ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

As a result of the global COVID-19 pandemic, we are facing challenges of the social and economic crisis. Its effects are difficult to estimate, but the impact on the tourism industry is undeniable. This is also true of the behavior of consumers of tourism services, whose attitudes towards travel are likely to change radically. The aim of the study presented in this article is to determine how Polish tourists have changed their travel plans and the way they organize their travels during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors argue that the pandemic is an inhibitor of tourist activity. Data for the study were collected using an online pilot survey of 190 Polish adults. The first part of the questionnaire included general demographic questions about the respondents. The main part was divided into three sections related to COVID-19 and regarding: 1) changes in their occupational status and financial well-being, 2) their travel plans, and 3) their willingness to use peer-to-peer accommodation (e.g. Airbnb). The results show that the pandemic is not only an inhibitor of tourist activity, but can also trigger the substitution effect in the tourism market. Potential tourists can choose not to buy tourism services and instead spend their money on other forms of leisure (“external” substitution outside the tourist market) or can choose a more competitively priced tourism service (“internal” substitution). The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected the financial well-being and occupational status of some respondents and the vast majority of respondents have had to modify or cancel their holiday plans. While the pandemic may help to stimulate domestic tourism, the preference for self-organized holiday trips, expressed by the respondents, herald further problems of tour operators. Although the financial well-being of many respondents has deteriorated, the number of those interested in cheaper accommodation for future trips was much smaller compared to those who reported such a preference before the pandemic.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Studia Periegetica no. 4(32)/2020
DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0014.6526
** Poznań University of Economics and Business (Poland), Department of International Eco-
nomics, email: klaudyna.kowalska@ue.poznan.pl, orcid.org/0000-0002-7490-3750
** Poznań University of Economics and Business (Poland), Department of International Eco-
nomics, email: agnieszka.niezgoda@ue.poznan.pl, orcid.org/0000-0002-2456-1633
Klaudyna KowalsKa*, agnieszKa niezgoda**
COVID-19 as atourist activity inhibitor
as evidenced by Poles’ holiday plans
Abstract. As aresult of the global COVID-19 pandemic, we are facing challenges of the social
and economic crisis. Its eects are dicult to estimate, but the impact on the tourism industry
is undeniable. is is also true of the behavior of consumers of tourism services, whose aitudes
towards travel are likely to change radically. e aim of the study presented in this article is to de-
termine how Polish tourists have changed their travel plans and the way they organize their travels
during and aer the COVID-19 pandemic. e authors argue that the pandemic is an inhibitor of
tourist activity. Data for the study were collected using an online pilot survey of 190 Polish adults.
e rst part of the questionnaire included general demographic questions about the respondents.
e main part was divided into three sections related to COVID-19 and regarding: 1) changes in
their occupational status and nancial well-being, 2) their travel plans, and 3) their willingness to
use peer-to-peer accommodation (e.g. Airbnb). e results show that the pandemic is not only
an inhibitor of tourist activity, but can also trigger the substitution eect in the tourism market.
Potential tourists can choose not to buy tourism services and instead spend their money on other
forms of leisure (“external” substitution outside the tourist market) or can choose amore competi-
tively priced tourism service (“internal” substitution). e COVID-19 pandemic has negatively
aected the nancial well-being and occupational status of some respondents and the vast majority
of respondents have had to modify or cancel their holiday plans. While the pandemic may help to
stimulate domestic tourism, the preference for self-organized holiday trips, expressed by the re-
spondents, herald further problems of tour operators. Although the nancial well-being of many
respondents has deteriorated, the number of those interested in cheaper accommodation for future
trips was much smaller compared to those who reported such apreference before the pandemic.
Keywords: tourist activity inhibitors; COVID-19; consumer behavior; peer-to-peer accommo-
dation
JEL Codes: Z30, I31, Z19
10 Klaudyna Kowalska, Agnieszka Niezgoda
1. Introduction
Consumer behavior is part of the general theory of behavior. In abroad sense,
‘behavior’ describes aset of reactions to environmental stimuli, and in anarrow
sense, it is areaction or the totality of reactions that make up activities and ac-
tions (Kufel &Mruk, 1998, p. 9). rough these reactions, aperson responds to
or transforms external factors. Consumer behavior, in general, is dened as all
activities and modes of action aimed at obtaining and handling the means of sat-
isfying needs (Rudnicki, 2010, p. 8). According to Hansen (1975, p. 23), con-
sumer behavior encompasses all the activities and perceptions of the consumer
that lead to choosing aproduct or service for use or consumption. In tourism,
the product is very complex and most of its elements can be classied as aser-
vice. Most of the literature on consumer behavior in tourism is dedicated to
the problem of decision making models because of the complexity of this pro-
cess. e most frequently discussed models include those formulated by Got-
tfried Schmoll (1977), Victor T. C. Middleton (1988) and Seoho Um and John
Crompton (1990). ese models emphasize external factors of consumers’ ac-
tions, ignoring the inuence of random, sudden and unforeseen factors, such as
the COVID-19 pandemic, which has aected the global economy, especially the
tourism market.
e situation caused by COVID-19 is the worst crisis that international tour-
ism has faced since 1950 (UNWTO, 2020a). According to the data presented by
UNWTO (2020b), in July and August 2020, the peak of the tourist season, the
number of international arrivals decreased by 81% and 79% respectively, compared
to the previous year. e crisis developed suddenly, on alarge scale, and changes
in mobility, socialization and consumption paerns, work and leisure or many dif-
ferent socioeconomic dimensions are very likely (Romagosa, 2020). is is also
true of the behavior of consumers of tourism services, whose aitudes towards
travel have changed radically. e aim of the study presented in this article is to
determine how Polish tourists have changed their travel plans and the way they
organize their travels during and aer the COVID-19 pandemic. e authors argue
that the pandemic is an inhibitor of tourist activity.
2. COVID-19 and tourism – research review
A number of studies about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism
have appeared in arelatively short period of time. Research in this area covers
various more specic topics, such as the impact of COVID-19 on the global
COVID-19 as a tourist activity inhibitor as evidenced by Poles’ holiday plans 11
tourism industry (Uğur & Akbıyık, 2020), the impact on tourists’ behavior
(Chebli & Ben Said, 2020; Chua et al., 2020; Sánchez-Cañizares et al., 2020;
Shin & Kang, 2020) and eects on tourists’ psyche (Kock et al., 2020), acom-
parison of the current pandemic to previous ones and other types of global
crises (Gössling, Sco, & Hall, 2020), the social costs of tourism during the
pandemic in urban destinations (Qiu et al. 2020), sustainability issues (Higgins-
-Desbiolles, 2020) and preferred research agenda (Zenker & Kock, 2020). e
pandemic is also becoming increasingly popular with Polish researchers (Ta-
ble1). Topics of interests include, among others, declines in tourism expendi-
Table 1. COVID-19 and tourism in Polish research literature
Author Subject/aim Overall results
Grabiński & Borkows-
ki, 2020
e study estimated lost tourism revenue
in the municipality of Krakow in 2020 in
relation to 2019.
ree estimates of lost revenue were of-
fered (in PLN): 6528 billion (pessimis-
tic), 5783 billion (neutral) and 4225 bil-
lion (optimistic).
