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Consumer acceptance of shared e-scooters for urban and short-distance mobility

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E-scooters have conquered urban areas as a means for individual mobility and compete with other modes of transportation. While some studies endorse e-scooters as eco-friendly solution for crowded cities, others report contradictory findings and highlight safety issues. To reveal factors affecting e-scooter usage from a consumer's perspective, a study using an adapted Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) is conducted. Based on random sampling among German public transportation services, 749 responses were collected and analyzed. E-scooters are studied in the context of mobility alternatives, revealing that they are mostly viewed as fun objects, and perceived safety indeed impedes their usage. Additionally, environmental concerns and individual convenience (i.e., performance expectancy) evince to represent the main drivers for using e-scooter. Besides, differences in the motivation for (potential) usage were found between owners and non-owners. Regarding the ecological assessment of e-scooters, they may, in fact, substitute walking over short distances.
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... Subsequently, it could lead to the development of a comprehensive SLOS. Like for other modes of transport, surveys have been conducted as one of the primary methods of data collection in this fieldapproximately 1/3rd of methods in the reviewed papers (Kopplin et al., 2021;Laa & Leth, 2020). This study stream has focused on willingness to use, usage patterns, perceived comfort and safety (De Ceunynck et al., 2021;Ko et al., 2021;Kopplin et al., 2021). ...
... Like for other modes of transport, surveys have been conducted as one of the primary methods of data collection in this fieldapproximately 1/3rd of methods in the reviewed papers (Kopplin et al., 2021;Laa & Leth, 2020). This study stream has focused on willingness to use, usage patterns, perceived comfort and safety (De Ceunynck et al., 2021;Ko et al., 2021;Kopplin et al., 2021). Each of the variables mentioned above provides a partial image of the users' experience and contributes to the SLOS development. ...
... Therefore, there is a crucial need to evaluate how they are experienced. In general, the experience of using an e-scooter is associated with having fun for users (Bieliński & Ważna, 2020;Kopplin et al., 2021;Laa & Leth, 2020;Sanders et al., 2020). For example, e-scooting in short-distance trips (especially in hot weather) could be more enjoyable than walking (Christoforou et al., 2021;Sanders et al., 2020). ...
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Although electric scooters (e-scooters) are gaining ground rapidly, research on analysing their users' experience lags far behind practice. Level of Service (LOS) is a promising approach to bridge the gap between research and practice via quantifying e-scooter riders' experience. We reviewed the state-of-the-art literature of e-scooters concerning their users' experience and proposed a preliminary framework for developing e-scooter LOS (SLOS). The findings suggest a lack of studies to evaluate SLOS, and e-scooters are rarely considered in the LOS estimation of other transport modes. Considering the impact of e-scooters in both modal substitute and supplement calls for unique SLOS indices in each scenario to reflect their user's experience realistically. Future studies should analyse the interaction of e-scooters with other road users, particularly pedestrians. This study highlights the importance of treating e-scooter as a distinct transport mode and contributes to matching policy and practice to integrate e-scooters into transport planning.
... Second, with shared e-scooters especially, studies have shown how they are used for hedonic experiences related to leisure and fun (e.g. Kopplin et al., 2021;Reck et al., 2021). Therefore, this paper aims to determine how decision-making relating to the hedonic and environmental motivations in the adoption of shared micromobility happen. ...
... In accordance with this, consumers would consider the hedonic benefits of using shared e-bikes and e-scooters before thinking about how these shared vehicles could help to reduce the adverse environmental impact of transport or their travel behaviour. Indeed, a study of e-scooter owners has demonstrated that hedonic motivation significantly influences intention to use, whereas environmental concern does not ( Kopplin et al., 2021). In addition, whereas several issues regarding shared e-bikes' and e-scooters' environmental impact may increase scepticism regarding their environmental benefits, because current product users tend to assess non-green attributes of green products more favourably (Haws et al., 2014), we propose that ...
