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Abstract. In the article research results are presented, which aim to development of an algorithm for forming the structure of composite fiber insulation with heat-accumulating properties in clothing. The presence of heat-retaining polymer components in the structure of the fibrous composition of materials leads to its general heterogeneity. Combining such materials with traditional fibrous structures is a rather promising area, as it allows for the use of heat-retaining effect not only in thin materials, but also in voluminous thermal insulating materials. As the main core fibrous composition of materials used to study a system of combining with elements of heatretaining components, we have selected composition of polyester fibers of various configurations and sizes. Pattern of connections between the composition of fibers and groups of materials intended for integrating with heat-retaining components, scheme for creating priority fibrous materials with heat-retaining properties, which form heat-protective textile clothing shells we have developed.
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Development of an algorithm for forming the structure of composite fiber
insulation with heat-accumulating properties in clothing
To cite this article: I V Cherunova et al 2021 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 1029 012041
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Dynamics of Technical Systems (DTS 2020)
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1029 (2021) 012041
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1029/1/012041
1
Development of an algorithm for forming the structure
of composite fiber insulation with heat-accumulating
properties in clothing
I V Cherunova1,3*, E B Stefanova 1, S Sh Tashpulatov 2
1 Department of Design and technology, Don State Technical University,
Shakhty, Russia
2 Department of design and technology of sewing products, Tashkent Institute of
textile and light industry, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
3 Chair of Modeling and Simulation, Rostock University, Rostock, Germany
*Corresponding author: i_sch@mail.ru
Abstract. In the article research results are presented, which aim to development of an algorithm
for forming the structure of composite fiber insulation with heat-accumulating properties in
clothing. The presence of heat-retaining polymer components in the structure of the fibrous
composition of materials leads to its general heterogeneity. Combining such materials with
traditional fibrous structures is a rather promising area, as it allows for the use of heat-retaining
effect not only in thin materials, but also in voluminous thermal insulating materials. As the main
core fibrous composition of materials used to study a system of combining with elements of heat-
retaining components, we have selected composition of polyester fibers of various configurations
and sizes. Pattern of connections between the composition of fibers and groups of materials
intended for integrating with heat-retaining components, scheme for creating priority fibrous
materials with heat-retaining properties, which form heat-protective textile clothing shells we
have developed.
1. Introduction
Clothing heat-retaining properties are actively developing in all countries worldwide. They are of
particular importance for cold-protective clothing. The presence of heat-retaining polymer components
in the structure of the fibrous composition of materials leads to its general heterogeneity. This is the
reason for the change in the properties of a composite material, as compared to the properties of its initial
components. Special heat-retaining effects of materials are based on the phase-change properties of the
integrated active polymers [1, 2]. Combining such materials with traditional fibrous structures is a rather
promising area, as it allows for the use of heat-retaining effect not only in thin materials, but also in
voluminous thermal insulating materials. For the purpose of a comprehensive analysis of the fibrous
composition of modern textiles, we studied [3, 4] fiber classification according to [4]. Depending on
their origin, textile fibers are divided into natural and chemical ones. Chemical fibers are subdivided
into artificial and synthetic ones. Given the diversity of methods for obtaining primary fibers, modern
Dynamics of Technical Systems (DTS 2020)
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1029 (2021) 012041
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doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1029/1/012041
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fibrous materials represent a wide range of products [5-7]. Therefore, an urgent task arises
development of an algorithm for forming the structure of composite fiber insulation with heat-
accumulating properties in clothing.
2. Theoretical part
The range of natural and semi-natural insulating materials includes such fabrics as batting, sherston, and
a loose variant of insulating material feather-down mixture, which account for a much smaller share
of industrial output in the total volume of the garment industry and, as a general rule, provide special
properties of clothing based on the advantages of natural materials and on the absence or a small
proportion of synthetic products in the clothing composition. This is important, for instance, in the
production of clothing that protects against static electricity or children’s clothing. In this case,
additional thermic regulation properties due to integrating heat-retaining materials into the structure of
the clothing pack have some limitations. Therefore, as the main core fibrous composition of materials
used to study a system of combining with elements of heat-retaining components, we have selected
composition of polyester fibers of various configurations and sizes.
Our analysis of lining materials showed that their main parameters should ensure their high density
with a small thickness, which provides the main important properties of the inner surface layer of
clothing [8] slipping and abrasion resistance.
This problem can be solved only at the stage of primary production of fabrics using initial composite
fibers with heat-retaining properties, which are directly integrated into the material structure at the stage
of primary nonwoven or knitted production.
Based on the research, we have developed a pattern of connections between the composition of fibers
and groups of materials intended for integrating with heat-retaining components (Fig. 1).
.
Figure 1. Block 1 “А” of the algorithm for creating the structure of composite fiber insulating
materials: the connection pattern of the fibrous base and material groups of the closing heat-protective
pack with heat-retaining materials
The considered fibers (in accordance with Fig.1) form the required functions in the
corresponding layers of clothing.
Thus, in the corresponding material layers, different functions are provided:
Dynamics of Technical Systems (DTS 2020)
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1029 (2021) 012041
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doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1029/1/012041
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М1 – the main barrier protection function against harmful environmental factors (production
process and weather), preserving and maintaining the clothing shape and size;
М2 – the thermal insulation and thermoregulation function (including heat preserving);
М3 – moisture exchange, thermic regulation (including heat preserving), surface sliding.