Napierała Leśniewska-
Napierała, & Burski,
2020
e study described the short-term im-
pacts of reported new cases and deaths of
the COVID-19 disease on hotels’ perfor-
mances in Poland’s nine major urban ho-
tel markets: Kraków, Warszawa, Poznań,
Wrocław, Gdańsk, Lublin, Łódź, Kato-
wice, and Sopot (p. 1).
e biggest negative impact of the pan-
demic on hotel performances is con-
rmed at the European level; the negative
inuence of national cases of COVID-19
is more evident in less internationalized
or less-populated urban destinations.
Niewiadomski, 2020 e COVID-19 crisis as apossible oppor-
tunity to renew tourism towards sustain-
ab ility.
e world is currently experiencing
atemporary de-globalization, which pro-
vides the global tourism industry with
aunique chance for areboot and recon-
guration towards sustainability.
Protroom, 2020 e study examined the holiday plans of
Poles.
Almost 80% of the respondents were
planning to go on vacation despite the
pandemic, but 75% did not make any res-
ervations. About 30% considered going
abroad, and 25% were planning to spend
less on vacations than ayear ago.
Walas & Kruczek,
2020
e study collected opinions of Krakow’s
tourism entrepreneurs about the impact
of the pandemic on their activities and
their expectations concerning tools of
marketing communication that could fa-
cilitate recovery (p. 79).
e results of the survey reveal the level
of economic losses anticipated by tourism
entrepreneurs and their predicted occur-
rence over time, opinions about the likely
sequence in which particular tourism
products in Krakow are going to recover,
as well as expectations concerning the
tools of marketing communication that
could facilitate the recovery (p. 92).
Source: own research.
12 Klaudyna Kowalska, Agnieszka Niezgoda
ture (Grabiński & Borkowski, 2020), the impact of the pandemic on the supply
of tourism (Napierała, Leśniewska-Napierała, & Burski, 2020; Walas & Kru-
czek, 2020), prospects for achange of direction in the development of tourism
(Niewiadomski, 2020) and achange in consumers’ behavior aer the pandemic
(Protroom, 2020).
e behavior of consumers of tourist services during the COVID-19 pandemic
is an extremely interesting research topic. e direction of research conducted by
Protroom (2020) seems to be very promising but does not take into account the
change in respondents’ aitudes, i.e. their plans before and aer the pandemic.
Additionally, aquarter of respondents in that study said they were planning to
spend less on vacations. It is necessary to verify whether consumers intend to look
for cheaper accommodation, which represents aconsiderable component of all
expenses during tourist trips. e sharing economy, involving the use of underuti-
lized assets, became very popular as aresult of the nancial crisis of 2008 (Böcker
& Meelen, 2017, s. 30), when people experienced signicant nancial diculties,
which prompted them to reassess their consumption paerns (Belk, 2014; Böcker
& Meelen, 2017; Gansky, 2010; Stępnicka & Wiączek, 2018). Similar diculties
occur during the COVID-19 pandemic, which is why it is worth investigating
whether people intend to use peer-to-peer accommodation, which is the most
popular form of accommodation oered by the sharing economy – especially since
one of the most important reasons for choosing this option, as conrmed in the
literature, is the desire to cut expenses (Pawlicz, 2019). e following pilot study
is aimed at covering the identied research gap.
3. COVID -19 as an inhibitor of tourist activity
Roman Frydman and Michael Goldberg (2009) developed amodel of imperfect
knowledge, arguing that mathematical models are unable to accurately reect the
behavior of markets in the modern economy. e unpredictability of the eects
of COVID 19 is conrmed by areview of the most popular models of consumer
behavior, which do not account for such asituation. One of the basic “black box”
models is the one proposed by Philip Kotler (1994), which does not account
for any external factors, which could include situations like asudden pandemic.
Amore detailed model of the consumer decision-making environment (Phipps
& Simmons, 1997) does not mention such factors either. e inclusion of emer-
gency situations and external factors, which do not depend on supply or con-
sumer characteristics, is particularly important for the tourism market, because
tourism essentially involves the movement of consumers, which was limited dur-
ing the pandemic.
COVID-19 as a tourist activity inhibitor as evidenced by Poles’ holiday plans 13
Similarly, external factors are not included either in the model proposed by
Middleton (1988) or in the one developed by Um and Crompton (1990), and
the model designed by Schmoll (1977) only contains “assessment of objective
and subjective risks” in the category of “external variables”. is deciency was
noticed by Wiesław Alejziak (2009), who postulated the need to study tourist
travel inhibitors, which he called “reasons for not leaving” (Alejziak, 2009, p. 384).
e author points to an impressive number of theories and models explaining the
causes or limitations of tourist activity with amodest body of research on barriers
and activity inhibitors. However, most inhibitors are directly related to tourists
themselves (e.g. disability, age). While researching the barriers of recreational and
tourist activity, Jacek Gracz and Tadeusz Sankowski (2001) distinguished external
non-personal barriers, which included time decit, organizational obstacles and
weather conditions. However, crisis situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic,
were not mentioned. Such situations, however, aect consumer behavior, possibly
causing them to change their holiday plans in dierent ways. e results of the
study described in this article show how varied such reactions can be.
4. Materials and methods
e empirical part of the study was devoted to the relationship between COV-
ID-19 and tourists’ behavior. Answers collected in the survey were used to deter-
mine the impact of the pandemic on Polish tourists’ travel plans during and aer
the pandemic. With this general goal in mind, three specic research questions
were asked:
1. How has the nancial well-being and professional situation of the respond-
ents changed?
2. Did the respondents have to change their plans concerning holiday trips?
3. Do the respondents intend to use peer-to-peer accommodation and look
for cheaper accommodation in the new post-COVID-19 reality?
Data for the study were collected using an online pilot survey of 190 Polish
adults, who completed aself-administered questionnaire in May 2020, during the
lockdown. As it was apilot study, non-probability sampling was considered to be
an adequate choice („Nonprobability Sampling”, 2008). Only adults were included
in the sample because of their full legal capacity and ability to make purchasing
decisions. Taking into account the exploratory nature of the study, its aim was
to collect initial data and to establish preliminary relationships between tourist
behavior and the COVID-19 pandemic.
e questionnaire consisted of close-ended questions. e rst part contained
7 demographic about respondents’ sex, age, education level, place of residence,
14 Klaudyna Kowalska, Agnieszka Niezgoda
marital status, having children, occupational status. e main part of the question-
naire, including 14 questions, was divided into three sections related to COVID-19
and regarding: 1) changes in the respondents’ occupational status and nancial
well-being; 2) their travel plans; 3) and their willingness to use peer-to-peer ac-
commodation (e.g. Airbnb). Basic descriptive statistics were computed using
SPSS Statistics. Since it was apilot study, no aempt was made to determine the
appropriate sample size (which is the commonly the case in this type of study)
(„Pilot Studies”, 2018) and no hypotheses were tested.
5. Study results
5.1. Characteristics of the respondents
e sample consisted of 190 respondents (70.5% women and 29.5% men). e
youngest one was 20 years old and the oldest – 73. e majority of respondents
were aged between 20 and 39. More than ahalf were employed (59.5%), and
the vast majority were in arelationship (32.6% – cohabiting, 43.7% – married).