... Additionally, the findings of this paper suggest that shared e-scooter users tend to be hedonic innovators, while shared e-bike users are more utilitarian innovators in the sense that their consumption benefits the environment. These results are in line with previous studies revealing that one of the main reasons for the use of e-bikes is their environmental benefits (Handy & Fitch, 2022;Simsekoglu & Klöckner, 2019), whereas e-scooters are used more for hedonic experience (Kopplin et al., 2021;Reck et al., 2021). Studies in other green product domains have also shown the existence of consumers who purchase green products for hedonic experience (Choi & Johnson, 2019;Moshood et al., 2022), while others for environmental reasons (Hahnel et al., 2014;Saari et al., 2021). ...
... This ever-growing role of e-scooters in urban mobility underscores the importance of understanding the individuals' intention to use e-scooters and their determinants (Hosseinzadeh et al., 2021b;Kopplin et al., 2021). A variety of approaches and theoretical frameworks have been utilized in the literature to determine factors influencing users' behavioral intention to use different travel modes. ...
... For example, Panagiotopoulos and Dimitrakopoulos (2018) extended the concepts of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1985) by adding the two factors of perceived trust (or reliability) and social influence to characterize the intention to adopt autonomous vehicles. Featherman et al. (2021) developed a Risk-Benefit model to examine the adoption of electric vehicles, and in the context of micromobility, Kopplin et al. (2021) employed UTAUT2 (i.e., Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology) to model e-scooter adoption, and reported that environmental concerns and perceived safety are two critical factors affecting usage intention toward e-scooters. Concisely, this line of studies aims at detecting the association between users' perception and their usage intention which can help provider companies to better understand the potential customer needs and plan to attract them based on their preferences. ...
... Chen (2016) recognized perceived enjoyment as one of the key constructs influencing loyalty toward bike-sharing services. Similarly, Kopplin et al. (2021) detect a positive association between the perceived enjoyment and intention to adopt e-scooters. Moreover, Kim and Kim (2020) found that perceived enjoyment positively affects the perceived reliability of bike-sharing usage over time. ...
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As e-scooters become more popular, service providers and policymakers are seeking ways to retain the existing customers and encourage them to continue to use e-scooters in the future. In this study, we extend the concepts of the technology acceptance model to identify the factors that affect the intention to continue using e-scooters. We build our findings based on survey data including 2126 shared e-scooter users in Chicago. Using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling, we analyzed the data and 10 proposed hypotheses. Our empirical results substantiate that the proposed model provides a theoretical framework to understand the continuance intention of shared e-scooter users. According to the findings, the most salient factor determining users’ decisions is perceived usefulness, followed by perceived reliability. The significance of reliability necessitates taking measures to guarantee the availability of e-scooters in times and places they are needed, particularly for mandatory trips. Additionally, social influence, perceived ease of use, variety seeking, and perceived enjoyment, are evinced to represent the other critical drivers of using e-scooter in the future, and in order of precedence. The insights from this study can assist shared e-scooter operators, transportation planners, and policymakers in making informed decisions and pave the way for a greater inclination to continue using shared e-scooters and move toward smart cities.
... First, our travel log data indicate that e-scooters disproportionately replaced walking and bicycling/e-bicycling trips compared to auto trips of any type (58%-21%), seemingly clear evidence of potentially negative physical activity (PA) effects that fit with findings from multiple cross-sectional surveys (Chang et al., 2019;Denver Public Works, 2019;Glenn et al., 2020;Portland Bureau of Transportation et al., 2020;Sanders et al., 2020;Christofouro et al., 2021;Kopplin et al., 2021). Our findings on physical activity (PA) zones indicate that e-scooter trips are approximately as active as auto trips, supporting the assertion that frequent e-scooter use that replaces other, more active trips could negatively impact physical fitness over time. ...
