influence T cell function. There are limited and opposing data on the effects of AA on B lymphocytes that mediate humoral immunity. However, AA enhances the proliferation of NK cells, a group of cytotoxic innate lymphocytes. The influence of AA on natural killer (NK) cell function is less clear. In summary, an increasing body of evidence indicates that AA positively influences lymphocyte development and function. Since AA is a safe and cheap nutritional supplement, it is worthwhile to further explore its potential benefits for immune reconstitution of cancer patients treated with immunotoxic drugs.
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The Ten Eleven Translocation (TET) enzymes have been found to be mutated in both diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) and peripheral T-cell (PTCL) lymphomas resulting in DNA hypermethylation. Recent studies in embryonal stem cells showed that ascorbic acid (AA) is a cofactor for TET with a binding site at the catalytic domain, and enhances TET activity. We hypothesized that AA could potentially enhance TET activity in lymphoma cells to cause DNA demethylation, reactivate expression of tumor suppressor genes and enhance chemosensitivity. We demonstrate in vitro that AA treatment of DLBCL and PTCL cells using AA concentrations achievable intravenously increased TET activity leading to DNA demethylation. This epigenetic effect is independent of hydrogen peroxide. AA treatment increased the expression of SMAD1, a tumor suppressor gene known to be suppressed by methylation, and increased chemosensitivity of lymphoma cells. Twenty-nine percent (10/34) of unselected lymphoma patients had plasma AA levels that were deficient suggesting an additional clinical mechanism of TET hypofunction. These data indicate that AA has the potential to modify TET function in lymphoma and enhance chemosensitivity. In addition, the AA deficiency seen in some patients may further impair TET function and contribute to resistance. Clinical trials testing intravenous AA with chemotherapy are warranted.
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There is an increasing trend of fruit juice consumption due to increasing reported health benefits of antioxidant content present in fruit juices. The aim of this study was to compare the total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidant activities of fresh fruit juices, commercial 100% fruit juices and fruit drinks. Seven types of freshly blended fruit juices and their commercial counterparts were selected. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content, whilst ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were performed to evaluate the antioxidant activities of fruit juices. The TPC contents of fresh fruit juices, commercial 100% fruit juices and fruit drinks were at the ranges of 13.38-80.40, 21.65-130.39 and 3.32-45.10 mg GAE/100 mL, respectively. Both fresh guava juice and commercial guava drinks have exhibited the highest antioxidant activities in DPPH assay (205.71-770.12 µmol TE/100 mL) and FRAP assay (320.80-843.13 µmol TE/100 mL). Pomegranate juices demonstrated the highest antioxidant activities among commercial 100% fruit juices with DPPH and FRAP values of 2705.01 and 2953.85 µmol TE/100 mL, respectively. Fruits drinks group had the lowest TPC and antioxidant activities for all types of fruits. TPC was significantly correlated (p<0.05) to FRAP (r=0.954) and DPPH (r=0.908) assays. In conclusion, the TPC and antioxidant activities of commercial 100% fruit juices and fresh juices were comparable as no significantly difference (p>0.05) was found between these two groups. Commercial fruit drinks in this study were not good source of antioxidants. These findings provide some useful information especially for ageing population in choosing healthy fruit juice or drinks for their health maintenance purposes. ABSTRAK Penggunaan jus buah-buahan semakin meningkat kerana kandungan antioksidan dalam jus buah-buahan dilaporkan boleh memberi manfaat kepada kesihatan. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk membandingkan jumlah kandungan fenolik (TPC) dan aktiviti antioksidan antara jus buah-buahan segar, 100% jus buah-buahan komersial dan minuman buah-buahan. Tujuh jenis jus buah-buahan segar serta jus komersial bagi buah-buahan tersebut telah dipilih. Kaedah Folin-Ciocalteu telah digunakan untuk menentukan jumlah kandungan fenolik, manakala asai FRAP dan DPPH telah dijalankan untuk menilai aktiviti antioksidan jus buah-buahan. Kandungan TPC jus buah-buahan segar, 100% jus buah-buahan komersial dan minuman buah-buahan masing-masing berada dalam julat 13.38-80.40, 21.65-130.39 dan 3.32-45.10 mg GAE/100 mL. Kedua-dua jus jambu batu segar dan minuman jambu batu komersial telah menunjukkan aktiviti antioksidan yang tertinggi dalam asai DPPH (205.71-770.12 μmol TE/100 mL) dan asai FRAP (320.80-843.13 μmol TE/100 mL). Jus delima menunjukkan aktiviti antioksidan yang paling tinggi antara 100% jus buah-buahan komersial dengan nilai DPPH, 2705.01 μmol TE/100 mL dan nilai FRAP, 2953.85 μmol TE/100 mL. Sampel minuman buah-buahan pelbagai jenis mempunyai TPC dan aktiviti antioksidan yang paling rendah bagi semua jenis buah-buahan. TPC berkait secara signifikan (p<0.05) dengan asai FRAP (r=0.954) dan DPPH (r=0.908). Kesimpulannya, 100% jus buah-buahan komersial adalah setanding dengan jus buah-buahan segar kerana TPC dan aktiviti antioksidan antara kedua-dua kumpulan tidak berbeza secara signifikan (p>0.05). Minuman buah-buahan komersial dalam kajian ini didapati bukan sumber antioksidan yang baik. Kajian ini menyediakan maklumat yang berguna terutamanya kepada populasi penuaan dalam pemilihan jus atau minuman buah-buahan yang sihat.