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Estimating the prevalence of stress among Indian students during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study from India

  • Delhi Skill and Entrepreneur University, New Delhi (Under Government of NCT Delhi)

Abstract and Figures

Objective Since December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has posed a substantial threat with its associated high mortality, infection, and risk of psychological stress. A large number of students are affected because of a prolonged break from academic activities and staying at home. The focus of this study is to understand the stress levels of Indian students, any psychological imbalances, and their major hurdles during the COVID-19 lockdown. Methods Using a snowball sampling method, an online survey of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was conducted on students across India. Along with their demographic details, the participants also reported their study patterns and challenges during their confinement period. The statistical scores for the responses were calculated and the demographic variables analysed. The levels indicated by the PSS were compared, and variance and regression analyses were performed. Results We observed that students were generally stressed during lockdown and the pandemic. Females (mean = 3.03) were more stressed than males (mean = 2.61) as they were constantly under pressure because of stressful life events (OR = 0.752, 95% CI = 2.425–310.642) and apprehensive about their studies (RII = 0.67, OR = 2.168, 95% CI = 0.332–6.691). Conclusion During the pandemic, students’ mental health needs to be continually monitored as they are stressed owing to fear as well as about their studies and future careers.
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Original Article
Estimating the prevalence of stress among Indian students during the
COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study from India
Bijoy Chhetri, M. Tech
, Lalit M. Goyal, PhD
, Mamta Mittal, PhD
Gopi Battineni, PhD
Department of CE, JC Bose University of Science and Technology, YMCA, Faridabad, India
Department of CSE, G B Pant Government Engineering College, Okhla, New Delhi, India
Department of Medical Informatics, School of Medicinal and Health Products Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino,
Received 31 August 2020; revised 17 December 2020; accepted 21 December 2020; Available online 18 January 2021
Objective: Since December 2019, the COVID-19
pandemic has posed a substantial threat with its associ-
ated high mortality, infection, and risk of psychological
stress. A large number of students are affected because of
a prolonged break from academic activities and staying at
home. The focus of this study is to understand the stress
levels of Indian students, any psychological imbalances,
and their major hurdles during the COVID-19 lockdown.
Methods: Using a snowball sampling method, an online
survey of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was conducted
on students across India. Along with their demographic
details, the participants also reported their study patterns
and challenges during their confinement period. The
statistical scores for the responses were calculated and the
demographic variables analysed. The levels indicated by
the PSS were compared, and variance and regression
analyses were performed.
Results: We observed that students were generally
stressed during lockdown and the pandemic. Females
(mean ¼3.03) were more stressed than males
(mean ¼2.61) as they were constantly under pressure
because of stressful life events (OR ¼0.752, 95%
CI ¼2.425e310.642) and apprehensive about their
studies (RII ¼0.67, OR ¼2.168, 95% CI ¼0.332
Conclusion: During the pandemic, students’ mental
health needs to be continually monitored as they are
stressed owing to fear as well as about their studies and
future careers.
*Corresponding address: School of Medicinal and Health Prod-
ucts Sciences, University of Camerino, Via Madonna Delle Carceri
9, Camerino, 62032, Italy.
E-mail: (G. Battineni)
Peer review under responsibility of Taibah University.
Production and hosting by Elsevier
Taibah University
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences
1658-3612 Ó2021 The Authors.
Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Taibah University. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences (2021) 16(2), 260e267
Keywords: COVID-19 epidemic; Demographics; Indian stu-
dents; Psychological stress; Snowball sampling
Ó2021 The Authors.
Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Taibah
University. This is an open access article under the CC BY
license (
The novel coronavirus (that causes COVID-19) has for
many months been a global phenomenon. With its rapid
spread rate, it has caused major disruptions to the liveli-
hoods of people worldwide.
As of 30 November 2020, the
pandemic had caused nearly 1.46 million deaths of 63.1
million confirmed cases, and put people under
tremendous psychological pressure.
isolation, engaging in online classes, frequent network
failure, and peer and parental pressure have added to
students’ perceived stress. As expected, the pandemic has
influenced the psychological health of students
Therefore, a sufficient number of the around
3.4 million Indian students enrolled in higher education
may be a victim of such distress.
With more than 9.4 million confirmed cases including
more than 140,000 deaths, India is becoming the second-
highest country hit by the pandemic after the USA. Thus,
to control the spread of COVID-19, educational institutions
like colleges and universities are not opening to students,
thereby obstructing regular educational activities. Students
felt discontinuity during the lockdown even though the state
government issued various educational policies on con-
ducting virtual teaching sessions. Lack of routine student
engagement with their university or college resulted in
isolation, social media addiction, and no physical activities,
which lead to psychological imbalance.
Reportedly, the general public, patients, medical staff,
children, and older adults are highly vulnerable to psycho-
logical health issues during an epidemic.
Some studies
highlighted stress among students, although many global
universities are anticipated to have implemented serious
measures to prevent stress among staff and students.
Pandemics like COVID-19 not only affect daily life activ-
ities, but also create additional delays in academic activities,
which are positively correlated with stress and students’ level
of anxiety.
Many countries have encouraged medical students to
collaborate with national health workers in this prevailing
situation. These medical students are under high pressure
and stress because of direct contact with infected people.
Because of fear, stress, and anxiety added by COVID-19
infection, students are at high risk of experiencing psycho-
logical issues.
A study by Odriozola P. et al. (2020)
confirmed the stress and other severe psychological distress
due to the COVID-19 outbreak among students and
workers in Spanish universities.
However, no significant
study has highlighted the mental health of Indian students
during the current pandemic.
Common individual behavioural effects like anxiety,
stress, depression, anger, and post-traumatic stress are so-
cially available disorders affecting people globally. Addi-
tional attributes concerning students’ like substance abuse,
violation of guidelines, peer pressure, and technical glitches
during self-learning activities also affect their psychological
behaviour. Thus, the focus of this study was to bridge the gap
between understanding students’ stress parameters when
academic activities are limited and they are left in isolation.
The study is based on the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale
(PSS), but also considers other factors to proactively identify
the stress level of the student fraternity and reason therefor.