... I wish I could bike to work as I'm only 3 miles away but between the heat and the lack of bike lanes and how spread out everything is that gets pretty sketchy." Conversely, a highly walkable and/or bikeable environment may lead to greater trip substitution between active modes and e-scooters, as has been found in several studies of European cities (e.g., Christofouro et al., 2021;Kopplin et al., 2021;Nikiforiadis et al., 2021). Our findings also suggest different PA impacts related to e-scooters depending on the mode that e-scooting replaces. ...
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Introduction Shared e-scooters have recently emerged as a convenient, flexible transportation option for short trips in dozens of cities and on university campuses. While there is survey evidence that e-scooting replaces walking and bicycling trips, potentially impacting physical activity (PA) levels, little is known about how e-scooter use objectively affects PA and how e-scooter use affects individual travel options in ways that could influence planning for active transportation. Methods This paper provides insights into the PA impacts of shared e-scooter use within a small sample of frequent e-scooter riders in the Phoenix, AZ, area. The single-case, longitudinal study monitored the daily biometric data of eight participants over a five-week period during which e-scooter use was alternately allowed, prohibited, and allowed again in an “ABA” design. The study also employed surveys and daily travel logs to gather information on travel behavior and perceptions of benefits and disbenefits related to e-scooter use. Results Biometric data indicate that bicycling and walking trips are substantially more active than e-scooting or driving trips. Self-reported trip data suggest that when e-scooters were allowed (Phases 1 and 3), e-scooter trips disproportionately replaced walking, bicycling, and/or e-biking trips, compared to auto trips. However, when participants were prohibited from using e-scooters (Phase 2), 89% of trips were reported by automobile, complicating the story of trip substitution and suggesting larger contextual influences. Finally, participants saw e-scooters as an important transportation option. Conclusions E-scooter use appears to reduce physically active travel, although it is somewhat healthier than driving and its relationship with PA seems to be moderated by transportation habits, options, and context. E-scooter users clearly value e-scooters for their convenience, affordability, speed, and fun. Cities could consider restricting e-scooters in highly walkable areas, but should recognize e-scooters as an important part of the urban transportation system.
... LEVs are mostly used for entertainment or private use as a substitute for walking and not for transport. However, there is an indication that LEVs such as e-scooters have a high potential for individuals to change their mobility patterns [10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. According to Brost et al. [17], LEVs have the potential to reduce emissions from car passenger trips by around 44%. Around 57 mil. ...
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Urban mobility systems are facing far-reaching structural transformations: There is the challenge of managing the growing volume of traffic and the associated environmental and social problems. On the one hand, novel micro-mobility services such as light electric vehicles (LEVs) show high potential for reducing emissions, e.g., through increased energy efficiency. On the other hand, they require change of urban mobility systems, e.g., through increasing shared concepts. The mixed methods approach is considered a good methodology for exploring the transformation of urban mobility systems since it can help to answer both technical and societal questions. Two trans-disciplinary projects using the mixed method design were evaluated to improve the research for future mobility. To provide a critical reflection of the projects, a catalog of quality criteria was used to evaluate the research. This catalog was evaluated using structured interviews with project participants from research, practice and civil society. The results show that the combination of applied methods enables a comprehensive multi-perspective sustainability evaluation of urban micro-mobility concepts. The need for an early participatory research design was also evaluated. The result is an exemplary research design and a methodological guideline for the successful application of mixed methods for transformation research in the field of urban mobility systems.
... At the same time many authors emphasize the social dimension of transport sustainability (Eriksson et al., 2008;Bristow et al., 2010;Sfendonis et al., 2017;Oltra et al., 2021;Tarriño-Ortiz et al., 2021). There is also a wide range of research examining various aspects of sustainable urban mobility (SUM), ranging from SUM planning (Okraszewska et al., 2018), social impact of SUM (Al-Thawadi et al., 2021), stakeholders' opinions about SUM (Foltýnová et al., 2020), role of autonomous vehicles (Acheampong et al., 2021;Golbabaei et al., 2021), to various micromobility issues (Abduljabbar et al., 2021;Kopplin et al., 2021), or the effectiveness of transport management policies on the air protection (Morfeld et al., 2014). ...