Polymer materials with heat-retaining properties are classified based on the method of
accumulating thermal energy, as well as the content of such components in the general structure
of a composite material [9].
In the classification of heat-retaining materials, important characteristics of the thermal
energy retaining process are as follows [10,11]:
• capacity per unit volume or weight;
• operating temperature range;
• methods of supply and extraction of heat and the corresponding temperature differences;
• temperature stratification in the accumulator;
• power required to supply and remove heat;
• volumes of structural elements related to the accumulation system;
• means for regulating heat losses by the heat accumulator;
• manufacturing and operating costs [11
There is a classification of heat-retaining materials, as shown in Fig. 2 [11, 12].
For fibrous composite materials with heat-retaining properties, the clothing industry uses
heat-retaining materials (HRMs), integrated with the structure and conditions of production and
operation of their main fiber systems under consideration. Encapsulated and granular materials
can be compatible with fibrous structures and depend on the fiber structure, size, and connection
system. As solid hydrocarbons, we can use paraffin, ceresin, wax, primary higher fatty synthetic
alcohols with obtaining the stabilization temperature of +53 to +80 ℃ [13]. This temperature
range, as a prerequisite for application in clothing, is typical for clothing that protects against
high temperatures. The study [10,14] is devoted to the development and research of cold-
protective materials, which allowed to establish the actual melting point ranges for octadecane
18Н38), nonadecane (С19Н40), eicosane (С20Н42), the melting point of which is set within the
range of +27.6...38.6 ℃.
Among the substances and materials used as HRMs, we identified inorganic substances such
as sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (Na2S2O3·5H2O), sodium sulfate decahydrate
(Na2SO4·10H2O), sodium sulfite heptahydrate (Na2SO3·7H2O), sodium carbonate decahydrate
(Na2СO3·10H2O), sodium acetate trihydrate (Na(СН3СОО)·3H2O) [15], and typical paraffins
[16,17].
However, the main temperature range of interest for heat accumulation in the operating mode
of heat-protective clothing is within +20...+40℃ [18].
3. Practical part
Our analysis of modern developments in the creation and application of special encapsulated
materials with heat-retaining properties for fibrous structures allowed us to identify a group of
materials intended for integrating with textiles for clothing.
Dynamics of Technical Systems (DTS 2020)
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1029 (2021) 012041
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doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1029/1/012041
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Figure 2. General classification of heat-retaining materials
For heat-protective clothing, as applicable to M3 material group, materials with heat-
retaining properties can be integrated into the textile base using the method [19].
Based on this method, the most common types of textiles with heat-retaining properties have
been developed, that are implemented in the form of nonwoven and knitted structures.
For voluminous heat-insulating materials of the M2 group in heat-protective clothing, it is
advisable to concentrate micro-encapsulated components directly in the volume of fibers
[20,21].
As a result, we obtained a variety of multicomponent fibrous integrated materials. Their
basis consists of fibrous systems [22,23,24] that are typical for nonwoven voluminous textile
materials, whereas integrated components are parts of heat-retaining micro-encapsulated
materials of various sizes and proportions in volume.
Therefore, as a result of our studies of modern heat-retaining materials, their composition
and production methods, as well as specifics of the method for integrating into textile materials,
we developed a scheme for creating priority fibrous materials with heat-retaining properties,
which form heat-protective textile clothing shells, as presented in Fig. 3.
Algorithm for forming the structure of composite fiber insulation with heat-accumulating
properties in clothing has been developed (Fig. 4)
Dynamics of Technical Systems (DTS 2020)
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1029 (2021) 012041
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doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1029/1/012041
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Figure 3. Block “B” of the algorithm for creating the structure of composite fibrous insulating
materials: the scheme for creating priority fibrous materials with heat-retaining properties that form
heat-protective textile clothing shells
Figure 4 Algorithm for forming the structure of composite fiber insulation with heat-accumulating
properties in clothing
Dynamics of Technical Systems (DTS 2020)
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1029 (2021) 012041
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doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1029/1/012041
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4. Discussion and conclusions
There is a concept and algorithm for designing complex textiles. Specific behavior of textiles is explored
and resolved between methods of form-finding in physical studies, spring-based modeling and
simulation, and finite element analysis. The sequence of methods is predicated upon the degree of
topological complexity in the material system [25]. However, such a system and such an algorithm do
not allow us to solve the problem of creating a fiber insulation. In the work [26] investigated the
relationships between the thermal insulation properties of the set of materials and the parameters of the
particular components of sets, as well as the configuration of layers. The results obtained [26] have
expanded the knowledge about the thermal properties of complex fibrous materials, but do not have a
comprehensive algorithm for designing new materials.
The result is the suggested algorithm that allows to build the route for obtaining a multicomponent
insulating material depending on the type and structure of the core insulating materials. The algorithm
allows to immediately determine the type of process methods for producing a new multicomponent
material, depending on the chemical nature of obtaining heat-retaining active components, that are
integrated into new composite clothing materials.
5. Acknowledgements
The reported study was funded by RFBR, project number 19-38-90324.
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