Materials and Methods
In this study, a survey on the student population was
conducted during the period of home isolation due to the
closure of universities and schools. A cross-sectional preva-
lence study using a simple and convenient snowball sampling
method was performed with a structured online question-
naire based on PSS. The authors developed a self-
constructed questionnaire to retrieve information on atti-
tudes towards stress caused by COVID-19. Information on
basic demographic data, stress prevalence, and attitude to-
wards the stressful event was collected using a Google form
circulated through social media platforms like Facebook,
WhatsApp, and email. When participants agreed and sub-
mitted their response, self-consent was acknowledged. The
criteria for participation in the survey were that participants
had to be aged at least 15 years and understand English well.
Students who did not meet these criteria were excluded. We
randomly selected five local colleges in the capital of Delhi
and surroundings and included students from different
provinces. Participants were asked to name their provinces to
identify the geographical area in which they were residing
when the survey was conducted. The online questionnaire
was delivered to 1536 students and responses were collected
over a period of 30 days.
Once participants submitted their responses using the
Google form along with their email address, they were
assumed to have given consent to participate in the study.
After a month, only 450 (29.3%) students had submitted
their responses to the survey. As per the responses received,
70% of the targeted sample did not respond; thus, they were
considered to have not consented to participate in the study.
Students’ personal information and colleges were kept
confidential after receiving their consent to participate.
Subject screening
The PSS, which is measured on a 10-item Likert scale, was
adopted to identify and screen candidates.
This tool has
been used to measure the degree of impact on individuals’
lives of the current situation of stressful events. Only
employing the PSS to measure the level of perceived stress
does not clarify whether stress is increasing because of
B. Chhetri et al. 261
COVID-19 or for other reasons unless separate information
is sought regarding attitude towards the pandemic. There-
fore, we included a few additional questions to understand
students’ attitudes in terms of fear, worry, problems faced
during the period, and why such perceived stress is occurring.
These responses were correlated with the PSS factors and
analysed based on the overall observation.
The PSS includes several direct questions about the cur-
rent level of experienced stress and perceived psychometric
evidence regarding personality and social support.
questionnaire items are reliable in predicting participants’
level of stress. Though the PSS is temporal and its
predictive validity may decrease over time, it can be used
to determine daily activities, events, and changes in a
situation. PSS scores are obtained by reversing responses
(e.g., 0 ¼4, 1 ¼3, 2 ¼2, 3 ¼1,&4¼0) to the four
positively stated items (items 4, 5, 7, & 8) and then
summing all scale items. The total score of the PSS-10
ranges from 0 to 40, and a higher score indicates a higher
level of perceived stress. Some studies have already proven
that it is reliable and consistent in terms of internal consis-
tency and test-retest reliability across various trial pop-
The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients range from
0.67 to 0.91.
Online questionnaire
In addition to the PSS questionnaire, an online self-
reported questionnaire was used. The prevalence of stress
factors among students was determined though the PSS, but
this measurement did not satisfy our need to know the cor-
relation of the level of stress with the current pandemic sit-
uation. Therefore, a separate assessment in relation to
COVID-19 was performed by seeking additional informa-
tion from the participants. The authors named this attitude
towards COVID-19. The motive was to understand the
reason behind the perceived level of stress based on the
current pandemic and its effects such as institutional clo-
sures, online modes of learning, fear of infection, and so on.
The questionnaire included items to elicit information on
attitude towards COVID-19, willingness towards e-learning,
and major hurdles experienced during the lockdown period,
as shown in Table 1. The PSS scale measured the level of
stress perceived in terms of low, mild, and high. However,
understanding why stress is increasing was examined
through the questionnaire based on the attitude parameters
regarding the pandemic.
These parameters were included to correlate participants’
health status with a stressful life due to COVID-19 and the
sudden change in educational activities.
Statistical and factor analysis
Statistical analysis was performed to describe the co-
efficients to summarise the response data. The mean, median,
and modes were measured to indicate the centroid along with
a variability test using the standard deviation. The Statistical
Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 was used
for data analysis. The threshold level of parametric signifi-
cance was p <0.05. Level of perceived stress was classified as
low, mild, and severe.
A factor analysis was performed to identify the positive
and negative psychological aspects of the current pandemic
situation. Regarding reliability, Cronbach’s alpha was higher
than 0.7 after deleting a factor that decreased the impact of
the inter-item relationship. The Relative Importance Index
(RII) was employed for the response variables to rank stress-
related items in the self-reported questionnaire on attitude
towards COVID-19 and academic setbacks due to the
pandemic. In addition, a correlation analysis was conducted
to evaluate the relationship between students’ problems and
the reasons underlying their perceived stress. Along with a
logistic regression, a one-way ANOVA was performed to
check the variance of socio-demographic details, which was
compared with its statistical significance.
Demographic characteristics of participants
Table 2 presents the demographic details of participating
students. Of the sample, 411 (91.33%) students responded to
all questions in the survey. The mean and standard deviation
(SD) of their age is 23.87 5.51 years (range 15e33 years).
Of 411 students, 362 (88.07%) are aged between 19 and 25
years. In addition, 262 (63.7%) are male and 149 (36.3%)
are female. In total, 99% of the students agreed to follow
the health guidelines issued by the government, and 98.7%
were confined at home. The most participants responded
from Sikkim (42%), followed by Delhi (29%), Haryana
(12%), and from other states (17%). Furthermore, 358
(87%) reported being interested in attending online
academic activities and 372 (90%) refrained from the
consumption of licit or illicit drugs during the pandemic.
Table 1: Self-reported questionnaire to determine student
attitude towards the pandemic.
Purpose Questionnaire Item Type of Scale
Fear 1. Are you scared/
stressed by the
Rating Scale (0e4)
Worry 2. Are you worried
about your studies
during this confine-
ment period and
post-opening of the
Rating Scale (0e4)
Problem 3. What was the major
hurdle during the
lockdown period?