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Introduction of low emission zones (LEZs) in many cities is supposed to mitigate negative externalities from urban transportation, such as noise and GHG emissions. LEZ is present in most of Western European countries, but in Eastern and Central Europe they are rare, even though in this part of Europe the air quality norms in the cities are very often exceeded. The experience from many countries proves that introduction of LEZ should be preceded with the examination of social acceptance to forecast and overcome the potential barriers of adoption to new rules and regulations. It is especially important in country such as Poland, where LEZs are going to be introduced in the near future. Hence, this article aims to review the factors responsible for social acceptance of LEZ and to discuss the prospects of establishing LEZ in Poland in the light of the experiences of other countries, urban and transport challenges in Polish cities, and legislative, economic, and social aspects. The results of the study are presented by means of SWOT analysis, showing that well thought-out solutions and the gradual introduction of restrictions in car traffic can have a positive impact on the level of social acceptance and behavioral change. Measuring social preferences and opinions before the establishment of LEZ could help investigate the relation between the level of restrictions and behavioral adoption of the residents and car users. It is also recommended to take a lesson from the zones already existing in other cities and to follow the solutions that have occurred to meet the expectations of the society while leading to lower GHG emissions and higher standard of living.
... Moreover, another factor that seems to make things worse is that the purpose of e-scooters has been largely leisurized. Therefore, PMDs tend to be often perceived as "fun" devices, while their main strengths could be, instead, their (e.g.) practicality, comfort and environmental contributions [47]. In behavioral terms, it is feasible to hypothesize that this potentially problematic association between PMDs and leisure might enhance a certain relaxation among users, who may systematically decrease their protective habits. ...
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E-scooters have made a place for themselves on urban roads as an affordable, easy-to-use and environmentally friendly method of transportation. However, and partly because of their road behaviors and safety outcomes, e-scooter users have started to represent a focus of attention for transport planners and policymakers. Aim The present systematic review aims to target and analyze the existing studies investigating the psychosocial characteristics of e-scooter riders, focusing on their behavioral and risk- related features. Methods For this systematic review, the PRISMA methodology was used, which allows for the selec- tion of suitable papers based on the study topic, in accordance with a set of pre-defined cri- teria and a search algorithm. A total of 417 indexed articles were filtered, resulting in only 32 eligible original articles directly addressing the issue. WOS, Scopus, NCBI, Google Scholar, and APA databases were used to create and test search techniques. Results At the literature level, most of the existing studies are distributed in a few regions of the globe. At the user’s level, results show how e-scooters are most commonly used by young, highly educated, urban-dwelling males, usually for short trips. In regard to road behavior, individuals with the lowest degrees of risk perception remain more prone to engaging in risky road behaviors likely to increase their crash involvement. This might be worsened by the lack of normative e-scooter regulations (and their enforcement) in many countries, plus the marked absence of road training processes. As common limitations, it can be mentioned that 87.5% of these studies used self-report methods, while 59.4% had local coverage. Conclusions The findings of this systematic review endorse the growing need to develop and enforce traf- fic laws and training processes for e-scooter users. In addition, road safety education and training programs are highlighted by existing studies as potentially pertinent alternatives to increase risk perception, and reduce risky behaviors, road conflicts and crash likelihood among e-scooter riders.
... Towards electric bicycle in Austria, the Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease Of Use and Environmental factor, possessed the significance towards shaping adoption behavior [37]. To comprehend the citizens behavior towards acceptance of e-scooters for urban and short-distance mobility in Germany, UTAUT model was used to validate the behavior modelling by expounding the personal benefit and convenience as vibrant behavior predictor [38]. E-Scooters' adoption studies in Taiwan [39] and Austria [37], [40] predominantly used the TPB theory where Perceived Behavioral Control and In miscellaneous category, there were assorted studies on public transit technology, ridesharing apps, sustainable mobility tools for netizens etc. ...
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