63.7% of respondents did not have any children. Adetailed breakdown of the
demographic characteristics of the respondents is presented in Table 2.
5.2. Changes in occupational status and nancial well-being
One of the questions concerned changes in the occupational status due to
the pandemic. 32.6% of respondents said their occupational situation had not
changed (Fig. 1). 40% reported from home (in contrast to having worked in the
oce previously), 8.4% did not work owing to atemporary closure of the work-
place. 3 respondents (1.6%) had to close their own company, 3 others were laid
o, and only 1 person (0.5%) took childcare leave. 15.3% of respondents report-
ed other situations. e most frequently mentioned included reduced working
hours (6.3%), loss of job due to COVID-19 and nding anew one (2.6%) or un-
paid leave (1.6%). Asmall percentage reported being part of ahybrid workforce
model (a mix of working from home and the oce – 1.6%).
Respondents were also asked whether their overall nancial situation had de-
teriorated as aresult of the pandemic (Fig.2). 58.9% answered that the situation
remained unchanged, 37.4% admied that they were indeed worse o nancially
and 3.7% could not decide how to answer this question.
COVID-19 as a tourist activity inhibitor as evidenced by Poles’ holiday plans 15
Table 2. Characteristics of the respondents in the sample
Variable n%
Sex Female 134 70.5
Male 56 29.5
Age group < 1951 1 0.53
1951-1960 7 3.68
1961-1970 10 5.26
1971-1980 15 7.89
1981-1990 82 43.16
1991-2000 75 39.47
Education
level
Primary 0 0.0
Secondary 36 18.9
University 152 80.0
Vocational 2 1.1
Place of
residence
Town with up to 50,000 inhabitants 48 25.3
City with 50,000-500,000 inhabitants 25 13.2
City with 500,000 or more inhabitants 96 50.5
Rural area 21 11.1
Occupa-
tional
status
Unemployed 4 2.1
Retiree / Pensioner 2 1.1
On leave (maternity. post-maternity) 9 4.7
Undeclared work (no contract) 1 0.5
Self-employed 28 14.7
University student 15 7.9
Primary or secondary school pupil 1 0.5
Employed under an employment contract 113 59.5
Employed under acontract of mandate or contract for specic work 17 8.9
Marital
status
Cohabiting 62 32.6
Married 83 43.7
Single 43 22.6
Widow/widower 2 1.1
Having
children
No 121 63.7
Yes 69 36.3
Source: own research.
16 Klaudyna Kowalska, Agnieszka Niezgoda
5.3. Travel plans before, during and after the pandemic
Before the epidemic, 75.3% of respondents had plans to go abroad that year, and
55.3% wanted to spend vacations in Poland. Only 2.6% did not plan any trips,
while asimilar percentage chose the “I don’t know” option.
Of those planning adomestic tourist trip, 18.9% cancelled their reservations
and 13.7% postpone them. 34.2% of the respondents had not managed to book
places by the time the pandemic started, and 17.9% did not take any actions be-
cause they hoped that by the time they were supposed to go on vacation, the situ-
ation would have stabilized. 4.2% went through with their holiday plans despite
the pandemic.
Fig. 1. Changes in the occupational situation
Source: own research.
Fig. 2. Changes in the respondents’ nancial well-being
Source: own research.
COVID-19 as a tourist activity inhibitor as evidenced by Poles’ holiday plans 17
As regards plans of holidays abroad, 35.3% of people cancelled their reser-
vations. 12.1% postponed them and 28.4% had not booked anything when the
pandemic started. 7.9% hoped that by the time of departure the situation would
have seled down. None of the respondents went through with their travel plans
during the pandemic (owing to closed borders, cancelled ights, etc.).
e respondents were also asked if they were planning any tourist trips that
year aer travel restrictions were lied and the borders reopened. 61.1% said they
wanted to go on aself-organized trip in Poland and 27.4% were planning aself-
organized trip abroad. Only one person said they were planning adomestic trip
organized by atravel agency; 7.9% respondents wanted to go on package holidays
abroad. 13.2% decided not to go anywhere that year, while 15.8% had not made
adecision yet.
When asked whether they were planning to make any tourist trips aer the
epidemic ended (i.e. when the virus stops spreading in Poland and abroad, when
there are no new cases and travel restrictions have been lied), 87.4% of respond-
ents answered positively, 2.1% said they were not going to travel and 10.5% chose
the “I don’t know” option.
68.2% of respondents who expressed willingness to go on holiday trips aer
the pandemic was over (166) were planning self-organized stays in Poland. 50.3%
wanted to organize their own trip abroad, while 23.1% of respondents thought
about booking aforeign holiday through atravel agency. Only 1.2 % of respondents
(2 persons) were considering an organized trip in Poland. 2.9% chose the option
“I don’t know” option.
5.4. The type of accommodation chosen before
and after the pandemic
Respondents who were planning to travel aer the end of the pandemic and who
were still undecided were asked what kind of accommodation they used most of-
ten during their holidays. 64.5% of respondents indicated hotels, 56.5% – apart-
ments, 38.7% – guesthouses, 33.3% – guest rooms, 25.3% – hostels, 14% – agri-
tourism farms, 12.9% – holiday resorts, 10.2% – camping sites, 8.6% – mountain
hostels, 8.1% – travel lodge, and 3.2% – motels. 16.1% of respondents reported
staying overnight in the homes of their relatives and friends. Additionally, one
person indicated aboat, and 5 mentioned Airbnb as aseparate accommodation
type.
When asked about the use of Airbnb, 55.4% of respondents (103) said they
had not used accommodation oered through this platform during their previous
trips. 44.1% indicated they had made reservations through Airbnb, and one person
chose the “I don’t know” option.
18 Klaudyna Kowalska, Agnieszka Niezgoda
As for respondents’ plans to use the Airbnb platform aer the end of the
epidemic, 25.3% replied they did not intend to use it, 30.1% wanted to use the
platform, and 44.6% were undecided. Respondents who answered positively to
this question were asked why they intended to use Airbnb aer the pandemic.
e following categories were selected: prices (73.3%), booking (51.2%), quality
(39.5%), location (39.5%), amenities (24.4%), safety (24.4%), interaction with
the host (23.3%). Afew respondents mentioned wanting to support people who
earned income from the application and local experiences.
Among those not intending to use Airbnb aer the pandemic, the most fre-
quently selected categories included unfamiliarity with the platform (61.7%),
safety (19.1%), interactions with the host (12.8%), quality (8.5%), booking
method (6.4%), amenities (4.3%) and price (2.1%). Four people preferred other
booking platforms, one wanted to feel anonymous on vacation, one preferred
more comfortable conditions oered by hotels (e.g. catering), and one did not use
Airbnb because she travelled with asmall child. No one indicated the location of
Airbnb lodgings as ademotivating factor.
ere was also variation regarding the intention of using cheaper accom-
modation in connection with the epidemic. Only 2.7% of respondents said that
Table 3. Occupational status and willingness to use cheaper accommodation
Occupational status /
cheaper accommo-
dation
Unemployed
Retiree / Pensioner
Leave (maternity. post-maternity)
Undeclared work (no contract)
Self-employed
Student
Primary or secondary school pupil
Employed – employment contract
Employed – contract of mandate /
contract of aspecic work
Denitely not
%
25 0 22.2 0 3.6 20 100 12.4 5.9
Probably not 25 0 66.7 0 46.4 46.7 0 35.4 29.4
I don’t know 50 0 11.1 100 25 6.7 0 33.6 41.2
Probably 0 0 0 0 17.9 26.7 0 14.2 23.5
Denitely 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 2.7 0
n = 186* 4 2 9 1 26 15 1 111 17
* e total number of responses (186) is smaller than the sample size (190) because the respondents who
answered that they did not intend to travel aer the pandemic did not give further answers.