Items (P1: Online Classes,
P2: Food, or P3: Self-
WHY? 4. Do you think the
above PSS stress
(questions 1e10) is
due to the following:
Likert scale for items
(WHY1: Medical reason,
WHY2: Greater
vulnerability to stressful
life-event elicited
depressive symptoms,
WHY3: Drug & Alcohol,
WHY4: E-learning system,
WHY5: Any other)
Indian student behaviour during COVID-19262
A ManneWhitney U-test was performed to analyse stu-
dents’ psychological concerns during lockdown. An inde-
pendent hypothesis on equal probabilities of all items in the
PSS and other parameters were excluded by the ChieSquare
test, the results of which were highly significant. A null hy-
pothesis was accepted with no difference regarding fear of
COVID-19, and a non-significant difference (p >0.001) was
found for gender. Of the sample, females experienced more
stress (2.36 1.31) than males (2.32 2.01). In addition,
female students are more worried (mean ¼3.03; p <0.001)
about their studies than male students (mean ¼2.61;
PSS influencing factors and their demographic comparison
Based on the cumulative PSS score, a significant per-
centage of the sample have high and mild stress, although
many have a low level of stress as well. The responses to the
self-reported questionnaire were analysed to identify the level
of fear and concerns due to COVID-19 and online classes, as
shown in Figure 1. The most important factor increasing
students’ level of stress was identified using RII. With [P1:
Online class] as the major hurdle (RII ¼0.67) and [P3:
Self-management (RII ¼0.65)] followed by other essentials
like food and medicine, and the similar approach was applied
to calculate the understanding of WHY. The most often
[WHY2: Greater vulnerability to stressful life-event elicited
depressive symptoms] and [WHY4: Failure to accept E-
learning] were ranked highest, while other factors were not
found to be significant. Considering these factors, students
with mild to high stress can be classified in the 18e25 year
age group (Mean SD ¼2.0141 0.610; CI ¼1.95e2.07).
PSS is a multi-item questionnaire that includes positive
items like ‘how often have you felt confident about your
ability to handle your problems’ and negative items like ‘how
often have you found that you could not cope with all the
things that you had to do?’ Therefore, to identify the sum of
the impact of the variables, a factor analysis of the 10-item
PSS questions was performed using a Principal Component
Analysis (PCA) and Varimax with the Kaiser normalisation
rotation method (KMO). KMO and Bartlett’s Test (0.81)
were conducted before the factor analysis. The analysis cat-
egorised the 10 points into 2 major components: perceived
positive impact (PSS4, PSS5, PSS7, PSS8) with factor
(0.297, 0.065, 0.336, 0.231) and perceived negative
impact of the factor ranking. The final positive and negative
PSS items are correlated (0.967, 0.256) between the two
To understand the association of attitude variables with
the PSS, a correlation analysis was performed. A strong
positive relationship with the problems of P1: Online classes
(r ¼0.192, p <.001) and P3: Self-management (r ¼0.237,
p<0.001) was observed, as shown in Table 3. The table also
highlights the relationship between the PSS values and
reasons behind perceiving WHY these stress levels are
A one-way ANOVA with significant model fit (p <0.05)
and goodness of fit (Pearson Significance: p >0.05) was
obtained through the comparison of PSS by age group and
major hurdles in terms of P1 and P3 along with factors
WHY2 & WHY4. Table 4 shows the significant F values and
mean square values.
A multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis was per-
formed with stress level as the dependent variable, and age
and relative hurdles (P1, P3) as covariate factors. A higher
level of stress was associated with students in the age group
18e25 years with the goodness of fit to observed data
2¼138.378, p <0.001). The tests on parallel lines were
Fear Worries Low Stress Mild Stress High Stress
Figure 1: Distribution of students’ mental state.
Table 2: Socio-demographic details of participants.
Socio-demographic variables N %
Male 262 63.7
Female 149 36.3
Age Category
15e18 years 35 8.5
19e25 years 362 88.1
26e33 years 14 3.4
Where are they studying?
College 296 72.0
University 104 25.3
School 11 2.7
State of residence
Sikkim 170 41.0
Delhi 122 29.0
Haryana 52 12.0
Services involved in during lockdown
Home confinement 350 85.2
Social services 36 8.8
Essential services 20 4.9
Online class activities
Yes 358 87.1
No 17 4.1
No response 36 8.8
Attempts to take licit/illicit drugs?
Never 372 90.5
Not often 21 5.1
Policy violation
No 384 93.4
Yes 27 6.6
B. Chhetri et al. 263
Table 4: One-way ANOVA for factors influencing the PSS scale.
Predictors Items F Mean Square df p
P1: Hurdle of online classes Never 14.829 491.717 2 <0.001
To some extent
P3: Self-management Too much 26.877 844.692 2 <0.001
WHY 2: Greater vulnerability to a stressful life Never 22.432 656.677 4 <0.001
Almost never
WHY 4: Failure to accept E-learning Sometimes 16.077 496.064 4 <.0001
Fairly often
Very often
Age Group <18
18e25 1.038 0.367 2 >0.05
Table 3: Correlation between PSS and attitude variables.
P1 Correlation Coefficient 0.112*
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.012
P3 Correlation Coefficient 0.121*1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.014
WHY2 Correlation Coefficient 0.064 0.161** 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.193 0.001
WHY4 Correlation Coefficient 0.418** 0.237** 0.285** 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 0.000 0.000
PSS scale of Mild to High Stress Correlation Coefficient 0.192** 0.237** 0.329** 0.325**
An asterisk indicates significance at p <0.05.
Table 5: Logistic regression to estimate the prevalence of stress among students.
SE Sig. Exp(B) 95% CI
LOW Age_grp 1.043 0.206 0.267 [0.035e2.067]
[P1eP3] 0.945 0.203 3.329 [0.522e21.232
0.716 0.000 3.826 [0.941e15.564
0.786 0.091 3.775 [0.809e17.625
0.649 0.145 2.573 [0.721e9.174
[WHY2 & WHY4] 1.231 0.000 101.689 [9.109e1135.179
1.542 0.000 365.327 [17.797e7499.227
1.293 0.001 75.197 [5.962e948.369
1.304 0.105 8.296 [0.644e106.837
1.011 0.128 4.652 [0.641e33.743]
1.032 0.108 5.257 [0.696e39.707]
1.303 0.000 23.473 [1.828e301.490]
0.976 0.672 0.662 [0.098e4.484]
Mild Age_grp 1.039 0.191 0.257 [0.033e1.968]
[P1eP3] 0.932 0.408 2.162 [0.348e13.436]
0.691 0.243 2.239 [0.578e8.675]
0.766 0.603 1.490 [0.332e6.691]
0.621 0.494 1.529 [0.453e5.167]
[WHY2 & WHY4] 0.758 0.000 6.792 [1.538e29.987]
1.192 0.000 24.101 [2.330e249.291]
0.835 0.000 13.256 [2.578e68.165]
0.837 0.833 1.193 [0.231e6.147]
0.952 0.393 2.255 [0.349e14.571]
0.959 0.214 3.292 [0.503e21.560]
1.238 0.000 27.446 [2.425e310.642]
0.835 0.887 1.126 [0.219e5.790]
Bold value presents parameters with no significance.
The reference category is high; Nagelkerke pseudo R
: 0.34.
Indian student behaviour during COVID-19264
insignificant, and pseudo R square values indicated a 35%
variability. Table 5 provides the results of the regression
analysis. The logistic regression indicates that people with
more anxiety towards online classes (P1) experience mild to
high stress on the PSS (OR ¼2.168, 95% CI ¼0.332e
6.691). The instability due to a problem in managing the
situation (P3) by students (OR ¼23.473, 95%
CI ¼1.828e301.490) is also a factor that increases the
level of stress. In addition, the factors identified by the
PCA and ANOVA are failure to accept E-learning
(OR ¼13.256, 95% CI ¼2.578e68.165) and greater
vulnerability to stressful life events (OR ¼0.752, 95%
CI ¼2.425e310.642), which are also relative risk factors.
The study was conducted on Indian students during the
COVID-19 outbreak to assess the factors associated with
psychological disorders during a pandemic situation, stress
in particular. The results show that fear of vulnerability, self-
management, and failure to accept virtual learning impact
the PSS score. Common individual behavioural effects like
anxiety, stress, depression, anger, and post-traumatic stress
are socially available disorders that affect students.
information and perseverance needed to manage these are
influenced by additional attitude factors including fear and
worries along with violation of guidelines, high pressure,
and technical glitches during academic activities. All these
factors affect students’ psychological behaviour and may
lead to an uncontrollable situation.
Some studies highlighted that any pandemic has its course
of completion, but leaves survivors with distress and asso-
ciated factors like poverty, anxiety, and fear.
Therefore, the
authors assessed the level of stress among the student
fraternity its influencing factors. Stress may even lead to
some losing their lives. Moreover, a student who at a
young age is more vulnerable to such a traumatic event
may ultimately do exceptionable things. The survey
indicated that about 25% of students are negatively
affected by the outbreak and have experienced an above
average level of stress. Of these students, 6% have
experienced severe stress, and around 45% mild stress.
The items in the PSS were found to be significantly related
to the factors that led to stress among the students in this
study. The results of the correlation analysis showed that
factors such as being unable to cope with the new paradigm
of teaching-learning and ability to withstand vulnerability to
situations like the recent pandemic are positively related.
This suggests a change in the existing curriculum to ensure an
appropriate fit with the online mode of teaching as well as the
provision of enhanced counselling and guidance regarding
the current situation. However, consuming alcohol and
violation of policies are negatively correlated. With limited
resources available concerning the impact on students’ life
because of COVID-19, the present study also found the
prevalence of stress due to the pandemic. The one-way
ANOVA and multiple logistic regression confirmed the as-
sociation of the PSS with routine academic studies and
confinement due to COVID-19. Previous studies reported
that mental and psychological episodes such as stress and
fear affect the efficacy of life.
Aligned with the hypothesis of this study,
selfmanagement problems, ongoing academic activities, and
the non-opening of educational institutions were all related
to stress. Similar studies by
on Chinese students also
reported a psychological imbalance among university
students due to the COVID-19 outbreak. An Italian
sought to understand how students are coping with
the situation. In some situations, parents are also stressed
by the payment of tuition fees after losing their jobs, which
exacerbates students’ stress.
Social support during this
health emergency is thus crucial.
In this study, students
reported their interest in engaging with social activities that
would help them overcome their fear and anxiety.
College students’ stress regarding COVID-19 may be
related to the effect of the virus on their studies and not being
able to handle the consequences of infection.
On the other
hand, their stress may have been caused by gradually losing
attention in their online classes during the confinement
period. It is known that stress and anger may lead to other
negative psychological behaviour and mental illness.
indicates that the increasing number of days in lockdown
and other government policies could cause students to
worry about their education, growth, and careers, which
further increases their anxiety and fear.
Furthermore, it
has been seen that in addition to a fear of COVID-19, stu-
dents are also worried about their studies, especially female
The study focused on the prevalence of stress among
students due to the closure of educational institutions and
prolonged online teaching and learning. Students are worried
about their studies and the difficulties they experience in
managing themselves during the pandemic. The study found
that female students are more concerned about their aca-
demic activities, and that students aged 18e25 years are
more vulnerable to the impact of lockdown. They are
stressed because of the inability to accept the paradigm shift
in academic activities and prolonged period of COVID-19
restrictions. The intention behind the present work was to
provide early evidence of disruptive episodes in terms of
stress due to the closure of universities or colleges that im-
pacts the general health of the people living in such
confinement situations.
During this unwanted pandemic situation, people are
suffering from mental stress and students are among the
worst-hit groups.
Since the outbreak, their studies have
been hampered because all educational institutions were
closed and limited to virtual classes. Specifically, it is
recommended that for engineering or medical students,
both oral sessions and practical knowledge are important.
However, confinement at home has meant that practical
sessions are not taking place, leading to a lack of
B. Chhetri et al. 265
motivation regarding academic studies. These factors result
in psychological pressure including depression, stress,
phobia, fear, social disconnection, and so on.
Source of funding
This research did not receive any specific grant from
funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit
Conflicts of interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
Ethical approval
This article does not contain any experimental studies
with human participants or animals performed by any of the
authors. Ethical approval was exempted.
Authors’ contributions
BC, LMG, and MM: Conceived and designed the study,
conducted research, provided research materials, and
collected and organised the data. BC, LMG: Analysed and
interpreted the data. BC, GB: Wrote the initial and final draft
of the article and provided logistic support. All authors have
critically reviewed and approved the final draft and are
responsible for the content and similarity index of the
We extend our special thanks to all the students who
participated and helped us in the data collection process.