Source: own research.
COVID-19 as a tourist activity inhibitor as evidenced by Poles’ holiday plans 19
Table 4. Deterioration of respondents’ nancial well-being and their willingness
to use cheaper accommodation
Has your nancial well-being got worse?
Do you intend to use cheaper accommodation No I don’t know Yes
Denitely not
%
14.7 0 10.0
Probably not 49.5 14.3 24.3
I don’t know 22.9 85.7 37.1
Probably 11.0 0 24.3
Denitely 1.8 0 4.3
n = 186* 109 7 70
* e total number of responses (186) is smaller than the sample size (190) because the respondents who
answered that they did not intend to travel aer the pandemic did not give further answers.
Source: own research.
they denitely intended to look for something cheaper, 15.6% answered that they
would probably do so, 30.6% were undecided. 38.7% indicated that they would
probably not look for cheaper accommodation, while 12.4% would denitely not
consider such an option. ose with astrong intention of looking for cheaper
accommodation were either retired or employed under an employment contract
(Table 3). e group of respondents who would probably consider using cheaper
forms of accommodation included self-employed, students and pupils, as well as
those employed under various types of contracts. Arelative large percentage of re-
spondents were undecided or did not intend to look for cheaper accommodation.
Only 4.3% of respondents whose nancial well-being had changed for the
worse indicated that they would certainly look for cheaper accommodation.
24.3% considered this apossibility and 37.1% were unsure (Table 4). e remain-
ing 34.3% of respondents in this group were more or less convinced they were
not going to look for cheaper accommodation . It should be noted that 12.8% of
respondents whose nancial situation had not changed also intended to choose
cheaper accommodation.
6. Discussion and conclusions
As aresult of the COVID-19 pandemic most respondents switched from oce
work to working remotely (mostly from home). e occupational situation of
more than ahalf of the respondents had changed to agreater or lesser extent, and
more than athird reported that their nancial well-being had deteriorated. e
20 Klaudyna Kowalska, Agnieszka Niezgoda
pandemic can therefore be regarded as an inhibitor with adirect impact on con-
sumers’ behavior. If this impact is not economic, it is manifested by consumers’
choices motivated by their concerns about health or shaped by external restric-
tions.
e vast majority of respondents had to modify or cancel their domestic and
foreign holiday plans. is means that the pandemic is not atypical travel inhibi-
tor, but only triggers acertain substitution of tourism products; in other words,
for many tourists the prospect of aholiday trip was too valuable to cancel their
holiday plans completely. One can agree with Anna Mazurek-Kusiak (2019, p. 197)
that consumers do not want to give up their holiday plans, because they are neces-
sary for mental, physical and social well-being. On the one hand, the pandemic,
because of the uncertainty associated with foreign travel restrictions, has created
agrowth opportunity for domestic tourism. On the other hand, many respondents
expressed apreference for self-organized trips in the future, which indicates further
problems for tour operators, as aresult of internal substitution, which increases the
market’s competitiveness and can help to improve the quality of tourism products
(Dziedzic & Skalska, 2012; Mazurek-Kusiak, 2019).
e most frequently given reason why consumers choose peer-to-peer accom-
modation (Airbnb) are economic benets (Niezgoda & Kowalska, 2020, s. 9)
including peer-to-peer accommodation. On the one hand, knowledge of lifestyle
changes can help adapt the product oer to the requirements of consumers. On the
other hand, products that consumers use can reect lifestyle changes. e follow-
ing classication of motivations for sharing economy activity selection resulting
from the subjects’ lifestyles has been proposed: personal motivations—related
to economic advantages; social (conformist, so one of the survey questions was
whether the respondents were going to use Airbnb, even if they had not used it
before, and whether respondents generally intended to look for cheaper accom-
modation in the future (aer the pandemic). Only 30.1% indicated they wanted
to use Airbnb aer the pandemic (44.1% of all respondents had used such services
at least once before), while 44.6% were not sure. ose who expressed their will-
ingness to use Airbnb in the future indicated price, booking method, quality, and
location as the main reasons. For those not intending to use Airbnb, the biggest
obstacle was their lack of familiarity with the platform (61.7%). is may mean
that some respondents did not nd Airbnb services aractive just because they
don’t know the platform and not because of other features of this type of accom-
modation. It should also be underlined that although 37.4% of respondents had
suered adeterioration of their nancial well-being only 18.3% of people declared
their willingness to look for cheaper accommodation in the future than what they
had used before the pandemic.
While the results of the study cannot be generalized to the whole population
(because the sample was too small and not representative), but can be helpful for
COVID-19 as a tourist activity inhibitor as evidenced by Poles’ holiday plans 21
an exploratory investigation of the phenomenon. e study has provided prelimi-
nary knowledge about the dynamic changes in consumer behavior regarding tour-
ism caused by the pandemic, which is agood starting point for further questions
and in-depth research. e study was carried out at atime when travel restrictions
were in place in Poland, including border closures, mandatory lockdown, etc. It
is necessary to repeat the survey to see how aitudes have changed aer border
restrictions are lied and the holiday season starts. Further research could involve
an in-depth analysis of individual factors inuencing the choice of accommodation
during the pandemic, such as type and price. In addition, respondents’ aitudes
may have changed as aresult of geing used to the situation.
References
Alejziak, W. (2009). Determinanty i zróżnicowanie społeczne aktywności turystycznej.
Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. Bronisława Czecha wKrakowie
Belk, R. (2014). You are what you can access: Sharing and collaborative consumption
online. Journal of Business Research, 67(8), 1595-1600. hps://doi.org/10.1016/j.
jbusres.2013.10.001
Böcker, L., & Meelen, T. (2017). Sharing for people, planet or prot? Analysing moti-
vations for intended sharing economy participation. Environmental Innovation and
Societal Transitions, 23, 28-39. hps://doi.org/10.1016/j.eist.2016.09.004
Chebli, A., & Ben Said, F. (2020). e Impact of Covid-19 on Tourist Consumption
Behaviour : APerspective Article. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 7(2),
196-207. hps://doi.org/10.18488/journal.31.2020.72.196.207
Chua, B.-L., Al-Ansi, A., Lee, M. J., & Han, H. (2020). Tourists’ outbound travel behav-
ior in the aermath of the COVID-19: role of corporate social responsibility, re-
sponse eort, and health prevention. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1-28. hps://
doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1849236
Dziedzic, E., Skalska,T. (2012). Ekonomiczne uwarunkowania rozwoju usług turystycz-
nych wPolsce. Stowarzyszenie na Rzecz Badania, Rozwoju iPromocji Turystyki
Frydman, R., Goldberg, M. D. (2009). Ekonomia wiedzy niedoskonałej. Wydawnictwo
Krytyka Polityczna
Gansky, L. (2010). e Mesh – Why the Future of Business Is Sharing. Igarss 2014. Port-
folio Penguin.
Gössling, S., Sco, D., & Hall, C. M. (2020). Pandemics, tourism and global change:
a rapid assessment of COVID-19. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(1), 1-20.
hps://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1758708
Grabiński, T., & Borkowski, K. (2020). Szacowane wpływy wgminie Kraków w2020 roku
– (straty) stosunku do roku 2019 jako efekt zatrzymania ruchu turystycznego zpowodu
pandemii COVID-19 iogłoszenia stanu epidemicznego wPolsce od 13.03.2020 roku,
Małopolska Organizacja Turystyczna
22 Klaudyna Kowalska, Agnieszka Niezgoda
Gracz, J., & Sankowski T. (2001). Psychologia wrekreacji iturystyce. Akademia Wycho-
wania Fizycznego wPoznaniu
Hansen, F. (1975). Consumer Choice Behaviour. Acognitive theory. e Free Press.
Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2020). e “war over tourism”: challenges to sustainable to-
urism in the tourism academy aer COVID-19. Journal of Sustainable Tourism,
1-19. hps://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1803334
Kock, F., Nørfelt, A., Josiassen, A., Assaf, A. G., & Tsionas, M. G. (2020). Understan-
ding the COVID-19 tourist psyche: e Evolutionary Tourism Paradigm. Annals
of Tourism Research, 85. hps://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2020.103053
Kotler, Ph. (1994). Marketing. Analiza, planowanie, wdrażanie, kontrola. Wydawnictwo
Gebethner iS-ka.
Kufel J., Mruk, H. (1998). Konsument jako instutucja ekonomiczna iprawna. Zeszyty
Naukowe. Seria 1 / Akademia Ekonomiczna wPoznaniu, 263, s. 7-22
Mazurek-Kusiak, A. K. (2019). Model zachowań konsumentów na rynku turystycznym.
Satium.
Middleton, V. T. C. (1988). Marketing and Travel and Tourism. Heineman Professional
Publishing
Napierała, T., Leśniewska-Napierała, K., & Burski, R. (2020). Impact of geographic
distribution of COVID-19 cases on hotels’ performances: Case of Polish cities.
Sustainability, 12(11), art. 4697, 1-18. hps://doi.org/10.3390/su12114697
Niewiadomski, P. (2020). COVID-19: from temporary de-globalisation to are-discov-
ery of tourism? Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 651-656. hps://doi.org/10.1080/1
4616688.2020.1757749
Niezgoda, A., & Kowalska, K. (2020). Sharing Economy and Lifestyle Changes, as Ex-
emplied by the Tourism Market. Sustainability, 12(13), art. 5351, 1-19. hps://
doi.org/10.3390/su12135351
Nonprobability Sampling. (2008). In e SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research
Methods. SAGE Publications, Inc. hps://doi.org/10.4135/9781412963909.n289
Pawlicz, A. (2019). Ekonomia współdzielenia na rynku usług hotelarskich. Niedoskonałości.
Pośrednicy. Regulacje. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego
Phipps, R., Simmons, C. (1997). Understanding Customers. Buerworth Heinemann
Pilot Studies. (2018). In e SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Measurement,
and Evaluation. SAGE Publications, Inc. hps://doi.org/10.4135/9781506326139.
n518
Protroom. (2020, April 21). Ponad 90% Polaków planuje wakacje 2020 w kraju –
ogólnopolskie badanie. hps://www.protroom.com/pl/blog/ponad-90-polakow-
planuje-wakacje-2020-w-kraju-ogolnopolskie-badanie/
Qiu, R. T. R., Park, J., Li, S., & Song, H. (2020). Social costs of tourism during the
COVID-19 pandemic. Annals of Tourism Research, 84, 102994. hps://doi.
org/10.1016/j.annals.2020.102994
Romagosa, F. (2020). e COVID-19 crisis: Opportunities for sustainable and prox-
imity tourism. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 690-694. hps://doi.org/10.1080/14
616688.2020.1763447
Rudnicki, L. (2010). Zachowania konsumentów na rynku turystycznym. Proksenia
COVID-19 as a tourist activity inhibitor as evidenced by Poles’ holiday plans 23
Sánchez-Cañizares, S. M., Cabeza-Ramírez, L. J., Muñoz-Fernández, G., & Fuentes-
-García, F. J. (2020). Impact of the perceived risk from Covid-19 on intention to
travel. Current Issues in Tourism, 1-15. hps://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2020.1
829571
Schmoll, G. A. (1977). Tourism Promotion. Tourism Internationa Press
Shin, H., & Kang, J. (2020). Reducing perceived health risk to aract hotel custom-
ers in the COVID-19 pandemic era: Focused on technology innovation for so-
cial distancing and cleanliness. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 91,
102664. hps://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102664
Stępnicka, N., & Wiączek, P. (2018). Access Economy and Sharing Economy in the
Light of the Innovation eory. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego We
Wrocławiu, 509, 396-405. hps://doi.org/10.15611/pn.2018.509.33
Uğur, N. G., & Akbıyık, A. (2020). Impacts of COVID-19 on global tourism indus-
try: A cross-regional comparison. Tourism Management Perspectives, 36, 100744.
hps://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2020.100744
Um, S., Crompton, J.L. (1990). Aitude determinants in Tourism Destination Choice,
Annals of Tourism Research, 17(3), 432-448.
Walas, B., & Kruczek, Z. (2020). e impact of COVID-19 on tourism in Cracow
in the eyes of tourism entrepreneurs. Studia Periegetica, 30(2), 79-95. hps://doi.
org/10.5604/01.3001.0014.3664
Zenker, S., & Kock, F. (2020). e coronavirus pandemic – A critical discussion of
a tourism research agenda. Tourism Management, 81, 104164. hps://doi.or-
g/10.1016/j.tourman.2020.104164
UNWTO. (2020a, October 27). International Tourism Down 70% as Travel Restrictions
Impact All Regions. hps://www.unwto.org/news/international-tourism-down-70-
as-travel-restrictions-impact-all-regions
UNWTO. (2020b, May 7). International Tourist Numbers Could Fall 60-80% in 2020,
UNWTO Reports. hps://www.unwto.org/news/covid-19-international-tourist-
numbers-could-fall-60-80-in-2020
COVID-19 jako inhibitor aktywności turystycznej –
przykład wakacyjnych planów Polaków
Streszczenie. Wwyniku globalnej pandemii COVID-19 światowa gospodarka staje przed wy-
zwaniami kryzysu wwymiarze społecznym igospodarczym. Jego skutki są trudne do oszacowa-
nia, jednak wpływ na branżę turystyczną jest niezaprzeczalny. Dotyczy to również zachowań kon-
sumentów na rynku turystycznym, których stosunek do podróży uległ radykalnej zmianie. Celem
badania przedstawionego wartykule jest odpowiedź na pytanie, wjaki sposób Polacy zmienili pla-
ny podróży oraz ich sposób organizacji wtrakcie ipo zakończeniu pandemii COVID-19. Wpracy
postawiono tezę, że pandemia jest inhibitorem aktywności turystycznej. Dane badawcze zostały
zebrane za pomocą internetowego badania pilotażowego, wktórym udział wzięło 190 dorosłych
Polaków. Celem pytań wpierwszej części kwestionariusza było określenie ogólnej charakterystyki
respondentów. Właściwa część kwestionariusza została podzielona na trzy części związane zCO-
24 Klaudyna Kowalska, Agnieszka Niezgoda
VID-19,dotyczące: 1) zmian wstatusie zawodowym imaterialnym respondentów, 2) ich planów
odnośnie podróży oraz 3) gotowości do korzystania zzakwaterowania typu peer-to-peer (Airbnb).