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How to cite this article: Chhetri B, Goyal LM, Mittal M,
Battineni G. Estimating the prevalence of stress among
Indian students during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-
sectional study from India. J Taibah Univ Med Sc
B. Chhetri et al. 267
... From the studies conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, it was found that limited resources, losing track of their studies, disruptions of relationships, fear of the COVID-19 (Hidayu and Vasudevan, 2020), presence of someone hospitalized for the COVID-19 in one's household, reduced learning time, conflicts at home and with neighbors, difficulties of the isolation, noise inside or outside one's home, the perceived ineffectiveness of the use of media entertainment (Bourion-Bédès et al., 2021), preexisting health conditions (Kim et al., 2020), lack of access to technology (Jawad et al., 2020), need for a quiet place to study, home duties, efforts in taking care of siblings (Hoyt et al., 2020), limited class interaction and inefficient time (Chaturvedi et al., 2021), decrease in family income, lack of media access (Jawad et al., 2020), social difficulties and lack of interpersonal communication (AlAteeq et al., 2020;Chaturvedi et al., 2021), rumors, panic, the unpredictability and uncertainty of the situation (AlAteeq et al., 2020), longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom (Shafiq et al., 2021), rumination focusing on negative emotions (Ye et al., 2020), decreased motor activities, increased alcohol use and tobacco consumption, shifts in the food habits, less exposure to sunlight, and physical distancing (Bourion-Bédès et al., 2021;Ahmed et al., 2022) were some sources of stress affecting students well-being. Moreover, current studies and future career worries, non-opening of educational institutions, difficulties with the payment of tuition fees in India (Chhetri et al., 2021), academic difficulties (AlAteeq et al., 2020), worries about semester and graduation completion, being afraid of not finding a job after graduation due to a profession's lack of knowledge and professional skills (Valero-Chillerón et al., 2019), and worsening relationships (Aslan, 2021a) are some other sources of excessive stress among students. Also, in another study (Jawad et al., 2020), it was stated that many students have got graduated even without proper training and exams and that many students think that they may not be successful after graduation exams and their future will be affected due to detrimental effects on their performance. ...
... Younger students (aged 18-20 years), single, and females were more vulnerable to a traumatic event (Chhetri et al., 2021;Chodkiewicz et al., 2021). Cantürk (2014) explained higher significant stress, anxiety, and depressions level before the pandemic with hormonal changes and expression of emotions and thoughts regarding their social situation. ...
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This study aimed to find the prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression, and PTSD; differences according to demographic variables; and predictors of mental health problems during the second wave of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in Turkey. Differences in exposure to COVID-19 during the first and second waves of the pandemic among students were compared. A total of 754 students from seven universities in different parts of Turkey participated in the survey between November and December 2020. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) scale measuring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) were used to measure the mental well-being of students. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, correlations, and multinomial logistic regression methods were used to analyze the data. The prevalence of high stress, high generalized anxiety (GAD-7 ≥ 10), high depression symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 10), and high PTSD in the total sample were 84.2, 36.2, 55.0, and 61.2%, respectively. High perceived stress, moderate generalized anxiety disorder, mild depression symptoms, high severity PTSD, and moderate satisfaction were found among students in Turkey. Religiosity and spirituality have significant negative correlations with anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Religiosity level, gender, relationship status, year of study, physical activity, symptoms of coronavirus, death of a close relative, job loss, and economic status are significant parameters for predicting psychological problems of students in Turkey.
... Since early in the year 2020, social life has changed for many people around the world as a result of the pandemic, with government restrictions and new social norms leading to a reduction in mobility [2]. The impact of the Covid 19 pandemic on university students has caused an increase in their perceived stress due to reasons such as isolation, online classes, network problems and peer and parental pressure [3]. ...
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Introduction: Stress is known to be a neurological and physiological reaction of the body to adapt to a new condition. Since early in the year 2020, social life has changed for many people around the world. Government restrictions and new social norms led to a reduction in mobility. An effort to understand stress in isolated or quarantined individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic is important. The impact of the Covid 19 pandemic on university students has caused an increase in their perceived stress due to reasons such as isolation, online classes, network problems and peer and parental pressure. Our study aims to determine the prevalence of stress among university students in Cyberjaya, to compare the stress levels among students between the University of Cyberjaya and Multimedia University, and to determine the relationship between stress levels and academic performance among university students. Method: A cross sectional study which was conducted among university students from the University of Cyberjaya and Multimedia University. The participants were chosen to take part in this study through convenient sampling. The chosen participants were then required to fill out a self-administered questionnaire that was distributed online. Results: There were a total of 161 respondents to our questionnaire, with a mean age of 21.46 ± 1.63 years. The majority of the respondents for our study were females (61.5%). The prevalence of low, moderate and high perceived stress was 15.1%, 66.7% and 18.3%, respectively among students in University of Cyberjaya whereas the prevalence of low, moderate and high perceived stress in Multimedia University students was 11.8 %, 67.6% and 20.6 %, respectively. There was no significant difference between the stress levels of University of Cyberjaya students and Multimedia University students (p > 0.005). In both universities, there was no relationship between stress levels and academic performance. Conclusion: This study revealed that most of the students from University of Cyberjaya and Multimedia University appeared to be moderately stressed. There were no differences between the stress level among the students from University of Cyberjaya compared to the students from Multimedia University (p > 0.005). There was no relationship between the stress levels and academic performance among the university students from both universities (p>0.005).
... At the same time, students who feel academic pressure and employment pressure have poor sleep quality and diet (Xie et al., 2020). In addition, affected by the pandemic, the pattern of academic activities changed and longterm online learning led to the decline of students' self-management ability (Chhetri et al., 2021). Therefore, it is very important to understand the students' learning situation under the closed management mode. ...
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Aims: To understand the status quo of self-directed learning ability, self-efficacy and academic burnout of junior nursing college students, since the closed management mode was implemented during COVID-19 pandemic disease. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Participants came from 3,051 junior nursing college students of a college in Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, China. Data were collected by online questionnaire and analysed by SPSS25.0 (a statistical package for social science) and AMOS24.0 software. Results: High self-directed learning ability and self-efficacy were related to low levels of academic burnout (p < .01). In addition, the analysis of mediation effect indicated that the influence of self-directed learning ability on academic burnout was not mediated by self-efficacy.
... Approximately 1.46 million deaths out of 63.1 million confirmed cases due to the Novel Coronavirus were reported by November 30, 2020. People were living under tremendous psychological pressure (Chhetri et al., 2021). The study also mentioned that isolation, engaging in online classes, frequent network failure, and peer and parental pressure added to students' perceived stress. ...
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Yoga and meditation have become widely accepted as nonpharmacologic modalities for stress and anxiety reduction as well as general health. Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) School of Health Sciences (SOHS) launched a six months-long Certificate Programme in Yoga (CPY) in July 2019 for students who have cleared their 12th class. The objective of this study was to find out the effects of online yoga training on self-perceived stress among the students of the CPY programme enrolled during the academic year 2021. This was a study with both pre- and post-tests and was carried out on the students of the CPY programme between March and December 2021. A total of 69 and 81 students participated from the January 2021 and July 2021 batches, respectively. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used as a tool to measure the level of stress. A structured close-ended questionnaire was sent by Google Forms to ascertain self-perceived stress. The total mean value of the PSS score after online yoga training decreased from 18 + 5.9 SD in the pretest to 13.7 + 6.5 SD in the post-test of students from the January 2021 batch, and from 17.4 + 5.8 SD in the pre-test to 13.1 + 5.6 SD in the post-test of students from the July 2021 batch. The difference of mean value of pre-test and post-test of both the batches of students after online yoga training were significant (p value < 0.0001). The online yoga training was effective in reduction of perceived stress score among the students of the Certificate Programme in Yoga (CPY).
... PSS showed significant results in low, moderate, and severe stress levels. Similar to the current study's results, (AlAteeq et al., 2020; Chhetri et al., 2021) found that students showed low stress category as the most prevailing one, followed by severe, then moderate stress. However, (Beltran et al., 2020;Hoyt et al., 2020) found that the moderate category was the highest, followed by intense, mild, then severe. ...
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COVID-19 is a serious pandemic that has changed the world economically, socially, and even educationally. For precautionary purposes, the higher education system in Morocco has decided to go for Emergency Remote Education (ERE) during the academic year 2020-2021. Like many other universities, Ibn Tofail University (ITU) has opted for online platforms to contain the spread of the virus. However, this sudden shift to online classes due to Covid-19 has had tremendous psychological effects on students’ wellbeing. Actually, this study sought to investigate stress and anxiety as consequences of ERE affecting Ibn Tofail students, particularly semester (S)1, semester (S)3, and semester (S)5 students majoring in English studies during the Fall session of 2021. The study was also meant to measure the level of stress and anxiety among ITU English students according to their study level, gender, and age. This cross-sectional study was conducted in March by the end of the Fall session of 2021. It used Psychological Stress Scale (PSS) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) to test students’ stress and anxiety levels. Data were collected from three-levels of students; S1, S3, and S5, n=277, using a survey in Google Form. The survey was sent to students via their institutional emails, Google Classrooms, and Facebook groups. The results were processed and analyzed using SPSS version 26 software which indicated that 31.8% of students experienced severe stress, and 31% showed severe anxiety. Another interesting finding was that female students were more prone to stress and anxiety than male students. Nevertheless, it was surprising that stress and anxiety levels differed among students according to their age and did not vary according to their study level.
... Christopoulos et al. [3] studied the hurdles educators confronted while embracing the ICT techniques amidst the global COVID-19 pandemic. The authors studied the integration of digital technologies in remote education and realized the immediate need for prompt decisions, potential analysis of ICT tools, and their trials. ...
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The notion of information and communication technology (ICT) appeared in the 1970s and has been in intense practice for the last two decades. Computers, smartphones, gadgets, and information technologies have influenced almost all spheres of the lives of the middle-class and upper-class population around the globe. Since the inception of the year 2020, the whole world has been witnessing the gravest pandemic in the history of mankind and its consequences: life during lockdowns, unlocks, vaccination drives, and preparations for probable future bursts of the virus. The modern-age armament, ICT tools, and its knowledge made the simulation of contemporary operational processes feasible in the hard pandemic times. In the present research, the need, role, and impact of ICT tools have been thoroughly studied and analyzed in the educational, medical, social, governance, cultural, commercial, and judicial realms. This study compares the operations being practiced in the current pandemic with those of previous pandemics when the ICT tools did not exist at all. Finally, the limitations of ICT-driven tools and knowledge during pandemic emergencies are discussed, and their scope and possibilities in the post-pandemic world are explored in the light of the probable future pandemic situations. The whole world is now sticking to one idea: maintain social distance anyhow! And ICT tools can be the only answer to implement this practice in reality while keeping the various human operations alive in pandemic emergencies.KeywordsICTCOVID-19Pandemice-Governancee-CourtIndustry 4.0Education 4.0
Due to COVID-19 the Indonesian Government issued a policy for Indonesian students to carry out learning activities from home. Teenagers are one of the main victims of the effects of the quarantine strategy, so they are vulnerable to various mental health problems. This study aimed to find out the relationship between the factors in stress levels in adolescents in the Public Health Center. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Juny 2021 until August 2021 at Public Health Center and involves 170 respondents. The sample was filled in questionnaires based on six variables studied: age 13-24 years, gender, education level consisting of middle school, high school, and college, sleep quality, academic burden, and online learning with stress levels. Furthermore, this research conducted data analysis and coding, which was then compiled in the discussion. The study used primary data by filling out Google forms independently and then analyzed using a univariate test, and bivariate analysis tests and then processed using SPSS. The chi-square statistical test found a relationship between the variables of gender, online learning system, academic load, and sleep quality with levels, namely sig values = 0.019; 0.018; 0.001; 0.002. Meanwhile, the age and education level variables were not found to correlate with stress levels with sig values = 0.376 and 0.240. After the multivariate test, the results obtained were not significant (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the results of this study were clinically significant but not statistically significant. There was a relationship between gender, online learning system, academic load, and sleep quality on stress levels in adolescents. Further study is needed on other factors that can affect the stress levels of adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as economic, social and social interaction. The Public Health Center is expected to form a consulting team or work with psychologists and psychiatrists that aims to be a forum for consultation on mental health and reduce stress cases in adolescents. Furthermore, school-age and teenage health programs can work together with mental-health programs to conduct stress screening in adolescents. Keywords: stress, adolescents, COVID 19, online learning
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Background: India has been badly affected by Covid-19 not only in terms of human lives but also has a long-term effect on mental health of the population. This paper is an attempt to understand the psychological effects of the pandemic on the college and university students in India after the second wave of COVID-19 outbreak and its associated factors. Method: A web-based survey was conducted to collect information from the students both at individual and household level. The study applied binary and multivariate logistic regression to estimate the adjusted and unadjusted marginal effects of the predictor variables. Result: Results show a significant increase in mental health concerns during the second wave of the pandemic, as compared to the first year. The key factors contributing to the higher prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress are the difficulties faced in the adaptation to the new way of learning, fear of discontinuation of education due to financial constraints faced by household, limited physical interaction, and prolonged screen-time during the pandemic. Limitation: The study has some limitations regarding selection of the sample as the survey was web-based. Also, the mental health situation of the students is self-reported and the study does not consider the prevailing mental health issues before the pandemic. Conclusion: The study recommends initiatives like offering counselling classes and strategies to cope up with mental health disorders. Further, there is a need to conduct follow-up studies to assess the long-term impacts of prolonged home quarantine on the mental health of the students.