Wyniki badania wskazują, że pandemia jest nie tylko inhibitorem aktywności turystycznej, ale
może również wpływać na zjawisko substytucji na rynku turystycznym. Potencjalni turyści mogą
zrezygnować zzakupu dóbr iusług turystycznych na rzecz innych form wypoczynku (jest to sub-
stytucja zewnętrzna wstosunku do rynku turystycznego) lub wybrać inną ofertę na rynku tury-
stycznym, czyli produkt substytucyjny wewnętrzny. Pandemia COVID-19 wpłynęła negatywnie
na status materialny izawodowy części respondentów, azdecydowana większość znich musiała
zmienić lub anulować swoje plany wakacyjne. Pandemia może stać się szansą na pobudzenie kra-
jowej turystyki, jednak indywidualny sposób organizowania podróży może wskazywać na dalsze
problemy touroperatorów. Pomimo pogorszenia się sytuacji nansowej dużej grupy responden-
tów, zdecydowanie mniej osób deklarowało chęć poszukiwania tańszych noclegów wprzyszłości
niż przed pandemią.
Słowa kluczowe: inhibitory aktywności turystycznej, COVID-19, zachowanie konsumentów,
zakwaterowanie peer-to-peer
Copyright and license: is article is published under the
terms of the Creative Commons Aribution – NoDerivatives
4.0 International (CC BY-ND 4.0) License, hps://creative-
commons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/
Suggested citation: Kowalska, K., Niezgoda, A. (2020). COVID-19 as a tourist activity in-
hibitor as evidenced by Poles’ holiday plans. Studia Periegetica, 4(32), 9-24. hps://doi.
org/10.5604/01.3001.0014.6526
... Similarly, the destinations of foreign trips have also changed due to tourists being motivated not by their own preferences but by the possibilities to enter a given country (Kowalska and Niezgoda, 2020). A relatively large part of countries closed their borders to visitors for whom the only travel purpose was to spend their free time in a country other than their country of residence. ...
The article puts forward a proposal for a new concept enabling a more in-depth analysis of the impact of the development of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism sector, dating back from the turn of 2019 and 2020. In order to present the concept of 'tourism covidisation', subject literature has been analysed. While analysing the literature, it was found that the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has affected all tourism sectors: the accommodation and catering sector, the tourist attractions sector, the transport sector as well as the tourism organisers sector. This prompted the author of this publication to create a new definition-tourism covidisation, which may be defined as "any effects on the tourism industry sector directly or indirectly connected to the COVID-19 pandemic."
... Polska literatura przedmiotu, poza pracami dotyczącymi ogólnych zmian i wyzwań rynku turystycznego i zachowań wolnoczasowych (Kowalska, Niezgoda 2020;Panasiuk 2020;Roman, Niedziółka, Krasnodębski 2020;Zajadacz 2021;Zawadka, Jęczmyk, Uglis, Wojcieszak-Zbierska 2021), dość rzadko odnosi się do sytuacji miast turystycznych w okresie pandemii. Wśród nielicznych opracowań (np. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to present previous experiences of tourism cities in reducing the negative impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the local tourism economy. The article is based on literature review, which starting point was a World Tourism Cities Federation report on urban tourism during COVID-19 pandemic. The authors argue and discuss the proposed instruments of actions and tools supporting the tourism sector at the urban level, both in the phase of first responses to the outbreak, and in next stage of the pandemic, which is aimed at rebuilding and revitalizing tourism in the city. © 2021 Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej w Lublinie. All rights reserved.
... Polska literatura przedmiotu, poza pracami dotyczącymi ogólnych zmian i wyzwań rynku turystycznego i zachowań wolnoczasowych (Kowalska, Niezgoda 2020;Panasiuk 2020;Roman, Niedziółka, Krasnodębski 2020;Zajadacz 2021;Zawadka, Jęczmyk, Uglis, Wojcieszak-Zbierska 2021), dość rzadko odnosi się do sytuacji miast turystycznych w okresie pandemii. Wśród nielicznych opracowań (np. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to present previous experiences of tourism cities in reducing the negative impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the local tourism economy. The article is based on literature review, which starting point was a World Tourism Cities Federation report on urban tourism during COVID-19 pandemic. The authors argue and discuss the proposed instruments of actions and tools supporting the tourism sector at the urban level, both in the phase of fi rst responses to the outbreak, and in next stage of the pandemic, which is aimed at rebuilding and revitalizing tourism in the city.
... Based upon international surveys of research it is evident that the COVID-19 health crisis is engineering changes in consumer as well as entrepreneur behaviour patterns (Marques Santos, Madrid Gonzalez, Haegeman, & Rainoldi, 2020;Rogerson & Rogerson, 2021). Consumer perceptions of risk associated with the spread of the pandemic have precipitated shifting patterns of mobilities and radical changes in established patterns of consumer demand to which businesses have to adapt (Chebli & Said, 2020;Korinth, 2020;Kowalska & Niezgoda, 2020;Neuberger & Egger, 2020;Sánchez-Cañizares et al., 2020;Godovykh, Pizam & Bahja, 2021;Rogerson & Rogerson, 2021a). With specific regard to consumer behavioural changes several analysts pinpoint the significance of travellers' avoidance of crowded areas and a pivot away from traditional mass tourism destinations (Chebli & Said, 2020;Zenker & Kock, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
In emerging tourism scholarship around COVID-19 one of the major clusters of research surrounds issues of adaptation. Tourism businesses are compelled to adapt to shifts in consumer demand as well as government regulatory changes. The objective in this paper is to investigate the responses and adaptations to the impacts of COVID-19 of tourism businesses in South Africa’s most tourism-dependent locality. The research reports on 20 qualitative interviews undertaken with a cross-section of tourism enterprises in Bela-Bela Local Municipality, Limpopo province, which is overwhelmingly oriented towards the market of domestic tourism. Major results are local businesses are financially negatively impacted by the subdued nature of domestic leisure travel together with the near total collapse of business travel as well as the imperative to conform to new COVID-19 safety and health protocols. Adaptive responses have included downsizing of businesses, including worker retrenchments, pricecutting, limited initiatives towards product diversification, energetic social media marketing and repurposing of properties. Key challenges for Bela-Bela tourism enterprises relate to immediate financial issues and most especially in the context that minimal support has been provided by national government to assist their business survival. Future business prospects are not viewed favourably such that business closures and a hollowing out of the tourism enterprise base accompanying job losses in tourism appear inevitable.