COVID-19 pandemic has badly burdened the medical facilities and paramedics. There are ever-rising apprehensions about COVID-19 management and its control, as its management required expensive diagnosis, control treatment, continuous monitoring, and regular follow-ups during the pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic has radically changed the medical practitioners’ approach towards the treatment of the patient. Owing to COVID-19, there has been a rapid change in how medical facilities are administered as technological advances are being accepted and adopted in the medical field broadly, and especially facilities like telemedicine and virtual care are gaining wider acceptance. Telemedicine and virtual care refer to providing healthcare services using digital platforms and making use of advanced information and communications technology (ICT) for the treatment of patients. Telemedicine helps in safeguarding the paramedics and patients from exposure to COVID-19 pandemics by reducing exposure and helps in extending timely care as it is cheap and available to every person and reduces the hassle of commuting. Further steps are being taken to further enhance the facilities by adopting new communication technologies for the communication of telemedicine and treatment.KeywordsCOVID-19TelemedicineTechnologyDigital devicePatients
Increasing advancements in the medical equipment and wearable and implantable devices and technologies promise to revolutionize the healthcare sector. Today is the era of delivering personalized healthcare with the help of technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), smartphone applications, artificial intelligence, and big data. The smart information and communication technologies do not only offer a chance for patients and medical experts for timely recognition of health state, but also provide an opportunity to develop customized solution that could fit best for each patient, rather than relying on generic treatment methods. Hence, it is expected that the use of Internet technologies for the domain of healthcare will improve the quality of health for people all over the world. In this chapter, we present a detailed overview of the emerging technologies of smartphone applications, Internet of Things, and artificial intelligence being used for personalized care in the present times. Moreover, we also discuss the crucial challenges associated with personalized healthcare solutions along with the expected future trends that could further enhance the quality of personalized care in future.KeywordsTelehealthInternet of ThingsArtificial intelligenceBig data
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This framework model has been designed with the in-tegration of both cloud and artificial intelligence technolo-gies. The database of incident management system collects the local data of mental and physical states of onboard iso-lated (or quarantined) seafarers by COVID-19. The seafarer can be registered into the given application and record the parameters (i.e., body temperature, pulse rate, body mass index, blood pressure, heart rate, etc.) to monitor regu-lar health conditions. When an onboard person feels that he/she got a sudden hike in body temperature, or having breathing issues, smart phone application alerts the sea-farer and makes an immediate appointment by contacting the emergency centre.
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The current study aimed to determine the level of fear of COVID-19 among Indian residents using the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) and compare it with demographic variables. This cross-sectional online survey conducted among the Indian population employed a convenient snowball sampling technique. Age, gender, marital status, educational qualifications, health care worker status and state of residence were the demographic details (six items) collected. The seven-item FCV-19S was used to assess fear regarding COVID−19 on a five-point Likert scale. The mean score for the responses was calculated and compared based on demographic variables. A comparison of low and high levels of fear and a multiple logistic regression analysis of levels of fear with demographic variables were conducted. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The study population comprised 45.6% (683) males and 54.4% (816) females, with approximately 68% belonging to the age group of 20–40 years. The overall mean score for the questionnaire was 18.00 + 5.68. A significantly higher number of the study population reported low fear (54.8%). Only gender (p = 0.08) and health care worker status (p = 0.02) revealed a significant difference based on the level of fear. Females, married status, lower educational status and being a health care worker displayed significantly higher odds for high level of fear compared to their respective counterparts in this study population. The findings of this study may help to identify the groups most at risk and formulate tailor-made intervention strategies to ensure their optimal health in this time of global crisis.
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INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 is the latest virus responsible for an outburst of a unique respiratory infection identified as COVID-19. The virus popularly known as Corona Virus has spread quickly in recent days from China to several other countries around the world. Health is always of prime concern for mankind. Computing is playing an important role in improving the current state of the healthcare industry. OBJECTIVES: This paper focuses on summarizing the happenings about the corona virus and the disease spread. This review study concentrates on the history of the virus, its technical details, the disease caused by the virus, its symptoms and precautions. The study also tries to develop an understanding of the role of technology in dealing with the outbreak, its impact in diverse fields, and the current state of the pandemic. METHODS: This work is an attempt towards presenting a perspective of computing and technology in fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: This work presents a perspective showing technology in healthcare as a rescuer in such situations. In this survey, we simply discuss SARS-COV2 and COVID-19 from different perspectives in order to serve as a quick reference for the readers and to achieve a better insight into the fast-evolving pandemic. CONCLUSION: Social distancing, staying home and lockdown are some known solutions to combat the pandemic in the absence of the vaccine, and technology can play a significant role in combating the pandemic.
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COVID-19 had become a pandemic raising concerns of widespread panic and increasing anxiety and stress in individuals all over the world (World Health Organization, 2020a). Lots of countries had closed their schools. As the first country to do so, Chinese colleges and universities were making use of different modes of learning, including online-learning based on different platforms to achieve the goal suggested by Ministry of Education in China, “suspending classes without suspending learning,” since middle February. This paper is the first one which aims to investigate the anxiety of Chinese university students after the outbreak of COVID-19 right before the start of new spring term. 3611 university students (female: male = 1.48:1) aged between 18 to 24 from all over China were enrolled to this study from a top university in China. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale – SAS (Zung, 1971) was used to assess anxiety 2 days before the start of new spring term in middle February. All four-year undergraduate students were included in the study. The mean SAS score was 40.53 (SD = 10.15), significantly higher than the national norm (Mean = 29.78, SD = 10.07, and p ≤ .001), and there were still 557 (15.43%, Mean = 58.75, and SD = 8.9) students met the cutoff of 50 and were screened positive. Comparisons among sexes, grades and majors were also conducted. Significant differences were found between all males and all female (p ≤ .001), and between all students majoring arts and sciences in the anxiety sample (n = 557, p = 0.05). The results also showed that the mean SAS scores were not correlated with the regions they came from/lived in. This study concluded that the Chinese university students showed higher anxiety for COVID-19.
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Background: On February 2020, the novel coronavirus (2019−nCoV) epidemic began in Italy. In order to contain the spread of the virus, the Italian government adopted emergency measures nationwide, including closure of schools and universities, workplaces and subsequently lockdown. This survey was carried out among Italian undergraduates to explore their level of knowledge about the epidemic and the behaviors they adopted during the lockdown. Methods: An electronic questionnaire was administered to the students attending three Italian universities. Results: A good level of knowledge about the epidemic and its control was registered in the sample, mainly among students attending life sciences degree courses. The majority of the students did not modify their diet and smoking habits, while a great part of the sample reported a decrease in physical activity (PA). Conclusions: Students from life sciences courses showed a higher awareness regarding the infection and the control measures. The lockdown caused an important reduction of PA. Preventive interventions should transform the restrictive measures also as an opportunity to improve lifestyle.
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The aim of this study was to elicit the views of medical faculty students regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. This descriptive study was performed with Ondokuz Mayıs University Medical Faculty students on 24–27 March, 2020. The Medical Faculty currently has 2051 students. A questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. For that purpose, the authors designed a questionnaire specifically for this research via the “Google Forms” web. This consisted of 40 open- and close-ended questions. The questionnaire was completed by 1375 (67.1%) students. Accordingly, 52.4% of medical students reported feeling mentally unwell. Although 50.8% of medical students reported generally/usually obtaining information about COVID-19 through the social media, 82.0% did not trust information/messages arriving through the social media and WhatsApp. We found that 86.7% of students regarded frequent hand washing as the most important means of protection against COVID-19, and 19.3% of students did not regard the COVID-19 pandemic as a severe public health problem for Turkey at that moment. In addition, 61.6% of students stated that a suppression strategy involving tight restrictions need to be applied to being the pandemic under control in Turkey. Use can be made of medical students in the transmission of accurate information during the COVID-19 pandemic. Students can be excellent activists on these subjects in countries in which medical education is suspended. Measures therefore need to be taken concerning the transmission of up to date and accurate information to medical students.
To assess the impact of lockdown amidst COVID-19 on undergraduate and postgraduate learners of various colleges and universities of West Bengal. An online survey was conducted from 1 May to 8 May 2020 to collect the information. A structural questionnaire link using ‘Google form’ was sent to students’ through WhatsApp and E-mail. A total of 232 students provided complete information regarding the survey. The simple percentage distribution was used to assess the learning status of the study participants. During the lockdown period, around 70% of learners were involved in e-learning. Most of the learners were used android mobile for attending e-learning. Students have been facing various problems related to depression anxiety, poor internet connectivity, and unfavorable study environment at home. Students from remote areas and marginalized sections mainly face enormous challenges for the study during this pandemic. This study suggests targeted interventions to create a positive space for study among students from the vulnerable section of society. Strategies are urgently needed to build a resilient education system in the state that will ensure to develop the skill for employability and the productivity of the young minds.
According to cognitive-behavioral models, traits, triggering events, cognitions, and adverse behaviors play a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of health anxiety. During virus outbreaks, anxiety is widespread. However, the role of trait health anxiety, cyberchondria, and coping in the context of virus anxiety during the current COVID-19 pandemic has not yet been studied. An online survey was conducted in the German general population (N = 1,615, 79.8% female, Mage = 33.36 years, SD = 13.18) in mid-March 2020, which included questionnaires on anxiety associated with SARS-CoV-2, trait health anxiety, cyberchondriaPandemic (i.e. excessive online information search), and emotion regulation. The participants reported a significantly increasing virus anxiety in recent months (previous months recorded retrospectively), especially among individuals with heightened trait health anxiety. CyberchondriaPandemic showed positive correlations with current virus anxiety (r = .09 – .48), and this relationship was additionally moderated by trait health anxiety. A negative correlation was found between the perception of being informed about the pandemic and the current virus anxiety (r=-.18), with adaptive emotion regulation being a significant moderator for this relationship. The findings suggest that trait health anxiety and cyberchondria serve as risk factors, whereas information about the pandemic and adaptive emotion regulation might represent buffering factors for anxiety during a virus pandemic.
The aim of this study was to analyze the psychological impact of COVID-19 in the university community during the first weeks of confinement. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) was employed to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. The emotional impact of the situation was analyzed using the Impact of Event Scale. An online survey was fulfilled by 2530 members of the University of Valladolid, in Spain. Moderate to extremely severe scores of anxiety, depression, and stress were reported by 21.34%, 34.19% and 28.14% of the respondents, respectively. A total of 50.43% of respondents presented moderate to severe impact of the outbreak. Students from Arts & Humanities and Social Sciences & Law showed higher scores related to anxiety, depression, stress and impact of event with respect to students from Engineering & Architecture. University staff presented lower scores in all measures compared to students, who seem to have suffered an important psychological impact during the first weeks of the COVID-19 lockdown. In order to provide timely crisis-oriented psychological services and to take preventive measures in future pandemic situations, mental health in university students should be carefully monitored.