... It should be noted for 45% of respondents surveyed by CBOS in May 2020, the most burdensome restrictions during the first lockdown, apart from the stay-at-home requirement (48%) and the need to wear masks (44%), was the ban on entering forests and parks (including national parks) (CBOS, 2020). In addition, given the impact of the pandemic on social interactions (Kowalska, Niezgoda, 2020), the majority of potential tourists will prefer to visit less populated places where the risk of infection is minimal. After the pandemic is over, domestic tourism can be expected to increase (Korinth, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Tourist attractiveness of many areas in Poland is based on exceptional natural values, especially those protected by national parks. Recreation opportunities offered by national parks proved to be important during the COVID-19 pandemic, when the conditions for tourism changed. Many tourists gave up previously planned trips abroad in favour of staying in Poland. This raises the question whether tourists visiting national parks during the pandemic rested in compliance with the principles of sustainable tourism. The article is an attempt to diagnose changes caused by the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on sustainable tourism by analysing the case of national parks in Poland. The article presents: a) a diagnosis of changes triggered at different stages of restrictions introduced by the government to prevent the spread of the pandemic; b) a forecast of how the pandemic may affect the development of tourism in terms of supply (tourist companies, hotels, catering, attractions) and demand (tourists). The summary provides recommendations for national parks, which can be helpful in achieving sustainable tourism objectives.
... The pandemic has fostered a heightened level of awareness of how important tourism experiences and consumption are for people and local communities (Saarinen & Wall-Reinius, 2021). In addition, it continues to exert drastic impacts upon the tourism sector and is projected to have significant potential to reform future landscapes and servicescapes (Gössling et al., 2021;Kowalska & Niezgoda, 2020;Sinha & Nair, 2020). ...
Article
The tourism sector in South Africa has experienced the devastating impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and in response national government is charting initiatives for a recovery plan. In common with other countries the promotion of domestic tourism is a core focus. Arguably, the magnitude of the pandemic will reshape existing patterns of tourism demand and supply which need to be understood and researched for designing appropriate policy interventions. Against the backcloth of the continuation of the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for recovery strategies, and the increasing focus on domestic tourism, the aim in this article is to interrogate COVID-19 impacts on the demand-side of tourism looking at changes in consumer demand and of intentions to travel. A desk top review is conducted of research produced by national governments, international organisations and of academic surveys completed in over 20 countries. The research findings are discussed in four themes, namely, (1) risk perceptions and the new tourism psyche; (2) travel intentions and changing mobilities; (3) travel intentions and changing patterns of demand; and, (4) the contactless economy and ‘untact’ tourism. The paper concludes with eight sets of policy recommendations for South Africa
Article
Full-text available
Social importance of the forest – report of pilot studies conducted during the pandemic. On March 11, 2020 the World Health Organization announced the state of the COVID−19 pandemic. In Poland, the first case of SARS−CoV−2 was diagnosed on March 4, 2020. Since then, the Polish government has been using various solutions to limit the spread of the coronavirus. Inter alia restrictions on movement, the use of public media, access to services and a short−term ban on access to the forest were introduced. The aim of this study was to present the results of a pilot study on the attitude of the Poles towards the forest during the pandemic. Three main research questions were set: what encourages the respondents to walk in the forest; what discourages them from this and what is their attitude to the decision to ban on entering the forest. The diagnostic survey method was conducted via the Internet. The study found that over 75% of respondents declared that they had been in the forest during the ‘stay at home’ action. What attracts the respondents most to walk in the forest is peace, quiet, fresh air and the possibility of contact with nature. The respondents considered the fear of ticks a disincentive. Over 70% of respondents considered the ban on entering the forest to be definitely wrong. During a pandemic, the forest can be a particularly popular place for walks, both due to the need to avoid crowded places and the possibility of finding peace and rest from the everyday hustle and bustle.
Article
Full-text available
Attitudes towards forest ecosystems have been changing together with human needs, which is amplified with society’s increasing need to spend recreation time in the forest. The phenomenon has been particularly visible during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to determine the attitude of Poles to forests during the COVID-19 pandemic. The research was based on (1) a sociodemographic background questionnaire that consisted of questions about the independent variables and (2) the LAS scale—an independently prepared tool for measuring attitudes towards the forest. In the survey, 1025 people participated (673 women). The age of the subjects was between 19 and 68. The attitude towards the forest was analysed in three dimensions: Benefits, Involvement, and Fears. The Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks were used for statistical analysis. Women and people with primary education expressed the most fears connected with going to the forest. Men and people living in the countryside and in small towns, as well as respondents who were professionally active and performing work connected with forests were the most involved in exploring the forest and working for its benefit. Concerning the forest, concerned women, people from the highest age group, respondents with university education, and white-collar workers notice the most benefits from recreational activities in the forest.
Chapter
Full-text available
The aim of the study is to present the tourist plans of the inhabitants of Polish cities during the COVID-19 pandemic. A survey technique was used in the research with a questionnaire being disseminated for Facebook´s tourist thematic groups. Those recruited provided their friends with a link to the questionnaire via social media. Thus a snowball method was used and 402 respondents were obtained. Less than a quarter declared they did not want to go on a tourist trip in 2020 and the main reason was the prevailing pandemic and fear of coronavirus infection. However, the vast majority of respondents planned at least one tourist trip but a significant part abandoned any intention of travelling abroad for a holiday. The respondents mainly declared their willingness to stay in hotels and holiday resorts but assessed these facilities as the least safe in terms of epidemiology. The prevailing pandemic has been a source of much concern but the respondents were also worried about increased prices. Accommodation facilities were expected to undergo some form of disinfection along with the need to comply with social distancing restrictions and the wearing of masks.
Research
The COVID-19 pandemic has compelled tourism businesses to rapidly adjust operations in newer and more resilient ways as firms have to change priorities and respond to challenges, including of shifts in consumer demand. Extant research on tourism business responses and adaptations to COVID-19 highlights the significance of organizational resilience and ability of businesses to respond to uncertainty. Using a qualitative approach this paper investigates tourism business responses in South Africa, seemingly the country worst hit on the African continent by the COVID-19 crisis. The research analyses tourism business responses occurring in one of South Africa’s tourism-dependent areas and thus most exposed to the radical effects of COVID-19. Key findings are of the self-reliant character of the community of tourism enterprises in and around Overstrand cluster in the Western Cape. Product diversification, reductions of prices, reduced staffing, changed marketing, greater inter-enterprise cooperation are several of the most significant business adjustments undertaken. With the negative financial impacts of COVID19 on local tourism enterprises exacerbated by South African government measures for alcohol bans and beach closures there is evidence of a disconnect and lack of trust between the area’s local businesses and national government.
Article
Full-text available
Studies across the social sciences are making increasing use of an evolutionary perspective. Yet, despite its potential, the application of evolutionary psychology in tourism research is scant. Evolutionary psychology is arguably one of the most useful approaches to understanding the effects of the Coronavirus pandemic on the tourist's psyche. This research highlights, explains, and empirically demonstrates the vast untapped potential of this perspective for post-COVID-19 tourism research. The authors develop an Evolutionary Tourism Paradigm, which is based on biological epistemology and theory to address questions in post-COVID-19 tourism research. This paradigm is brought to life through a developed ocean and islands model, and its utility for future research endeavors on the Coronavirus pandemic is empirically demonstrated in two studies.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to collect opinions of Krakow’s tourism entrepreneurs about the impact of the pandemic on their activities and their expectations concerning tools of marketing communication that could facilitate recovery. The respondents were asked to assess the drop in sales of tourism services, their opinions concerning the prospect of a tourist traffic recovery, possible measures that could facilitate the recovery and what they expected the local government to do in this respect. In recent years Kraków has become one of Poland’s most recognisable destinations, benefiting from increasing revenues generated by a systematically growing number of visitors. This growth has even prompted concerns about overtourism in Kraków. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically affected the entire supply chain in the tourism industry, leaving the city empty of tourists and causing a financial breakdown for many companies. In order to diagnose the scale of the crisis triggered by the pandemic, the authors conducted a CAWI survey of Kraków based tourism entrepreneurs in the middle of March. The development of the epidemic and steps taken to protect the tourism sector from mid-March to the end of June 2020 were used to validate views formulated by the respondent. The results of the survey reveal the level of economic losses anticipated by tourism entrepreneurs and their predicted occurrence over time, opinions about the likely sequence in which particular tourism products in Kraków are going to recover, as well as expectations concerning the tools of marketing communication that could facilitate the recovery.
Article
Full-text available
Article History The study aims to explore the impact of the coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19) on tourist behaviour and identifies intentions to change tourist behaviour that will emerge as a result of this pandemic. In the absence of a similar previous study, this study is designed to be a polite study. 308 travellers, selected on a non-probabilistic basis, participated in this pilot research. The data collected were subjected to Chi-square test of goodness of fit test statistical analysis and content analysis. The results indicate that the current Covid-19 pandemic is expected to have an impact on traveler behavior intentions, in terms of personal safety, economic expenditure, conviction and attitude. Finally, key findings and practical implications of this study are described for the management of this crisis, based on the results and limitations of this research, future research directions are presented. To the best of our knowledge, this paper provides the first exploratory analysis of the consequences that the Covid-19 health crisis is expected to have on travel behaviour. Contribution/Originality: This study contributes to existing literature by exploring the impact of the coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19) on tourist behaviour and identifies intentions to change tourist behaviour that will emerge as a result of this pandemic.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the article is to analyze the relationship between lifestyle changes and willingness to use sharing economy services in tourism, including peer-to-peer accommodation. On the one hand, knowledge of lifestyle changes can help adapt the product offer to the requirements of consumers. On the other hand, products that consumers use can reflect lifestyle changes. The following classification of motivations for sharing economy activity selection resulting from the subjects’ lifestyles has been proposed: personal motivations—related to economic advantages; social (conformist) motivations—resulting from the need to fit in with others; and ideological motivation—resulting from the understanding of the processes of natural environment degradation and excessive consumption. In order to gather opinions and to understand behaviors, attitudes, and preferences regarding sharing economy activities (i.e., the sharing of transportation, food, clothes, equipment, and accommodation), the focus group interview method was used (6 groups, 5–8 participants each). Discussions were conducted separately for two populations: young with time (YT) and older rich (OR). The study demonstrates lifestyle changes between the generations. YT actions are the consequence of personal and ideological motivations. OR have lifestyles that result from personal and conformist motivations. Neither population sees a relationship between participating in the sharing economy and caring for the environment and preventing excessive consumption.
Article
Little is known regarding how the tourists will perceive the post-pandemic travel particularly when planning to travel to the most affected global destinations. This study was designed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and its adverse impact on the travel and tourism industry. It primarily investigated the key factors of the U.S. tourists’ destination attachment and the intentions to return to European and Asian destinations after the pandemic. A total of 367 participants were involved in the web-based survey. The results of the structural equation modeling demonstrated that in the event of a pandemic (1) the corporate social responsibility and the perceived response efforts were critical to generate the destination attachment and the approach behavioral intentions, (2) monetary promotions were not sufficient to generate the destination attachment and approach the behavioral intentions to the international destinations, and (3) the health preventive behavior and the destination attachment were important direct predictors of the approach behavioral intentions. These key findings could assist the travel and tourism companies to more effectively overcome the adverse impact of the pandemic on their businesses.
Article
The tourism industry was one of the world's greatest markets; until the world met a pandemic in the 21st century, COVID-19. This study aims to present the reactions of travelers during the pandemic trends outlined by adopting text mining techniques. Between December 30, 2019–March 15, 2020, approximately 75,000 comments are retrieved from the TripAdvisor forums, and 23,515 cases from the US, Europe, and Asia forums are employed for analyses. The results reveal that the tourism sector is easily affected by global crises. It is almost the same day that travelers decide to cancel or delay their trips, with the spread of the news. More in-depth analyses uncovered several topics consisted of comments on benefiting from travel insurance and refund due to the travel cancellations. Travel insurance has become a hot topic, which may be a way of reanimating the industry by offering travel packages, including travel insurance services.
Article
COVID-19 is widely recognised as a challenge or even a game-changer for travel and tourism. It has also been a catalyst to serious debate in the “tourism academy,” as revealed by a discussion on TRINET Tourism Information Network via email in May 2020. The catalyst to this debate was an email by academic Jim Butcher announcing his work entitled “the war on tourism,” published in an online magazine. Presenting a binary between industry recovery and reform, Butcher’s article denounced a body of tourism work he portrayed as hostile to the industry and as using COVID-19 as an opportunity to attack it. He argued that this resulted in harm to tourism businesses, tourism workers and ordinary tourists. These TRINET discussions worked to present a binary in schools of thought, divided by being either for the tourism industry or against it. This analysis explains how advocates of industry rapid recovery stand opposed to wider efforts to reform tourism to be more ethical, responsible and sustainable. The struggle concerns both the proper role of tourism and tourism academics. Outcomes from this debate have repercussions for the development of the discipline, the education of tourism students and the future of tourism practices.
Article
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is currently spreading across the world at an alarming rate, resulting in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Amidst this crisis, tourism scholars are directing their attention to communities at tourist destinations, looking at their safety and well-being and the costs that they will bear due to the cessation of tourism activity. This article describes residents' perceptions of the risks posed by tourism activity, and estimates their willingness to pay to reduce public health risks based on hypothetical scenarios, using the triple-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation method. The social costs in three urban destinations are assessed and compared. Based on the findings, suggestions are made for appropriate post-pandemic recovery actions by local authorities and tourism organizations. (Full paper can be downloaded from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160738320301389)
Article
Unquestionable, the coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic is one of the most impactful events of the 21st century and has tremendous effects on tourism. While many tourism researchers worldwide are currently ‘Covid-19 research gap spotting’, we call for more deliberateness and rigor. While we agree that the coronavirus pandemic is unique and relevant to research, we argue that not all effects are worth researching or novel to us. Previous research on crises and disasters do show similar patterns and existing theories can often very well explain the current phenomena. Thus, six illustrative examples are shown how a research agenda could look like. This includes parts where theoretical explanations from tourism are missing, as well as where we think existing knowledge might be subject to a tourism paradigm-shift due to the coronavirus pandemic.